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1.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 28-42, oct. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1343130

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento farmacológico de demostrada eficacia en la esquizofrenia es el antipsicótico. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones se requiere medicación concomitante que depende de comorbilidades y efectos adversos. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, considerando el año 2006 y 2016, en una población de usuarios con esquizofrenia de la Policlínica del Hospital Vilardebó, analizando los tratamientos con psicofármacos. Se diferenciaron los tratamientos según monoterapia antipsicótica y polifarmacia con 2 antipsicóticos, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, antidepresivos, estabilizantes del humor, benzodiacepinas y anticolinérgicos. La población inicial en 2006 fue de 621 pacientes y 398 pacientes continuaban en tratamiento en 2016. Mantuvieron el trata-miento con antipsicóticos 377 pacientes; 184 mantuvieron benzodiacepinas; 59 se mantuvieron con anticolinérgicos; 49, con estabilizantes del humor y 47, con antidepresivos. La monoterapia antipsicótica se presentó en torno al 50 % de la población estudiada. Se deberían revisar aquellas prácticas que se infieren a partir de este estudio, como el uso prolongado de anticolinérgicos, benzodiacepinas, y polifarmacia con más de 2 antipsicóticos, que está extendida en los usuarios con esquizofrenia. El tratamiento con clozapina fue el más estable y no parece aumentar la mortalidad en estos pacientes


Antipsychotics are the proved effective therapy for schizophrenia. However, on many occasions, associated drugs are required depending on comorbidities and side effects. A retrospective longitudinal quantitative study of drug prescription for 2006 and 2016 in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis was carried out in an outpatient clinic at Hospital Vilardebó. Treatments were classified as antipsychotic monotherapy, two antipsychotic drugs polypharmacy and polypharmacy with two antipsychotic drugs, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs. Initial population in 2006 included 621 patients, 398 were still being treated in 2016. Antipsychotic drugs were still being received in 377 patients, benzodiazepines in 184, anticholinergic drugs in 59, mood stabilizers in 49, and anti-depressants in 47. Antipsychotic monotherapy was 50% of the population. Those practices that can be inferred from this study, with lengthy use of anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and the use of more than 2 antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia diagnosis should be revised. Clozapine therapy was the most stable and does not seem to increase mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Polypharmacy , Age and Sex Distribution , Tiapride Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Methotrimeprazine/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(1): 72-83, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388380

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los meningiomas son los tumores primarios más frecuentes del sistema nervioso central, tienden a ser benignos y de lento crecimiento. Pueden ser asintomáticos o incluso manifestarse únicamente con síntomas psiquiátricos, incluyendo un cuadro psicótico. No existen estudios clínicos controlados randomizados que estudien la relación entre meningioma y cuadros psicóticos. La evidencia disponible se basa en series y reportes de casos. Existe una relación entre la magnitud del edema perilesional y la presencia de síntomas psicóticos. Por otra parte, el tamaño de la lesión o su localización neuroanatómica específica tendrían menor relevancia. La resección quirúrgica de la lesión, en conjunto con el manejo psiquiátrico adecuado, usualmente conduce al cese de la sintomatología psicótica. En la evaluación de pacientes con síntomas psicóticos se debe tener un elevado índice de sospecha, en particular en cuadros de reciente inicio, con manifestaciones atípicas o resistentes al tratamiento. En estos casos se recomienda un estudio con neuroimágenes. Este artículo presenta el caso de una paciente evaluada en nuestro hospital diagnosticada con un meningioma frontal izquierdo de gran tamaño, que presentó sintomatología psicótica secundaria, y se expone una revisión bibliográfica actualizada de esta asociación.


Meningiomas are the most frequent central nervous primary tumors, which tend to be benign and present a slow growth. They may be asymptomatic or present clinically just with psychiatric symptoms including a psychotic state. There are no clinical randomized controlled trials that study the relationship between meningioma and a psychotic episode. Available evidence is based on case reports and series. There is a relationship between the magnitude of perilesional edema and the presence of psychotic symptoms. On the other hand, the size of the tumor or its specific neuroanatomic location would have less relevance. Surgical resection of the tumor associated with psychiatric management usually leads to the cessation of psychotic symptoms. In the assessment of patients with psychotic symptoms, there must be a high index of suspicion, particularly in first psychotic episodes, atypical manifestations and resistance to treatment. In these cases, a neuroimaging study is recommended. This article presents the case of a patient evaluated in our hospital and diagnosed with a large left frontal meningioma with secondary psychotic symptoms, and an updated bibliographic review of this association is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Meningeal Neoplasms/complications , Meningioma/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Meningeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging
3.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1358133

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Aripiprazol, antipsicóticos disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Indicação: Tratamento da esquizofrenia em adultos. Pergunta: O Aripiprazol é mais eficaz e seguro para promover controle sintomático, que os antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bases de dados PUBMED, com estratégias estruturadas de busca, e a qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com a ferramenta AMSTAR II. Resultados: Foram identificados 109 resumos de revisões sistemáticas. Após leitura dos mesmos, foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Aripiprazol tem eficácia e segurança similar à Ziprasidona e Haloperidol, mas eficácia semelhante e maior segurança metabólica que a Quetiapina, Olanzapina, Clozapina e Risperidona. Ziprasidona apresenta vantagem sobre o Aripiprazol, pois tem menor risco de efeito colateral de mudanças na função sexual. Considerando que o perfil de eficácia e segurança do Aripiprazol é muito parecido com o dos outros antipsicóticos disponíveis no SUS, com mínimas diferenças, e seu custo de tratamento é inferior ao da Ziprasidona e Quetiapina, essa droga poderia estar disponível no SUS


Technology: Aripiprazole, antipsychotics available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS). Indication: Treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Question: Is Aripiprazole more effective and safer to promote symptomatic control than antipsychotics available in BPHS? Methods: A bibliographic survey was carried out in PUBMED databases, with structured search strategies, and the methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR II tool. Results: 109 abstracts of systematic reviews were identified. After reading them, 2 systematic reviews were selected. Conclusion: Aripiprazole has identical effectiveness and safety to Ziprasidone and Haloperidol, but similar efficacy and greater safety than Quetiapine, Olanzapine, Clozapine and Risperidone. Ziprasidone has an advantage over Aripiprazole as it has a lower risk of side effects of changes in sexual function. Since the Aripiprazole's effectiveness and safety profile is very similar to profile of others antipsychotics available in BPHS, with minimal differences, and it has cost lower than Ziprasidone and Quetiapine, this drug could be available in BPHS


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Aripiprazole/therapeutic use , Unified Health System , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Quetiapine Fumarate/therapeutic use , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
5.
s.l; RedARETS; [2020].
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1095035

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Importancia del problema (Conocimiento de base mas epidemiologia o datos locales). Descripcion de la intervención/ Tecnología evaluada: Zuclopenthixol inyectable. Porque podría funcionar esta intervencion. BÚSQUEDA: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed y en Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (ultima búsqueda 25 de Septiembre 2019). No hubo restricción de lenguaje, fecha, tipo de documento o publicación. Se realizó además una búsqueda en el repositorio de revisiones sistemáticas Epistemonikos y en Cochrane Library y en Pubmed. RESULTADOS: Un estudio multicêntrico realizado por Heikkila 1981a incluido en el perfil de evidencia sobre eficacia y seguridad de zuclopenthixol comparado con placebo (Tabla 1) realizado en Finlandia incluyo 63 pacientes con chronic schizophrenia (n = 58) u otros trastornos psicoticos (n = 5, paranoic state, depressive/PD) con una duracion de la enfermedad > 10 años n: 40 y n:11 com una duracion de la enfermedad > cinco años en el context de pacientes hospitalizados randomizados a recibir 1. Cis(Z)-zuclopenthixol: dose 40 mg/day. N = 30 o bien 2. Haloperidol: dose 10 mg/day. N = 33. Se evaluaron los desenlaces incluidos en el perfil de evidencia entre ellos incluidos el estado mental global (continuo o dicotomico (desenlace critico) y eventos adversos (desenlaces importantes) que incluyeron movimientos anormales, akatisia y uso de medicacion de rescate. Existe incertidumbre sobre el efecto del zuclopenthixol frente a haloperidol en los scores globales de estado mental, el zuclopenthixol no podria no asociarse con eventos adversos evaluados. Estos resultados estan basados en una muy baja certeza de la evidencia por alto riesgo de sesgo (attrition bias, datos de resultados incomplete, sesgo de seleccion de Berkson y sesgo diagnostic). CONCLUSIONES: ¿Deberia usarse Zuclopenthixol frente a Haloperidol para el tratamiento de los episódios psicóticos agudos? Certeza de la evidencia: Muy baja.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Clopenthixol/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost Efficiency Analysis
6.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública Goiás "Cândido Santiago" ; 6(2): 600008, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | CONASS, SES-GO, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1118711

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Palmitato de Paliperidona (PP) é um antipsicótico injetáveis de efeito prolongado (AIEP). Indicação: Tratamento sintomático da esquizofrenia. Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia, segurança e efetividade terapêutica entre PP e outros AIEP para o tratamento de esquizofrenia em adultos. Pergunta: O PP é mais eficaz e seguro que os outros AIEP (Decanoato de Haloperidol, Enantato de Flufenazina, Decanoato de Zuclopentixol, Risperidona-IEP) para o tratamento sintomático de esquizofrenia em adultos? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico, com estratégias estruturadas de busca, na base de dados PUBMED. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas (RS), ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) e dos estudos observacionais de efetividade no mundo real (EOEMR) com as ferramentas Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), Delphi List e Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), respectivamente. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 RS, 1 ECR e 3 EOEMR. Conclusão: PP (de aplicação mensal) tem similar eficácia e segurança com a Risperidona-IEP para o tratamento de esquizofrenia, exceto que provoca menor incidência de sintomas extrapiramidais. PP e Decanoato de Haloperidol são similares na eficácia e segurança para o tratamento de esquizofrenia, inclusive no risco de sintomas extrapiramidais (discinesias tardias e parkinsonismo), exceto que PP tem menor incidência de acatisia. PP é similar aos outros AIEP nos vários desfechos de eficácia e segurança terapêutica, inclusive mortalidade


Technology: Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics. Indication: Symptomatic treatment of schizophrenia. Objective: To compare the therapeutic efficacy, safety and effectiveness in the real world between PP and other LAI antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Question: Is PP more effective and safer than other LAI antipsychotics (Haloperidol Decanoate, Fluphenazine Enanthate, Zuclopentixol Decanoate, Risperidone-LAI), for the symptomatic treatment of schizophrenia? Methods: Bibliographic survey, with structured search strategies, in the PUBMED database. Na evaluation was made of the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SR), randomized clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies (OS) of effectiveness in the real world with Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), Delphi List and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tools, respectively. Results: 3 SR, 1 RCT and 3 OE were included. Conclusion: PP (monthly dose presentation) has similar efficacy and safety with Risperidone-LAI for the treatment of schizophrenia, except that it causes a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. PP and Haloperidol Decanoate are similar in efficacy and safety for the treatment of schizophrenia, including the risk of extra-pyramidal symptoms (tardive dyskinesias and parkinsonism), except that PP has a lower incidence of akathisia. PP has similar outcomes of efficacy and safety to the other LAI antipsychotics, including mortality risk


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Paliperidone Palmitate/therapeutic use , Clopenthixol/therapeutic use , Risperidone/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Fluphenazine/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use
9.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 165-172, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904586

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction There is an unpredictable pattern in the prescription of antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia, particularly in resource-limited settings in developing countries. Objective To determine the psychotropic prescriptions given to patients with schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and to describe the choices and trends of these prescriptions. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of prescriptions for adults with schizophrenia. After clinical consultation, patients' case notes were randomly selected over a period of 2 years. Using a structured form, data were extracted from the case notes including biodemographic data, psychotropic medications prescribed and changes made to these prescriptions. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. Results A total of 103 patients were selected, with a mean age of 35.96±9.78 years; 48.5% were males and 51.5% were females; 33% were unemployed and 38% had been hospitalized in the past. There were 231 initial prescriptions and 228 current prescriptions, with about 2.2 prescriptions per patient. Haloperidol (mean dose 14.77±6.28mg and 11.44±5.55mg for initial and current) and other old-generation antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed for new cases (98%). Mean duration of psychotropic use was 7.78±5.6 years. All the patients were prescribed trihexyphenidyl, and 56.3% of the patients had their medications changed as a result of side effects. Conclusion There was a very high preference for the use of first-generation antipsychotics for all treatment settings (in- and outpatients), a pattern that is likely to persist.


Resumo Introdução Existe um padrão imprevisível na prescrição de antipsicóticos e outros medicamentos psicotrópicos para o tratamento da esquizofrenia, especialmente em ambientes com limitação de recursos em países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo Determinar as prescrições psicotrópicas dadas a pacientes com esquizofrenia em uma clínica ambulatorial de um hospital terciário e descrever as escolhas e tendências dessas prescrições. Métodos Este foi um estudo descritivo transversal das prescrições dadas a adultos com esquizofrenia. Após consulta clínica, os prontuários dos pacientes foram selecionados aleatoriamente ao longo de um período de 2 anos. Usando um formulário estruturado, os dados foram extraídos dos prontuários, incluindo dados biodemográficos, medicamentos psicotrópicos prescritos e mudanças feitas a essas prescrições. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados Um total de 103 pacientes foram selecionados, com idade média de 35,96±9,78 anos; 48,5% eram do sexo masculino e 51,5% do sexo feminino; 33% estavam desempregados e 38% haviam sido hospitalizados no passado. Houve 231 prescrições iniciais e 228 prescrições atuais, com aproximadamente 2,2 prescrições por paciente. O haloperidol (dose média de 14,77±6,28mg e 11,44±5,55mg para prescrições inicial e atual) e outros antipsicóticos de primeira geração foram os mais comumente prescritos para casos novos (98%). A duração média do uso de psicotrópicos foi de 7,78±5,6 anos. Todos os pacientes receberam prescrição de triexifenidil, e 56,3% dos pacientes tiveram seus medicamentos alterados como resultado de efeitos colaterais. Conclusão Houve uma alta preferência pelo uso de antipsicóticos de primeira geração para todos os regimes de tratamento (internação e ambulatorial), um padrão que provavelmente persistirá.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Outpatients , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Employment , Haloperidol/adverse effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. neuro-psiquiatr. (Impr.) ; 79(3): 180-185, jul.-sept. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-982940

ABSTRACT

La distonía aguda inducida por antipsicóticos sigue siendo una patología frecuente en los servicios de emergencia psiquiátrica. Sin embargo, la luxación de la articulación tómporo-mandibular, como secuela de distonía oromandibular, es una presentación inusual dentro de esta casuística. Presentamos el caso de una paciente mujer de 20 años de edad, quien recibió haloperidol intramuscular tras sendas crisis de agitación psicomotriz y persistencia de riesgo suicida, y que luego desarrolló distonía oro-mandibular, a consecuencia de la cual sufrió luxación témporomandibular unilateral. Como conclusión, se recomienda no repetir la administración de antipsicóticos parenterales de alta potencia a personas que han padecido luxación de la articulación témporo-mandibular como consecuencia de distonía secundaria a estos fármacos. Se plantea además la posibilidad de que, debido al uso masivo y creciente de antipsicóticos atípicos en el momento actual, la capacitación de los psiquiatras en cuanto a predicción y manejo de efectos adversos de los neurolépticos puede estar siendo negligida.


Antipsychotic-induced acute dystonia remains as a common presentation in psychiatric emergency services. However, luxation of the temporo-mandibular joint, as a sequel to oro-mandibular dystonia is an unusual clinical occurrence. We report the case of a 20-years-old-woman who received intramuscular haloperidol after two crisis of psychomotor agitation with persistent suicidal risk, developed then oro-mandibular dystonia and, as a result of which, suffered unilateral temporo-mandibular dislocation. A recommendation is made not to repeat a parenteral administration of high-potency antipsychotics to patients who have suffered dislocation of the temporo-mandibular joint as a result of secondary dystonia to these drugs. Additionally, we examine the possibility that, due to the massive and growing use of atypical antipsychotics at the present time, the training of psychiatrists about prediction and management of adverse effects of neuroleptics may be neglected.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Dystonia , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Joint Dislocations
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(5): 404-409, set.-out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691374

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Náusea e vômito pós-operatório (NVPO) ocorrem frequentemente após cirurgia bariátrica laparoscópica. A associação de haloperidol, dexametasona e ondansetrona pode reduzir esses eventos indesejáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a intensidade de náusea e dor, o número de episódios de vômito e o consumo de morfina no pós-operatório (PO) de pacientes obesos submetidos à gastrectomia vertical laparoscópica (GVL). MÉTODO: Estudo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado e duplamente encoberto feito em 90 pacientes com índice de massa corporal > 35 kg.cm-2. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em três grupos de 30 para receberem no Grupo O: ondansetron 8 mg; no Grupo DO: ondansetron 8 mg e dexametasona 8 mg e no Grupo HDO: ondansetron 8 mg, dexametasona 8 mg e haloperidol 2 mg. Foram avaliados a intensidade de náusea e dor, por meio de escala numérica verbal, o número cumulativo de episódios de vômito e o consumo de morfina no período de 0-2, 2-12, 12-24 e 24-36 horas de PO. RESULTADOS: A intensidade de náusea foi menor no Grupo HDO comparado com o Grupo O (p = 0,001), a intensidade da dor foi menor no Grupo HDO comparado com o Grupo O (p = 0,046) e o consumo de morfina no Grupo HDO foi menor do que no Grupo O (p = 0,037). Não houve diferença do número de episódios de vômito entre os grupos (p = 0,052). CONCLUSÃO: A associação de haloperidol, dexametasona e ondansetron promoveu redução da intensidade de náusea, da dor e do consumo de morfina no PO de pacientes obesos submetidos à GVL.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occur frequently after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The combination of haloperidol, dexamethasone, and ondansetron may reduce these undesirable events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of nausea and pain, the number of vomiting episodes, and morphine consumption in postoperative (PO) obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). METHOD: A clinical, randomized, controlled, double-blind study conducted with 90 patients with body mass index > 35 kg.cm-2. Patients were divided into three groups of 30 individuals to receive ondansetron 8 mg (Group O); ondansetron 8 mg and dexamethasone 8 mg (Group OD); and ondansetron 8 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg, and haloperidol 2 mg (Group HDO). We evaluated the intensity of nausea and pain using the verbal numeric scale, cumulative number of vomiting episodes, and morphine consumption in the period of 0-2, 2-12, 12-24, and 24-36 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Nausea intensity was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.001), pain intensity was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.046), and morphine consumption was lower in Group HDO compared to Group O (p = 0.037). There was no difference between groups regarding the number of vomiting episodes (p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: The combination of haloperidol, ondansetron, and dexamethasone reduced nausea and pain intensity and morphine consumption in postoperative obese patients undergoing LSG.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La náusea y el vómito postoperatorio (NVPO) ocurren a menudo después de la cirugía bariátrica laparoscópica. La asociación de haloperidol, dexametasona y ondansetrón puede reducir esos eventos no deseados. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la intensidad de náusea y dolor, el número de episodios de vómito y el consumo de morfina en el postoperatorio (PO) de pacientes obesos sometidos a la gastrectomía vertical laparoscópica (GVL). MÉTODO: Estudio clínico, aleatorizado, controlado y doble ciego realizado en 90 pacientes con índice de masa corporal > 35 Kg/m2. Los pacientes se distribuyeron en tres grupos de 30 para recibir en el Grupo O: ondansetrón 8 mg; en el Grupo DO: ondansetrón 8 mg y dexametasona 8 mg y en el Grupo HDO: ondansetrón 8 mg, dexametasona 8 mg y haloperidol 2 mg. Fueron evaluados la intensidad de náusea y dolor por medio de la escala numérica verbal, el número acumulativo de episodios de vómito y el consumo de morfina en el período de 0-2, 2-12, 12-24 y 24-36 horas de PO. RESULTADOS: La intensidad de náusea fue menor en el Grupo HDO comparado con el Grupo O (p = 0,001), la intensidad del dolor fue menor en el Grupo HDO comparado con el Grupo O (p = 0,046) y el consumo de morfina en el Grupo HDO fue menor que en el Grupo O (p = 0,037). No hubo diferencia en el número de episodios de vómito entre los grupos (p = 0,052). CONCLUSIONES: La asociación de haloperidol, dexametasona y ondansetrón generó una reducción en la intensidad de la náusea, del dolor y del consumo de morfi na en el PO de pacientes obesos sometidos a la GVL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Morphine/adverse effects , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Morphine/therapeutic use
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(3): 496-501, June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592510

ABSTRACT

Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) and hepatolenticular degeneration can have similar clinical presentations, but when a chronic liver disease and atypical motor findings coexist, the distinction between AHD and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can be even more complicated. We describe three cases of AHD (two having HE) with different neuroimaging findings, distinct hepatic diseases and similar motor presentations, all presenting chronic arterial hypertension and weight loss before the disease manifestations. The diagnosis and physiopathology are commented upon and compared with previous reports. In conclusion, there are many correlations among HE, hepatolenticular degeneration and AHD, but the overlapping of AHD and HE could be more common depending on the clinical knowledge and diagnostic criteria adopted for each condition. Since AHD is not considered a priority that affects the liver transplant list, the prognosis in AHD patients remains poor, and flow interruption in portosystemic shunts must always be taken into account.


A degeneração hepatocerebral adquirida (AHD) e a degeneração hepatolenticular podem ter apresentações clínicas semelhantes, mas quando uma doença hepática crônica e achados motores atípicos coexistem, a distinção entre AHD e encefalopatia hepática (HE) pode ser ainda mais complicada. Descrevemos três casos de AHD (dois tendo HE) com diferentes achados em neuroimagem, doenças hepáticas distintas e apresentações motoras semelhantes, todos com hipertensão arterial e perda de peso antes das manifestações motoras. O diagnóstico e a fisiopatologia são comentados e comparados com relatos prévios. Concluímos que existem muitas correlações entre HE, degeneração hepatolenticular e AHD, mas a sobreposição de HE e AHD pode ser mais comum dependendo do conhecimento clínico e da acurácia dos critérios diagnósticos adotados para cada enfermidade. Como a AHD não é considerada prioridade na lista de transplante hepático, o prognóstico dos pacientes com AHD permanece ruim, e a interrupção do fluxo nos shunts portossistêmicos deve ser sempre considerada.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepatic Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Hepatic Encephalopathy/drug therapy , Hepatic Encephalopathy/physiopathology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/physiopathology , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/drug therapy , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/physiopathology , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Clinics ; 66(supl.1): 71-77, 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593151

ABSTRACT

Beside its role in motor coordination, the cerebellum is involved in cognitive function such as attention, working memory, verbal learning, and sensory discrimination. In schizophrenia, a disturbed prefronto-thalamo-cerebellar circuit has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology. In addition, a deficit in the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAf) receptor has been hypothesized. The risk gene neuregulin 1 may play a major role in this process. We demonstrated a higher expression of the NMDA receptor subunit 2D in the right cerebellar regions of schizophrenia patients, which may be a secondary upregulation due to a dysfunctional receptor. In contrast, the neuregulin 1 risk variant containing at least one C-allele was associated with decreased expression of NMDA receptor subunit 2C, leading to a dysfunction of the NMDA receptor, which in turn may lead to a dysfunction of the gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) system. Accordingly, from post-mortem studies, there is accumulating evidence that GABAergic signaling is decreased in the cerebellum of schizophrenia patients. As patients in these studies are treated with antipsychotics long term, we evaluated the effect of long-term haloperidol and clozapine treatment in an animal model. We showed that clozapine may be superior to haloperidol in restoring a deficit in NMDA receptor subunit 2C expression in the cerebellum. We discuss the molecular findings in the light of the role of the cerebellum in attention and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cerebellum/physiopathology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebellum/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/genetics
17.
Psicofarmacologia (B. Aires) ; 10(60): 9-11, feb. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-565551

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento de los síntomas negativos de la esquizofrenia constituye aún un desafío para la Neuropsicofarmacología, dada su persistencia en la evolución de los pacientes en la clínica. El objetivo fue analizar la evolución de los síntomas negativos en pacientes ambulatorios, con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia, de ambos sexos, tratados con neurolépticos. La población estudiada consistió en pacientes ambulatorios de 18 a 65 años de edad, 35 mujeres y 25 varones, con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia paranoide (295.30) con la presencia de síntomas negativos, medicados con risperidona 1 mg/día, haloperidol 5 mg/día, aripiprazol y olanzapina. Se efectuó una entrevista clínica realizada por profesionales que incluyó la administración de la escala PANSS. Los resultados mostraron una mejoría siginifictiva estadísticamente de los síntomas negativos en su conjunto entre el comienzo del tratamiento y el primer mes, el comienzo y el tercer mes y entre el comienzo y el sexto mes. Los pacientes que recibían risperidona mostraron una mejoría de los síntomas negativos durante el tratamiento y aquellos tratados con haloperidol mejoraron al primer y al tercer mes, pero no al sexto. No se analizaron los otros fármacos debido al tamaño de la muestra. Surge la necesidad de continuar y profundizar las investigaciones a fin de lograr una mejoría sustancial en los síntomas negativos de la esquizofrenia, que pueden originar estados invalidantes.


The treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia remains a challenge to Neuropsychopharmacology, given their persistence in the evolution of outpatients. The aim was to analyse the evolution of negative symptoms in ambulatory patients, male and female, diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with neuroleptics. The studied population consisted in ambulatory patients aged 18 to 65 years-old, of which 35 were women and 25 were men, who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (295.30) and who displayed negative sympotoms, that were treated with 1 mg/day risperidone, 5 ml/day haloperidol, aripiprazol and olanzanie. A clinical interview designed by professionals, which included the administration of the PANSS Scale, was performed. The outcomes demonstrated a statistically significant imporvement of negative sympotoms as a whole, between the beginning of treatment and the first month, the beginning of treatment and the third month, and between the beginning of treatment and the sixth month. Patients receiving risperidone showed improved in the first and the third month, but not in the sixth month. No further pharmacological drugs were assessed, due to the sample size. In order to achieve significant improvement in the negative sympotoms of schizophrenia which may lead to a disabling condition, it is necessary to continue with and to emphasize investigations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Interview, Psychological , Outpatients , Risperidone/administration & dosage , Schizophrenia, Paranoid , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158981

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the factors affecting of acute dystonia in first episode psychotic patients taken haloperidol and centbutindole Method and Procedure: Total 54 patients (Schizophrenia, manic, psychotic) taken for the study from the psychiatry O.P.D. K.G.M.C Lucknow. The age group of patients were between the 17 to 55 years. This study was double blind and prospective. Patients were randomly administered Holoperidol (5 mg) TDS or Centbutindole (1.5 mg) TDS. The total period of study was 2 weeks, if any abnormal movements developed during this period the criteria for acute dystonia was applied. Tools: Semi structured proforma, International Classification of Disease — 10. Diagnostic and research criteria for neuroleptic induced acute dystonia, Scale for assessment of torsion dystonia. Beck and Refaelsen Mania Rating Scale: for manic patient only, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: On all patients was used. Result: The results show that acute dystonia was higher among the manic patients, younger age, married, male between the age group 17-25 year and duration of illness 1-3 months. It was also higher among those patients who have psychiatric family history.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Dystonia/etiology , Dystonia/psychology , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Pyrazines/analogs & derivatives , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158974

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the antipsychotic efficacy and extra pyramidal safety of intramuscular olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol during the first 24 hours of treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia. Methods: Patients (n = 29) with schizophrenia were randomly allocated to receive one to three injections of intramuscular olanzapine (10 mg, n =14), intramuscular haloperidol (10 mg, n = 14) over a 24-hour period. Agitation was measured with the excited component of the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) and agitation behavior scale (ABS). Results: After the first injection, IM olanzapine was comparable to IM haloperidol for reducing mean changes in scores from baseline on excited component of PANSS at 2 hours to ( -13.08 olanzapine, -8.07 haloperidol ) and at 24 hours (-9.86 olanzapine, -8.07 haloperidol ). Mean changes in the scores of ABS scale from baseline was at 2 hours (-9.78 olanzapine, -8.54 haloperidol) and at 24 hours (-6.14 olanzapine, -6.6 haloperidol). Patients treated with IM olanzapine had significantly fewer incidence of treatment emergent Parkinsonism (0% olanzapine versus 6.66% haloperidol, p = 4.55), no patient had akathisia with olanzapine as compared to 13.33% of patients with haloperidol, p = 2.03. No patient developed acute dystonia compared to 6.66% of patients with haloperidol, p = 2.59. Conclusion: IM olanzapine was comparable to IM haloperidol in reduction of symptoms of acute agitation in schizophrenia during first 24 hours of treatment, the efficacy of both being evident within 2 hours after first injection. More Extra pyramidal symptoms were observed during treatment with IM haloperidol than with IM olanzapine.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Extrapyramidal Tracts/drug effects , Haloperidol/administration & dosage , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Schizophrenia/complications
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 2(4): 219-222, oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-610278

ABSTRACT

Hemiballism is an uncommon neurological disorder characterized by uncontrollable movements of one lateral half of the body. We report a 56 years old male with a history of three weeks of polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss that, three days before consultation, started with hemiballism. A CAT scan without contrast showed a higher density in the lenticular nucleus and calcifications in caudate and lenticular nuclei. Diabetes was treated with regular insulin and hemiballism was controlled with neruoleptics. Ten days after admission a new CAT scan shows a partial regression of the lenticular lesion. After two months of follow up, the patient is asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyskinesias/etiology , Hyperglycemia/complications , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Dyskinesias/diagnosis , Dyskinesias/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
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