Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.
Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.
Subject(s)Animals , Cichlids/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Lakes , Bayes Theorem
Objective: To investigate whether haplotype hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is effective in the treatment of pre transplant minimal residual disease (Pre-MRD) positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) compared with HLA- matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) . Methods: A total of 998 patients with B-ALL in complete remission pre-HSCT who either received haplo-HSCT (n=788) or underwent MSDT (n=210) were retrospectively analyzed. The pre-transplantation leukemia burden was evaluated according to Pre-MRD determinedusing multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) . Results: Of these patients, 997 (99.9% ) achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The 100-day cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 99.9% (997/998) , 95.3% (951/998) , and 26.6% (95% CI 23.8% -29.4% ) , respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 49.1% (95% CI 45.7% -52.4% ) . The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of the 998 cases were 17.3% (95% CI 15.0% -19.7% ) and 13.8% (95% CI 11.6% -16.0% ) , respectively. The 3-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 69.1% (95% CI 66.1% -72.1% ) and 73.0% (95% CI 70.2% -75.8% ) , respectively. In the total patient group, cases with positive Pre-MRD (n=282) experienced significantly higher CIR than that of subjects with negative Pre-MRD [n=716, 31.6% (95% CI 25.8% -37.5% ) vs 14.3% (95% CI 11.4% -17.2% ) , P<0.001]. For patients in the positive Pre-MRD subgroup, cases treated with haplo-HSCT (n=219) had a lower 3-year CIR than that of cases who underwent MSDT [n=63, 27.2% (95% CI 21.0% -33.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 33.8% -60.2% ) , P=0.002]. The total 998 cases were classified as five subgroups, including cases with negative Pre-MRD group (n=716) , cases with Pre-MRD<0.01% group (n=46) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group (n=117) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.1% -<1% group (n=87) , and cases with Pre-MRD≥1% group (n=32) . For subjects in the Pre-MRD<0.01% group, haplo-HSCT (n=40) had a lower CIR than that of MSDT [n=6, 10.0% (95% CI 0.4% -19.6% ) vs 32.3% (95% CI 0% -69.9% ) , P=0.017]. For patients in the Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group, haplo-HSCT (n=81) also had a lower 3-year CIR than that of MSDT [n=36, 20.4% (95% CI 10.4% -30.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 29.2% -64.8% ) , P=0.004]. In the other three subgroups, the 3-year CIR was comparable between patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and those received MSDT. A subgroup analysis of patients with Pre-MRD<0.1% (n=163) was performed, the results showed that cases received haplo-HSCT (n=121) experienced lower 3-year CIR [16.0% (95% CI 9.4% -22.7% ) vs 40.5% (95% CI 25.2% -55.8% ) , P<0.001], better 3-year LFS [78.2% (95% CI 70.6% -85.8% ) vs 47.6% (95% CI 32.2% -63.0% ) , P<0.001] and OS [80.5% (95% CI 73.1% -87.9% ) vs 54.6% (95% CI 39.2% -70.0% ) , P<0.001] than those of MSDT (n=42) , but comparable in 3-year NRM [5.8% (95% CI 1.6% -10.0% ) vs 11.9% (95% CI 2.0% -21.8% ) , P=0.188]. Multivariate analysis showed that haplo-HSCT was associated with lower CIR (HR=0.248, 95% CI 0.131-0.472, P<0.001) , and superior LFS (HR=0.275, 95% CI 0.157-0.483, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.286, 95% CI 0.159-0.513, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Haplo HSCT has a survival advantage over MSDT in the treatment of B-ALL patients with pre MRD<0.1% .
Subject(s)B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Leukemia, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings
OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether WNT signaling pathway genes were associated with non-syndromic oral clefts (NSOC) based on haplotypes analyses among 1 008 Chinese NSOC case-parent trios.@*METHODS@#The genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 806 Chinese non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) trios and 202 Chinese non-syndromic cleft palate (NSCP) case-parent trios were drawn from the International Consortium to Identify Genes and Interactions Controlling Oral Clefts (ICOCs) study GWAS data set, whose Chinese study population were recruited from four provinces in China, namely Taiwan, Shandong, Hubei, and Sichuan provinces. The process of DNA genotyping was conducted by the Center for Inherited Disease Research in the Johns Hopkins University, using Illumina Human610-Quad v.1_B Bead Chip. The method of sliding windows was used to determine the haplotypes for analyses, including 2 SNPs haplotypes and 3 SNPs haplotypes. Haplotypes with a frequency lower than 1% were excluded for further analyses. To further assess the association between haplotypes and NSOC risks, and the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed. The Bonferroni method was adopted to correct multiple tests in the study, with which the threshold of statistical significance level was set as P < 0.05 divided by the number of tests, e.g P < 3.47×10-4 in the current stu-dy. All the statistical analyses were performed by using plink (v1.07).@*RESULTS@#After quality control, a total of 144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped in seven genes in WNT signaling pathway were included for the analyses among the 806 Chinese NSCL/P trios and 202 Chinese NSCP trios. A total of 1 042 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCL/P analyses and another 1 057 haplotypes with frequency higher than 1% were included for NSCP analyses. Results from the TDT analyses showed that a total of 69 haplotypes were nominally associated with the NSCL/P risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). Another 34 haplotypes showed nominal significant association with the NSCP risk among Chinese (P < 0.05). However, none of these haplotypes reached pre-defined statistical significance level after Bonferroni correction (P>3.47×10-4).@*CONCLUSION@#This study failed to observe any statistically significant associations between haplotypes of seven WNT signaling pathway genes and the risk of NSOC among Chinese. Further studies are warranted to replicate the findings here.
Subject(s)Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics
RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la estructura genética de las cepas drogorresistentes de Mycobacterium tuberculosis que circularon en todo el Perú durante los años 2011-2015 a través de haplotipos obtenidos de un ensayo con sondas en línea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 6589 muestras que ingresaron al Instituto Nacional de Salud para el diagnóstico rutinario mediante el ensayo GenoType® MTBDRplus v2, durante el periodo de estudio. Se crearon haplotipos resistentes mediante la concatenación de 21 sitios polimórficos de los genes evaluados por el ensayo con sondas en línea, y se realizó el análisis de asociación con fenotipos obtenidos por el método de proporciones agar 7H10. Resultados. Las mutaciones de mayores frecuencias fueron: rpoB S531L (55,4%) y rpoB D516V (18,5%) para la resistencia a rifampicina, y katG S315T (59,5%) e inhA c-15t (25,7%) para la resistencia a isoniacida. Se obtuvieron 13 haplotipos representativos (87,8% de muestras analizadas) de los cuales seis correspondieron al genotipo multidrogorresistente, cuatro al genotipo monorresistente a isoniacida y tres al genotipo monorresistente a rifampicina. Dieciocho departamentos, y la provincia del Callao, presentaron una alta diversidad haplotípica; cuatro presentaron moderada diversidad y dos presentaron baja diversidad. Conclusiones. Existe una alta diversidad haplotípica en la mayoría de los departamentos, además de una concentración de las cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis drogorresistentes en las ciudades de Lima y Callao. Asimismo, las cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis con perfil drogorresistente que circulan en el Perú contienen principalmente los marcadores genéticos de mayor prevalencia a nivel mundial asociados con la resistencia frente a rifampicina e isoniacida.
ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the genetic structure of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that circulated throughout Peru during the years 2011-2015, by using haplotypes obtained from a line probe assay. Materials and methods. A total of 6589 samples that were admitted to the Instituto Nacional de Salud for routine diagnosis using the GenoType® MTBDRplus v2 assay were analyzed during the study period. Resistant haplotypes were created by concatenating 21 polymorphic sites of the evaluated genes using the line probe assay; and the association analysis was carried out with phenotypes obtained by the 7H10 agar ratio method. Results. The most frequent mutations were: rpoB S531L (55.4%) and rpoB D516V (18.5%) for rifampicin resistance, and katG S315T (59.5%) and inhA c-15t (25.7%) for isoniazid resistance. We obtained 13 representative haplotypes (87.8% of analyzed samples), 6 corresponded to the multidrug-resistant genotype, 4 to the isoniazid mono-resistant genotype and 3 to the rifampicin mono-resistant genotype. Eighteen regions and the province of Callao showed high haplotype diversity; four showed moderate diversity and two showed low diversity. Conclusions. Most regions showed high haplotype diversity; in addition, most drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were concentrated in the cities of Lima and Callao. Likewise, drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Peru mainly contain the genetic markers with the highest prevalence worldwide, which are associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid.
Subject(s)Tuberculosis , Haplotypes , Drug Resistance , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Peru , Genetic Variation , DNA, Bacterial , Point Mutation , Molecular Epidemiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Public Health Laboratory Services , Genotype
Abstract The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.
Resumo A traíra - Hoplias malabaricus- é uma espécie válida, embora recentes estudos citogenéticos e moleculares tenham indicado a existência de um complexo de espécies. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou o marcador mitocondrial COI para determinar os níveis de diversidade genética dos espécimes do estado do Maranhão e verificar a ocorrência de linhagens distintas dentro da área de estudo. As amostras foram coletadas nas bacias dos rios Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru e Parnaíba. As análises filogenéticas indicaram a existência de três linhagens distintas nas populações do Maranhão. Obteve-se um fragmento de 630 pb de 211 espécimes, com 484 sítios conservados, 108 variáveis e 60 haplótipos (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). As análises filogenéticas indicaram a ocorrência de três linhagens distintas de H. malabaricus do Maranhão. Distâncias genéticas de 1.5 a 8.2% foram encontradas entre todas as populações analisadas, enquanto a variação entre os haplogrupos variou de 2.1% a 7.7%. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação molecular foi entre os grupos, com altos valores de FST. Os altos níveis de variabilidade genética encontrados no presente estudo são suportados pelos dados citogenéticos disponíveis. Essas descobertas reforçam a necessidade de desenvolver programas de conservação e manejo independentemente para cada bacia hidrográfica, a fim de preservar a variabilidade genética encontrada neste táxon.
Subject(s)Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Characiformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Rivers
Sickle cell anemia is a type of hemoglobinopathy characterized by a specific mutation in the beta globin gene with the consequent generation of an unstable hemoglobin that crystallizes in a state of hypoxia. This causes a change in the structure of the red blood cell, which ends up producing vaso-occlusion with the corresponding clinical complications for the patient. Worldwide, various diagnostic tests have been developed that allow the appropriate approach to the affected patient. These include techniques for the determination of hemoglobin and the use of molecular markers, among others. There are new therapeutic alternatives to the use of hydroxyurea and L-glutamine, such as the use of gene therapy tools. The most recent experimental trials are exploring gene editing techniques.
Subject(s)Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Haplotypes , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/drug therapy
Abstract The flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) also familiar with the name of the greater Indian fruit Bat belongs to the order Chiroptera and family Pteropodidae. Current research emphasis on the DNA barcoding of P. giganteus in Azad Jammu Kashmir. Bat sequences were amplified and PCR products were sequenced and examined by bioinformatics software. Congeneric and conspecific, nucleotide composition and K2P nucleotide deviation, haplotype diversity and the number of haplotypes were estimated. The analysis showed that all of the five studied samples of P. giganteus had low G contents (G 19.8%) than C (27.8%), A (25.1%) and T (27.3%) contents. The calculated haplotype diversity was 0.60% and the mean intraspecific K2P distance was 0.001% having a high number of transitional substitutions. The study suggested that P. giganteus (R=0.00) do not deviate from the neutral evolution. It was determined from the conclusion that this mtDNA gene is a better marker for identification of Bat species than nuclear genes due to its distinctive characteristics and may serve as a landmark for the identification of interconnected species at the molecular level and in the determination of population genetics.
Resumo A raposa-voadora (Pteropus giganteus), também conhecida como morcego indiano, pertence à ordem dos Chiroptera e à família Pteropodidae. A presente pesquisa dá ênfase ao código de barras de DNA de P. giganteus em Azad Jammu e Caxemira. Sequências genéticas dos morcegos foram amplificadas, e os produtos de PCR foram sequenciados e examinados por software de bioinformática. De espécies congenérica e coespecífica, foram estimados composição nucleotídica e desvio de nucleotídeos K2P, diversidade de haplótipos e número de haplótipos. A análise mostrou que todas as cinco amostras estudadas de P. giganteus apresentaram baixos teores de G (19,8%) em comparação com C (27,8%), A (25,1%) e T (27,3%). A diversidade de haplótipos calculada foi de 0,60%, e a distância média intraespecífica de K2P foi de 0,001%, com um elevado número de substituições transicionais. O estudo sugeriu que P. giganteus (R = 0,00) não se desviou da evolução neutra. É possível concluir que o gene mtDNA é um marcador favorável para identificação de espécies de morcegos do que genes nucleares por causa de suas características distintivas e pode servir como um marco para a identificação de espécies interconectadas em nível molecular e para a determinação genética de populações.
Subject(s)Animals , Chiroptera/genetics , Pakistan , Haplotypes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Physical performance is a multifactorial and complex trait influenced by environmental and hereditary factors. Environmental factors alone have been insufficient to characterize all outstanding phenotypes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the investigation of whole nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences, increasing our ability to understand interindividual variability in physical performance. Our objective was to evaluate the association of mitochondrial polymorphic loci with physical performance in Brazilian elite military personnel. Eighty-eight male military personnel who participated in the Command Actions Course of the Army were selected. Total DNA was obtained from blood samples and a complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Twenty-nine subjects completed the training program (FINISHED, 'F'), and fifty-nine failed to complete (NOT_FINISHED, 'NF'). The mtDNA from NF was slightly more similar to genomes from African countries frequently related to endurance level. Twenty-two distinct mtDNA haplogroups were identified corroborating the intense genetic admixture of the Brazilian population, but their distribution was similar between the two groups (FST=0.0009). Of 745 polymorphisms detected in the mtDNA, the position G11914A within the NADPH gene component of the electron transport chain, was statistically different between F and NF groups (P=0.011; OR: 4.286; 95%CI: 1.198-16.719), with a higher frequency of the G allele in group F individuals). The high performance of military personnel may be mediated by performance-related genomic traits. Thus, mitochondrial genetic markers such as the ND4 gene may play an important role on physical performance variability.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Military Personnel , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Physical Functional Performance , NADP
OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of β2-drenergic receptor (@*METHODS@#A total of 143 children with asthma who attended the hospital from October 2016 to October 2020 were enrolled as the asthma group, among whom 61 children had mild symptoms (mild group) and 82 children had moderate-to-severe symptoms (moderate-to-severe group). A total of 137 healthy children were enrolled as the control group. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the two groups. The SNaPshot SNP technique was used to analyze the SNP and haplotypes of the @*RESULTS@#Polymorphisms were observed in the @*CONCLUSIONS@#SNP/haplotype of the
Subject(s)Asthma/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Child , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/genetics , Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Subject(s)Animals , Haplotypes , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics
Subject(s)Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , RNA, Viral/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Genotype
Abstract This study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in genes encoding estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and in microRNA17 (which binds to ESR1 and VDR) with persistent apical periodontitis (PAP) after the endodontic treatment. We included 162 patients who completed endodontic treatment at least one year ago and presented apical periodontitis at the beginning of the root canal therapy. Clinical and radiographic exams were performed to evaluate the presence of PAP or healthy periradicular tissues (healed). Saliva samples were collected as a genomic DNA. The genotyping of ESR1 (rs2234693 and rs9340799), ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938), VDR (rs739837 and rs2228570) and miRNA17 (rs4284505) were performed by real-time PCR. Chi-square test was used to the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies. Haplotype analysis was also performed. Eighty-nine patients were included in the "healed" group and 73 in the "PAP" group. No association was found between the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms studied and PAP (p>0.05). Haplotype analysis also did not demonstrated an association (p>0.05). In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, VDR and miRNA17 are not associated with PAP.
Resumo Este estudo avaliou a associação entre polimorfismos em genes que codificam os receptores de estrogênio 1 (ESR1) e 2 (ESR2), receptor de vitamina D (VDR) e no microRNA17 (que se liga à ESR1 e VDR) e a periodontite apical persistente (PAP) após o tratamento endodôntico. Foram incluídos 162 pacientes com tratamento endodôntico concluído há pelo menos um ano e que apresentavam periodontite apical no início da terapia endodôntica. Exames clínicos e radiográficos foram realizados para avaliar a presença de PAP ou tecidos perirradiculares saudáveis (cicatrizados). As amostras de saliva foram coletadas como fonte de DNA genômico. A genotipagem de ESR1 (rs2234693 e rs9340799), ESR2 (rs1256049 e rs4986938), VDR (rs739837 e rs2228570) e miRNA17 (rs4284505) foram realizadas por PCR em tempo real. O teste do qui-quadrado foi utilizado para a distribuição das frequências genotípicas e alélicas. A análise de haplótipos também foi realizada. Oitenta e nove pacientes foram incluídos no grupo "curado" e 73 no grupo "PAP". Não foi encontrada associação entre os polimorfismos alélicos e genotípicos estudados e a PAP (p>0,05). Concluí-se que os polimorfismos genéticos em ESR1, ESR2, VDR e miRNA17 não estão associados à PAP.
Subject(s)Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Vitamin D , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Estrogen Receptor alpha/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Haplotypes , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Estrogens , Gene Frequency
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Among patients with Chagas disease, men have a higher risk of worse pathological symptoms than women. We aimed to explore the role of the Y chromosome in men diagnosed with Chagas disease and assess the relationship between their ancestry and disease status. METHODS In this comparative study, we analyzed 150 men with unrelated non-chagasic disease (nCD) and 150 men with unrelated chagasic disease (CD). We assessed the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease, biochemical parameters, thoracic X-rays, electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiography and determined the haplogroup by analyzing a set of 17 microsatellites from the Y chromosome. We examined the associations between common Y chromosome haplogroups and the clinical parameters of risk by logistic regression. RESULTS For all patients, the most common haplogroups were R1b (43%), G2a (9%), and E1b1b (9%). The R1b and G2a haplogroup was more frequent in men with nCD and CD, respectively. As expected, we observed a high proportion of symptomatic patients in the CD group independent of the haplogroups. Men from both groups classified as having the R1b haplogroup showed less clinical evidence of disease. Multivariate analysis showed that CD patients without R1b were about five times more likely to have a cardio-thorax index >0.5% (OR [odds ratio] = 5.1, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 3.31-8.17). Men without the R1b haplogroup were 2.5 times more likely to show EcoCG alterations (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 0.16-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided evidence that the R1b haplogroup may have a potential protective cardiovascular effect for its carriers.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/genetics , Cardiomyopathies , Haplotypes , Odds Ratio , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics
OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics of allelic and haplotypic polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigens at HLA-A, -B, -C, DRB1 and DQB1 loci in Guangxi Zhuang population.@*METHODS@#Polymerase chain reaction-sequence based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to detect. The five loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1) in 350 unrelated Zhuang ethnic individual from Guangxi region. Allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated by using Arlequin software 126.96.36.199. Phylogeny tree were constructed by using MEGA software 6.0, and SPSS software was used for principal component analysis.@*RESULTS@#Among the five loci in the population, only HLA-A and DRB1 loci were observed as departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. A total of 19 HLA-A, 42 HLA-B, 22 HLA-C, 25 HLA-DRB1 and 15 HLA-DQB1 alleles were found in 350 samples. The most highest frequent alleles were A*11: 01(28.57%), B*46: 01(14.00%), C*01: 02(18.43%), DRB1*16: 02 (15.71%）and DQB1*05: 02 (35.00%) . The most common five loci haplotype was A*33: 03-C*03: 02-B*58: 01-DRB1*03: 01-DQB1*02: 01（6.86%）. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Guangxi Zhuang population had a relative close genetic relationship with southern Han Chinese populations.@*CONCLUSION@#This reaserch found that the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 loci are highly polymorphic in Guangxi Zhuang population.
Subject(s)Alleles , China , Gene Frequency , HLA-A Antigens , Genetics , HLA-B Antigens , Genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains , Genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Phylogeny
OBJECTIVE@#Haplotype amplification on germline variants is suggested to imply potential selective advantages and clonal expansion susceptibility and has become an important signature for seeking cancer susceptibility gene.Here we propose an improved association method that fully considers the haplotype amplification status.@*METHODS@#The haplotype amplification status was estimated by the variant allelic frequencies.We adopted a permutation test on variant allelic frequencies to divide the candidate variants into multiple groups.A likelihood clustering method was then applied to establish the neighborhood system of the hidden Markov random field framework.A filtering pipeline was introduced into the proposed method to further refine the candidate variants, including a Wilson's interval filter and a false discovery rate controller.The final candidate set along with the haplotype amplification status was collapsed into the weighted virtual sites for association tests.@*RESULTS@#Through simulated tests on a series of datasets, we compared the type Ⅰ error rates of different minor allele frequencies, which stably fell within 2%, suggesting good robustness of the algorithm.In addition, we compared another 5 published association approaches for Type-Ⅰ and Type-Ⅱ error rates with the proposed method, which resulted in the error rates all within 2%, demonstrating significant advantages and a good statistical ability of the proposed method.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The proposed method can accurately identify tumor susceptibility variants in haplotype amplification area with good robustness and stability.
Subject(s)Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Gene Amplification , Gene Frequency , Haplotypes , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Resumen Introducción. Los proyectos del mapa de haplotipos (HapMap) y de los 1.000 genomas han sido fundamentales para la compresión del componente genético de las enfermedades comunes y los fenotipos normales. Sin embargo, la variabilidad genética colombiana incluida en estos proyectos no es representativa del país. Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la variabilidad genética de la población colombiana a partir del estudio genómico de una muestra de individuos de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se genotipificaron 2'372.784 marcadores genéticos de 32 individuos nacidos en Bogotá y de padres originarios de la misma ciudad utilizando la plataforma Illumina™. Los niveles de variabilidad genética se determinaron y se compararon con los datos disponibles de otras poblaciones del proyecto de los 1.000 genomas. Resultados. Los individuos analizados presentaron una variabilidad genética semejante a la de poblaciones con las que comparten ancestros. No obstante, a pesar de la poca diferenciación genética detectada en la población de Bogotá y en la de Medellín, el análisis de los componentes principales sugiere una composición genética diferente en las dos poblaciones. Conclusiones. El análisis genómico de la muestra de Bogotá permitió detectar similitudes y diferencias con otras poblaciones americanas. El aumento de tamaño de la muestra bogotana y la inclusión de muestras de otras regiones del país permitirán una mejor compresión de la variabilidad genética en Colombia, lo cual es fundamental para los estudios de salud humana, y la prevención y el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes en el país.
Abstract Introduction: The HapMap and the 1000 Genomes projects have been important for understanding the genetic component of common diseases and normal phenotypes. However, the Colombian genetic variability included in these projects is not fully representative of our country. Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of the Colombian genetic variability through the genomic study of a sample of individuals from Bogotá. Materials and methods: A total of 2,372,784 genetic markers were genotyped in 32 individuals born in Bogotá whose parents are from the same region, using the Illumina™ platform. The genetic variability levels were determined and compared with the data available from other populations of the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: The genetic variability detected in the individuals from Bogotá was similar to those with shared ancestry. However, despite the low levels of genetic differentiation between Bogotá and Medellín, populations the principal component analysis suggested a different genetic composition in them. Conclusions: Our genomic analysis of a Bogotá sample allowed us to detect similarities and differences with other American populations. The increase of the Bogotá sample and the inclusion of samples from other regions of the country will improve our understanding of the genetic variability in Colombia, essential for studies of human health and the prevention and treatment of common diseases in our country.
Subject(s)Female , Humans , Male , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Genetic Markers , Human Genome Project , Cities/ethnology , Colombia/ethnology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Black People/genetics , American Indian or Alaska Native/genetics , Asian People/genetics , White People/genetics
Background: Mastitis is one of the most serious diseases of dairy cattle, causing substantial financial losses. While predisposition to reduced somatic cell count in milk has been considered for in cattle breeding programs as the key indicator of udder health status, scientists are seeking genetic markers of innate immune response, which could be helpful in selecting cows with improved immunity to mastitis. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a protein involved in the response of the immune system by eliminating iron ions which are necessary for the growth of pathogenic bacteria, so LCN2 may be considered as a natural bacteriostatic agent and could become a marker of infection. Results: A total of five SNPs were identified in LCN2 gene (one in the promoter, three in exon 1, and one in intron 1). A single haplotype block was identified. The locus g.98793763GNC was found to have a significant impact on protein levels in milk, and alleles of this locus were identified to have a significant positive dominance effect on this trait. None of the four analysed loci had a statistically significant impact on the milk yield, fat levels in milk or the somatic cell score. LCN-2 gene had no significant impact on the incidence of mastitis in the cows. Conclusions: Although the identified SNPs were not found to have any impact on the somatic cell count or the incidence of mastitis in cows, it seems that further research is necessary, covering a larger population of cattle, to confirm the association between lipocalin-2 and milk production traits and mastitis.
Subject(s)Animals , Cattle , Polymorphism, Genetic , Milk/immunology , Lipocalin-2/genetics , Mastitis, Bovine/genetics , Haplotypes , Breeding , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Lipocalin-2/chemistry , Mammary Glands, Animal , Mastitis, Bovine/immunology
ABSTRACT Objective Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is involved in DNA methylation that is associated with autoimmune pathology. We investigated the association between MTHFR genetic polymorphisms at g.677C>T and g.1298A>C and their haplotypes, and the risk of thyroid dysfunction among Jordanian females. Subjects and methods A case-control study involving 98 hypothyroidism cases, 66 hyperthyroidism cases and 100 controls was conducted. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was performed to determine genotypes. Statistical analysis using SPSS software was performed. Results Genetic analysis showed a significant difference in genotype frequency of g.1298A>C between cases, and controls [hypothyroidism: AA (45.9%), AC (37.8%), CC (16.3%); hyperthyroidism: AA (9.1%), AC (69.7%), CC (21.2%); controls: AA (37.8%), AC (29.6%), CC (32.7%); CChypo vs. AAhypo: 2.55, 95% CI: (1.18-5.52); OR at least on Chypo: 1.79, 95% CI: (1.07-2.99)]; CChyper vs. AAhyper: 4.01, 95% CI: (1.79-9.01); OR at least on Chyper: 0.18, 95% CI: (0.07-0.48)]. There was no significant difference in genotype frequency of g.677C>T between cases and controls [hypothyroidism: CC (50.0%), CT (32.7%), TT (17.3%); hyperthyroidism: CC (77.3%), CT (15.2%), TT (7.6%); controls: CC (55.6%), CT (32.3%), TT (12.1%)]. There was a significant difference of MTHFR haplotypes among hypothyroidism cases and controls. TA and CC had a lower hypothyroidism risk whereas; TC showed a higher risk. Conclusions g.1298A>C genetic polymorphism of MTHFR may modulate the risk of thyroid disease. CC, TA, and TC haplotypes affect the risk of hypothyroidism. Larger samples should be included in the future to verify the role of MTHFR polymorphisms in thyroid diseases.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Hyperthyroidism/genetics , Hypothyroidism/genetics , Haplotypes , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , DNA Methylation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Alleles , Genotype , Jordan
Abstract Introduction: Obesity and colorectal cancer could be linked by adipocytokines, which are proteins associated with cell proliferation. High levels of the adipocytokine leptin promote the development of colorectal cancer through its receptor. Objective: To determine the association between c.326A>G and c.668A>G LEPR gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 147 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer and 134 healthy people. Genotypes were obtained by PCR- RFLP and the association was determined by the odds ratio (OR) test using the SPSS™, version 10.0, program. Haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium were estimated by the Arlequin, version 3.5, software. Results: Both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only the c.326A>G heterozygous genotype revealed an increased risk for colorectal cancer development (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.04-3.16, p=0.04). The AG haplotype showed a significant association with colorectal cancer (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.35-0.96, p<0.03). Linkage disequilibrium between the variants was only evident for the patients group (r2=0.36). Conclusion: Our results suggest that AG individuals heterozygous for the c.326A>G LEPR variant have a higher risk of colorectal cancer development whereas the AG haplotype (c.326A/c.668G) has a protective effect in the Mexican population.
Resumen Introducción. La relación entre la obesidad y el cáncer colorrectal podría estar dada por las adipocitocinas, proteínas asociadas con la proliferación celular. Los niveles elevados de la adipocitocina leptina promueven el desarrollo del cáncer colorrectal a través de su receptor. Objetivo. Determinar la asociación de los polimorfismos c.326A>G y c.668A>G del gen LEPR con el cáncer colorrectal. Materiales y métodos. A partir de sangre periférica, se extrajo el ADN de 147 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal esporádico y de 134 personas sanas. La genotipificación se hizo mediante PCR-RFLP y la asociación se determinó por la odds ratio (OR) en el programa SPSS™, versión 10.0. Las frecuencias haplotípicas y el desequilibrio de ligamiento se estimaron utilizando el programa Arlequin, versión 3.5. Resultados. Ambos polimorfismos estaban en equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg. Solo el genotipo heterocigoto c.326A>G reveló un mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorrectal (OR=1,81; IC95% 1,04-3,16; p=0,04). El haplotipo AG mostró una asociación significativa con este cáncer (OR=0,58; IC95% 0,35-0,96; p≤0,03) y el desequilibrio de ligamiento entre las variantes fue evidente únicamente en el grupo de pacientes (r2=0,36). Conclusión. Los resultados sugieren que los individuos heterocigotos con el haplotipo AG para la variante c.326A>G en el gen LEPR tenían un mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorrectal, en tanto que el haplotipo AG (c.326A/c.668G) tenía un efecto protector en la población mexicana.
Subject(s)Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Haplotypes , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Leptin/genetics , Mexico
Human polycystic echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus vogeli, which occurs in rural areas of Central and South America. Until now, little information on the genetic variability of E. vogeli is available. Here, 32 samples from human-excised E. vogeli cysts had a 396-bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequenced and compared to another 17 COI sequences representing nine Echinococcus species. A Bayesian COI tree revealed that all E. vogeli sequences formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade with an E. vogeli reference sequence. The occurrence of geographically restricted E. vogeli COI haplotypes suggests retention of ancestral polymorphisms with little migration in Acre, Brazil.