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1.
J. nurs. health ; 10(4): 20104042, abr.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145285

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: refletir sobre especificações técnicas e indicação de uso de equipamentos de proteção para profissionais da saúde no atendimento de casos suspeitos ou confirmados do novo Coronavírus na perspectiva das recomendações internacionais e nacionais. Método: ensaio teórico reflexivo, oriundo de estudos de professores de uma universidade pública brasileira, fundamentado na literatura internacional e nacional sobre o tema. Resultados: o uso de aventais impermeáveis foi unânime em relação às recomendações de proteção dos profissionais. Entretanto, apesar da eficácia dos equipamentos gorros, toucas e macacões, esses não pertenciam às diretrizes da maioria dos países, inclusive do Brasil. Alguns estabelecimentos de saúde, para garantir maior segurança dos trabalhadores, disponibilizaram esses equipamentos de modo autônomo. Conclusões: o estudo refletiu acerca das indicações do uso de equipamentos de proteção individual pela literatura científica e por órgãos governamentais no mundo, considerando a pandemia do novo Coronavírus.(AU)


Objective:to reflect on the technical specifications and indication of using protective equipment to health workers when caring suspicious or confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus from the perspective of the international and national recommendations. Method:theoretical and reflective essay derived from studies carried out by professorsfrom a Brazilian public university based on the international and national literature about the theme. Results:the use of impermeable aprons is unanimous regarding the recommendations for the workers` protection. However, although the efficacy of equipment like caps, medical scrub caps and overalls, these items are not included in the guidelines of most countries including Brazil. A few health institutions have provided this equipment in an autonomous way to guarantee more safety to their workers. Conclusions:the study reflected on the recommendations to use personal protective equipment by the scientific literature and government agencies in the world in view of coronavirus pandemic. (AU)


Objetivo:reflexionar sobre las especificaciones técnicas e indicación del uso de equipos de protección para profesionales de la salud durante laatención de los casos sospechosos o confirmados del nuevo coronavirus en la perspectiva de las recomendaciones internacionales y nacionales. Método:ensayo teórico reflexivo, proveniente de estudios de profesores de una universidad pública brasileña. Resultados:el uso de delantales impermeables fue unánime con relación a las recomendaciones de protección de los profesionales. Sin embargo, pese a la eficacia de los equipos como gorras, sombrerosy overoles, estos no hacen parte de las directrices de la mayoría de los países, incluso de Brasil. Algunos estabelecimientos de salud ponen esos equipos a disposición de modo autónomo a los trabajadores para garantizarles mayor seguridad. Conclusiones:el estudio reflexiona acerca del uso de equipos de protección personal según proveídas por la literatura científica y las entidades gubernamentales en el mundo debido a la pandemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Occupational Health , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Betacoronavirus , Protective Clothing , Pandemics , Head Protective Devices
2.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 219-223, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827828

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Motorcycle accident is a major cause of road traffic injuries and the motorcyclists are considered as vulnerable road users. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Iran.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, a total of 28,356 motorcycle traffic fatalities registered in the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran were analyzed during the period between March 2011 and March 2017. The examined variables included demographic characteristics, helmet use, crash mechanisms, crash location, position state, type of counterpart vehicle, cause of death and place of death. In the study, road traffic mortalities involving drivers and/or passenger of motorcycles were included. Cases or events registered without these conditions were excluded from the study. To analyse the data, SPSS statistics 25 and GraphPad Prism 8 softwares were used.@*RESULTS@#Of the 122,682 fatal traffic injury cases, 28,356 (23.1%) were motorcycle users, of whom 95.3% were male and 4.7% were female. Most of the motorcycle fatalities belonged to the age group of 18-24 years (29.1%). Head trauma was the major cause of death (59.0%). Also, the overall proportion of safety helmet use among motorcycle crash victims was estimated at 37.4%. Most of the road traffic crash cases (46.8%) happened out of city and half of people (49.9%) died in hospital. About 77.4% of the victims were motorcycle riders and 21.1% were pillion passengers. The highest rate of mortality belonged to the self-employed (38.4%) and then workers (21.8%) and students (10.2%). In addition, most fatalities occurred in people with low education (77.5%) and the least occurred in university graduates (5.5%). Among 31 provinces of Iran, Fars had the highest (9.3%) occurrence rate and Kohgiluyeh and Buyer-Ahmad had the lowest (0.5%). Most of the crash mechanisms were due to motorcycle-vehicle crashes (80.2%), followed by rollover (9.8%).@*CONCLUSION@#Comprehensive public education and special rules are needed to reduce the rate of deaths in motorcycle crashes.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries , Epidemiology , Mortality , Accidents, Traffic , Mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Head Protective Devices , Health Education , Humans , Iran , Epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Motorcycles , Registries , Young Adult
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Helmet use reduces the risk and severity of head injury and death due to road traffic crash among motorcyclists. The protective efficacy of different types of helmets varies. Wearing firmly fastened full-face helmet termed as effective helmet use provides greatest protection. This study estimates the prevalence and factors associated with effective helmet use among motorcyclists in Mysuru, a tier II city in Southern India.@*METHODS@#Cross-sectional road side observational study of 3499 motorcyclists (2134 motorcycle riders and 1365 pillion riders) at four traffic intersections was done followed by interview of random sample of 129 of the above riders. Effective helmet use proportion and effective helmet use per 100 person-minute of observation was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with effective helmet use.@*RESULTS@#Prevalence of effective helmet use was 28 per 100 riders and 19.5 per 100 person-minute of observation in traffic intersections. Prevalence rates of effective helmet use was higher among riders (34.5% vs pillion riders 18.1%), female riders (51.3% vs male riders 26.8%), and male pillion riders (30.5% vs female pillion riders 13.7%). Riders commuting for work and school and those ever stopped by the police in the past 3 months had significantly higher odds of effective helmet use.@*CONCLUSION@#Despite helmet use being compulsory by law for motorcyclists, the effective helmet use was low in Mysore. Strict enforcement and frequent checks by the police are necessary to increase the effective helmet use.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cities , Craniocerebral Trauma , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Motorcycles , Transportation , Young Adult
4.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002101, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141414

ABSTRACT

Uno de los efectos adversos que generan mayor impacto psicosocial en los pacientes que se someten a quimioterapia es la pérdida de cabello. El uso de los cascos fríos podría representar una alternativa para prevenir la alopecia. Estos dispositivos producen vasoconstricción en los vasos sanguíneos del cuero cabelludo provocando que los quimioterápicos lleguen en menores concentraciones a los folículos pilosos, y por consiguiente, evitando que los citotóxicos alcancen el metabolismo de las células foliculares. Se propone que este proceso permita prevenir la alopecia, aunque existe una preocupación que es la posibilidad de metástasis en cuero cabelludo si la quimioterapia no llega a este tejido. Partiendo de la consulta de una paciente con diagnóstico reciente de cáncer de mama, surge el interrogante si en pacientes en tratamiento con quimioterapia el uso de cascos fríos en comparación con su no utilización, disminuye la caída del cabello y si aumenta el riesgo de metástasis en cuero cabelludo. Luego de realizar una búsqueda, se analizaron los resultados de tres artículos pertinentes. Se concluye que el uso de cascos fríos en pacientes que reciben quimioterapia representaría una opción válida para prevenir la alopecia sin indicios de problemas de seguridad y se realiza una reseña acerca de la disponibilidad de los cascos fríos en Argentina. (AU)


One of the adverse effects that generate greater psychosocial impact in patients undergoing chemotherapy is hair loss. The use of cold caps could represent an alternative to prevent alopecia. These devices produce vasoconstriction in the blood vessels of the scalp, causing chemotherapeutic agents to reach the hair follicles in lower concentrations, and there forepreventing toxins from being metabolized by the follicular cells. Thus, alopecia could be prevented but, there is a concern that is the possibility of metastasis to the scalp if the therapy does not reach this tissue. Based on a consultation of a patient recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the question arises whether in patients undergoing chemotherapy the useof cold caps compared to their non-use reduces hair loss and whether it in creases the risk of metastasis to the scalp. After performing a search, the results of three relevant articles were analyzed. It is concluded that the use of cold helmets in patients receiving chemotherapy would represent a valid option to prevent alopecia without indications of safety problems. Finally, a review is made about the availability of scalp-cooling devices in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Alopecia/prevention & control , Head Protective Devices , Hypothermia, Induced/instrumentation , Argentina , Scalp , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Alopecia/chemically induced , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Neoplasm Metastasis , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the epidemiological characteristics of bicycle injuries and the wearing of a helmet. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using the emergency department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance data from 2013 to 2016. The study population consisted of patients related to bicycles of all ages. The variables associated with helmet wearing were sex, age, type of location, activity at injury, alcohol use at injury, and time of injury. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the risks of nonuse of helmets. RESULTS: Among the 31,923 eligible patients, 3,304 patients (10.3%) were wearing helmets at the time of the injury. The adjusted logistic regression model showed that females (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.675; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.614–0.742), teenagers (aOR, 0.265; 95% CI, 0.232–0.302), old age (aOR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.326–0.438), road except for bicycle lanes (aOR, 0.510; 95% CI, 0.467-0.557), leisure (aOR, 0.290; 95% CI, 0.252–0.334) or vital activity (aOR, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.162–0.218) at injury, alcohol use at injury (aOR, 0.329; 95% CI, 0.253–0.427), night time (aOR, 0.609; 95% CI, 0.560–0.663), and winter (aOR 0.734; 95% CI 0.619–0.872) were significantly associated with the nonuse of helmets. CONCLUSION: This study identified the factors associated with helmet use during bicycle riding. Strategies aimed at increasing the use of bicycle helmets targeting the risk population are needed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bicycling , Emergencies , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Leisure Activities , Logistic Models , Morinda , Observational Study , Odds Ratio
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(7): 1250-1258, July 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-976450

ABSTRACT

As doenças dos cascos são as principais causas de claudicação em pequenos ruminantes, causando grande impacto no bem-estar dos animais e provocando sérias perdas econômicas com depreciação e abate de animais afetados. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e caracterizar as doenças podais encontradas em oito rebanhos de ovinos com histórico de doenças podais pertencentes a oito municípios do estado da Bahia. Em cada visita, foram realizadas inspeções do rebanho, aplicação de um questionário de pesquisa e caracterização das doenças. No total, 600 ovinos foram inspecionados, realizando exame do casco em animais doentes para caracterizar as lesões, registrar a quantidade de doenças presentes por animal, o casco afetado e a quantidade de membros afetados. A ocorrência de doença de casco foi de 23,3% (140/600) variando de 12,8 a 55,5% por fazenda. Duzentos e vinte casos envolvendo nove doenças foram registrados. A pododermatite infecciosa foi a doença mais comum com 51,3% dos casos (113/220), 70% correspondente aos estágios avançados e terminais. A dermatite interdigital representou 27,7% dos casos; crescimento excessivo dos cascos 8,6%; doença da linha branca 3,2%; sola dupla 3,2%; granuloma do dígito 2,3%; hiperplasia interdigital 2,3%; úlcera de sola 0,9% e 0,4% de abcesso de pé. Os principais fatores predisponentes envolvidos na ocorrência das doenças foram a alta precipitação pluviométrica, condições de umidade do solo, currais e pastagens, manejo sanitário deficiente e falta de medidas preventivas (pedilúvio, quarentena, isolamento e vacinação), falhas de tratamento e baixa infra-estrutura da maioria das propriedades.(AU)


Foot diseases are the main causes of lameness in small ruminants, causing great impact on animal welfare and important economic losses due to depreciation and culling of affected animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize foot diseases found in eight flocks of sheep with a history of the ailment, that belonged to eight municipalities in the state of Bahia. At each visit, inspection of the flock, survey questionnaire, and characterization of diseases were performed. Altogether 600 sheep were inspected through foot examination in sick animals to characterize the injuries and record the diseases present per animal, as affected hooves and the number of affected limbs. The occurrence of foot disease was 23.3% (140/600) ranging from 12.8 to 55.5% per farm. Two hundred and twenty cases involving nine diseases were recorded. Foot rot was the most common disease with 51.3% of cases (113/220), 70% corresponding to advanced and terminal stages. Interdigital dermatitis represented 27.7% of the cases, excessive hoof growth 8.6%, white line disease 3.2%, double soles 3.2%, toe granuloma 2.3%, interdigital hyperplasia 2.3%, sole ulcers 0.9% and 0.4% foot abscess. The main predisposing factors involved in the genesis of diseases were the high rainfall precipitation, soil moisture conditions, pens and pastures, poor sanitary management and lack of preventive measures (footbath, quarantine, isolation and vaccination), treatment failures and low infrastructure of most properties.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/abnormalities , First Aid , Head Protective Devices/veterinary , Intermittent Claudication/veterinary
7.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 18(4): 12-17, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254352

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso do capacete e o risco de dependência para utilização de bebida alcoólica nos motociclistas internados no HR. A metodologia aplicada nessa pesquisa é de natureza epidemiológica, quantitativa, descritiva e prospectiva. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: sexo, idade, tipo de capacete, potência da moto, finalidade de uso, ossos e fraturas, complexidade das fraturas e risco de dependência do uso álcool. Foram analisados dados de 100 pacientes, dos quais o sexo mais acometido foi o masculino na faixa etária entre 18-29 anos; a potência da moto disparadamente mais procurada pelos pacientes encontra-se acima de 50 cc, tendo sido o tipo de capacete mais utilizado o integral com viseira, porém com uma deficiência muito grande na utilização de capacete pelos motociclistas; a maior finalidade para o uso da moto pelos pacientes foi para o trabalho. O osso mais fraturado foi o zigomático. A maioria dos pacientes foi classificada com uso de baixo risco do álcool na classificação do AUDIT... (AU)


The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of helmet and the risk of addiction to the use of alcoholic beverage in motorcyclists admitted at the HR hospital. The methodology applied in this research is epidemiological, quantitative, descriptive and prospective. The following variables were studied: gender, age, type of helmet, motor power, purpose of use, bones and fractures, fracture complexity and risk of dependence on alcohol use. Data from 100 patients were analyzed, in which male was the most affected gender in the age group 18-29 years old; The motorcycle's power most frequently sought by the patients is above 50 cc and the type of helmet most used was the integral with visor, but with a great deficiency in the use of helmets by the motorcyclists; The major purpose for motorcycle use by patients was to work. The most fractured bone was the zygomatic. The majority of patients were classified as having been included in the use of alcohol risk in the AUDIT classification... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Motorcycles , Traumatology , Accidents, Traffic , Head Protective Devices , Bone and Bones , Fractures, Bone
8.
Singapore medical journal ; : 210-216, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687871

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014. Data was obtained from the National Trauma Registry and analysed in tiers based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 1,243 accidents were reviewed. RTA victims included motor vehicle passengers (60.4%), pedestrians (28.5%), cyclists (9.9%) and motorcycle pillion riders (1.2%). The disposition of emergency department (ED) patients was consistent with RTA severity. For serious RTAs, pedestrians accounted for 63.6% and 57.7% of Tier 1 (ISS > 15) and Tier 2 (ISS 9-15) presentations, respectively. Overall use of restraints was worryingly low (36.7%). Not restraining increased the risk of serious RTAs by 8.4 times. Young age, high ISS and low Glasgow Coma Scale score predicted a longer duration of intensive care unit stay.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The importance of restraints for motor vehicle passengers or helmets for motorcycle pillion riders and cyclists in reducing morbidity requires emphasis. Suggestions for future prevention and intervention include road safety education, regulation of protective restraints, use of speed enforcement devices and creation of transport policies that minimise kerbside parking.</p>


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Adolescent , Automobiles , Bicycling , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injury Severity Score , Male , Motorcycles , Pedestrians , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore , Epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries , Epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180016, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977702

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Os acidentes de transporte terrestre (ATT) são a segunda causa de morte em escolares de 13 a 17 anos. O presente estudo visou descrever os fatores de risco para ATT em escolares da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015 e avaliar a tendência de indicadores selecionados nas três últimas edições da PeNSE. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo sobre fatores de risco para ATT no ano de 2015, com dados da PeNSE e análise de tendência das séries temporais, com testes de regressão ajustados por idade, das edições de 2009, 2012 e 2015, nas capitais brasileiras. Resultados: Em 2015, 26,3% dos escolares do nono ano, na maioria entre 13 e 15 anos, relataram terem sido conduzidos em veículo motorizado dirigido por alguém que consumiu bebida alcoólica e 32,4% relataram terem dirigido veículo motorizado; 30,7% dos adolescentes não usaram cinto de segurança no banco de trás; e 16,8% dos escolares usuários de motocicleta não usaram capacetes. Observou-se ainda tendência de piora dos indicadores entre 2009 e 2015, referentes a dirigir veículo motorizado (1,0 pontos percentuais) e ter sido conduzido em veículo por alguém que consumiu bebida alcoólica (1,1 pontos percentuais). Discussão: A ocorrência de ATT resulta da interação entre vias, veículos e usuários, tendo forte correlação com o comportamento. Conclusões: Os resultados apontam a necessidade de investir em medidas educativas, associadas a fiscalização, a melhoria das vias, pesquisas e aprimoramento da legislação. O monitoramento dos fatores de risco em escolares contribui substancialmente para apoiar intervenções das políticas públicas intersetoriais para a redução de morbimortalidade por trânsito.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Land transport accidents (LTA) are the second cause of death in schoolchildren aged 13 to 17 years. The study aims to describe the risk factors for LTA in schoolchildren from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) of 2015 and to evaluate the trend of selected indicators in the last three editions of PeNSE. Methodology: A descriptive study on risk factors for LTA in 2015, with PeNSE data and time series trends analysis, with age-adjusted regression tests of the 2009, 2012 and 2015 editions, in Brazilian capitals. Results: In 2015, 26.3% of ninth grade schoolchildren, mostly between 13 and 15 years of age, reported having been in a motor vehicle driven by someone who consumed alcohol and 32.4% had driven a motor vehicle; 30.7% of adolescents did not use seat belts in the back seat; and 16.8% of schoolchildren who ride motorcycles did not wear helmets. There was also a worsening of the indicators between 2009 and 2015, regarding driving a motor vehicle (1.0 percentage points) and having been driven by vehicle for consumption of alcoholic beverages (1.1 percentage points). Discussion: The LTA occurrence results from the interaction between roads, vehicles and users, and has a strong correlation with behavior. Conclusions: The results show the need to invest in educational measures, associated with supervision, the improvement of road infrastructure, research and improvement of legislation. The monitoring of risk factors in schoolchildren substantially contributes to support intersectoral public policies interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality in traffic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys/standards , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Seat Belts/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Automobile Driving/psychology , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Risk Factors , Health Surveys/trends , Sex Distribution , Driving Under the Influence/psychology , Driving Under the Influence/statistics & numerical data , Head Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713773

ABSTRACT

Acute exacerbation(s) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) tend to be critical and debilitating events leading to poorer outcomes in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment modalities, and contribute to a higher and earlier mortality rate in COPD patients. Besides pro-active preventative measures intended to obviate acquisition of AECOPD, early recovery from severe AECOPD is an important issue in determining the long-term prognosis of patients diagnosed with COPD. Updated GOLD guidelines and recently published American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society clinical recommendations emphasize the importance of use of pharmacologic treatment including bronchodilators, systemic steroids and/or antibiotics. As a non-pharmacologic strategy to combat the effects of AECOPD, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended as the treatment of choice as this therapy is thought to be most effective in reducing intubation risk in patients diagnosed with AECOPD with acute respiratory failure. Recently, a few adjunctive modalities, including NIV with helmet and helium-oxygen mixture, have been tried in cases of AECOPD with respiratory failure. As yet, insufficient documentation exists to permit recommendation of this therapy without qualification. Although there are too few findings, as yet, to allow for regular andr routine application of those modalities in AECOPD, there is anecdotal evidence to indicate both mechanical and physiological benefits connected with this therapy. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is another supportive strategy which serves to improve the symptoms of hypoxic respiratory failure. The therapy also produced improvement in ventilatory variables, and it may be successfully applied in cases of hypercapnic respiratory failure. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal has been successfully attempted in cases of adult respiratory distress syndrome, with protective hypercapnic ventilatory strategy. Nowadays, it is reported that it was also effective in reducing intubation in AECOPD with hypercapnic respiratory failure. Despite the apparent need for more supporting evidence, efforts to improve efficacy of NIV have continued unabated. It is anticipated that these efforts will, over time, serve toprogressively decrease the risk of intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation in cases of AECOPD with acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bronchodilator Agents , Carbon Dioxide , Catheters , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Intubation , Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Steroids
11.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 17(1): 13-19, jan.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281729

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os acidentes motociclísticos estão entre as causas mais frequentes de traumatismos faciais. O fato de a motocicleta ser um veículo leve e de fácil condução e o descumprimento à legislação atual contribuem para o aumento da incidência e da gravidade dessas fraturas. Metodologia: Foram entrevistados 123 pacientes, momento em que foram colhidas as seguintes variáveis: Dependentes: Faixa etária, gênero, local de procedência, uso de capacete, se havia ingerido bebida alcoólica antes do acidente, se possuia habilitação para motocicleta, ossos faciais fraturados e lesões em outras áreas do corpo. As fraturas faciais bem como as fraturas em outras áreas do corpo foram diagnosticadas após exame clínico e imaginológico. Resultados: Houve uma predominância de indivíduos do gênero masculino (85,4%) e de pacientes provenientes de cidades do interior do estado do Ceará (61,8%). Fraturas múltiplas da face ocorreram em 49,6% dos pacientes pesquisados. A maioria dos pacientes não utilizavam capacetes ou não possuíam habilitação (75,6% e 73,2%, respectivamente.), e 38,2% haviam ingerido bebida alcoólica antes do acidente. Foi observado ainda que 20.3% dos pacientes apresentavam fraturas em outros ossos do corpo que não a face. Conclusão: Observa-se que os acidentes motociclísticos correspondem a uma grande parcela das fraturas faciais e que a maior parte desses acidentes estão associados ao descumprimento da legislação... (AU)


Introduction: motorcycle accidents are among the most common causes of facial trauma. The fact that the motorcycle be a light vehicle and within easy driving and breach the current legislation contribute to the increased incidence and severity of these fractures. Methodology: We interviewed 123 patients, at which the following variables were collected: Dependents: age range, gender, place of origin, helmet use, if had been drinking before the accident, it has qualified for motorcycle, fractured facial bones and lesions in other areas of the body. Facial fractures and fractures in other areas of the body were diagnosed after clinical examination and imaginologic. Results: There was a predominance of male (85.4%) and patients from cities in the state of Ceará (61.8%). Multiple facial fractures occurred in 49.6% of patients surveyed. Most patients did not use helmets or had no qualifications (75.6% and 73.2% respectively.) And 38.2% had been drinking before the accident. It was also observed that 20.3% of patients had fractures in other bones of the body other than the face. Conclusion: It is observed that motorcycle accidents account for a large portion of facial fractures and that most of these accidents are associated with the breach of the legislation... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Accidents, Traffic , Fractures, Bone , Jaw Fractures/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries , Accidents , Face , Fractures, Multiple , Head Protective Devices
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351375

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical effect of postural correction training and helmet therapy in the treatment of moderate-severe positional head deformity defined as asymmetric head shape in infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 31 infants who were diagnosed with moderate-severe plagiocephaly and/or brachiocephaly were enrolled. According to the different treatment methods, the infants were divided into helmet therapy group with 11 infants and postural correction training group with 20 infants. The cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI), cephalic ratio (CR), and head circumference growth were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the postural correction training group, the helmet therapy group had significantly lower CVAI and CR after treatment. The helmet therapy group had significantly better improvements in CVAI and CR after treatment compared with the postural correction training group (CVAI difference: 6.0±1.9 vs 0.7±0.8, P=0.001; CR difference: 0.047±0.009 vs 0.008±0.005, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in head circumference growth between the two groups (P=0.55).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Helmet therapy has a significantly better effect in the treatment of moderate-severe positional head deformity than postural correction training in infants. Helmet therapy does not limit head circumference growth.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Head , Congenital Abnormalities , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Posture
13.
Med. Afr. noire (En ligne) ; 69(04): 423-429, 2017.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1266351

ABSTRACT

Le 2 août 2014, la loi sur le port obligatoire du casque pour les motocyclistes est entrée en application dans sa phase répressive à Cotonou. Ce travail a pour but d'évaluer l'impact de cette loi sur la fréquence, la morbidité, la mortalité et le coût de la prise en charge des Traumatisés Crânio-Encéphaliques au Centre National Hospitalier Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga (CNHU/HKM) de Cotonou.Une étude prospective sur les facteurs socioéconomiques des TCE avait été initiée du 1er au 31 décembre 2014. C'est durant cette enquête, que la loi sur le port obligatoire du casque par les motocyclistes est entrée en application dans sa phase répressive. Nous avons déduit de cette enquête cette étude comparative, entre le 1er janvier et le 31 juillet 2014 puis entre le 2 août 2014 et le 31 décembre 2014. Parmi les 461 cas d'accidents de la voie publique, 347 (75,27%) étaient des accidents de moto dont 283 (81,55%) touchaient des conducteurs et 63 (18,15%) des passagers. La fréquence du port du casque, parmi les victimes de Traumatismes Crâniens Encéphaliques (TCE), a significativement augmenté de 2,3% à 34,5%. Après l'entrée en vigueur de la loi, On a observé une diminution de la fréquence des TCE de 55,54% mais la fréquence de la gravité et de la mortalité était comparable.Les accidents de moto étaient la cause majeure des TCE admis aux CNHU/HKM. La loi sur le port du casque par les motocyclistes a permis de réduire de façon significative la fréquence des TCE. Mais l'impact sur la mortalité des TCE reste faible


Subject(s)
Benin , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/prevention & control , Head Protective Devices , Law Enforcement
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to model the avoidable burden of the risk factors of road traffic crashes in Iran and to prioritize interventions to reduce that burden. METHODS: The prevalence and the effect size of the risk factors were obtained from data documented by the traffic police of Iran in 2013. The effect size was estimated using an ordinal regression model. The potential impact fraction index was applied to calculate the avoidable burden in order to prioritize interventions. This index was calculated for theoretical, plausible, and feasible minimum risk level scenarios. The joint effects of the risk factors were then estimated for all the scenarios. RESULTS: The highest avoidable burdens in the theoretical, plausible, and feasible minimum risk level scenarios for the non-use of child restraints on urban roads were 52.25, 28.63, and 46.67, respectively. In contrast, the value of this index for speeding was 76.24, 37.00, and 62.23, respectively, for rural roads. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the different scenarios considered in this research, we suggest focusing on future interventions to decrease the prevalence of speeding, the non-use of child restraints, the use of cell phones while driving, and helmet disuse, and the laws related to these items should be considered seriously.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Cell Phone , Child , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Iran , Joints , Jurisprudence , Police , Prevalence , Risk Factors
15.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 105-108, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788020

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Agricultural aviation pilots, exposed daily to intense vibration and noise, are likely to develop noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of audiograms consistent with NIHL in agricultural aviation pilots who use earplugs and helmets. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional cohort and observational study. The data were taken from the medical records and audiograms of 94 pilots. Results NIHL was identified in 9.5% of individuals with hearing loss by audiograms at 3,000, 4,000, or 6,000 Hz. Normal audiograms were observed in 46.8% of pilots surveyed. Bilateral hearing loss was more frequent than unilateral hearing loss, occurring in 64.8% of cases. Conclusion Although there was a low incidence of audiograms compatible with NIHL in the records of the pilots examined, the disorder still occurs despite the doubled use of individual hearing protection equipment (helmets and earplugs) for agricultural aviation pilots. Nevertheless, even with the use of earplugs and helmets as noise protectors, the data showed that agricultural pilots suffer inner ear damage caused by occupational noise. Prevention and periodic audiologic evaluations must be conducted in noiseexposed occupational groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aviation , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Occupational Diseases , Crop Production , Head Protective Devices , Hearing Tests
16.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(12): 3661-3671, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828518

ABSTRACT

Resumo As lesões decorrentes dos acidentes com motociclistas constituem importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Objetivou-se descrever as características de motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes de transporte, atendidos em serviços públicos de urgência e emergência nas capitais de estado e no Distrito Federal. Estudo transversal com base nos dados do Inquérito sobre Violências e Acidentes em Serviços de Urgência e Emergência (VIVA Inquérito) de 2014. Os dados foram analisados segundo características sociodemográficas, do evento e do atendimento. Diferenças proporcionais entre os sexos foram analisadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado (Rao-Scott) com nível de significância de 5%. Do total de atendimentos de motociclistas, predominaram homens (n = 9.673), (razão de sexo = 3,2), jovens de 20 a 39 anos (65,7%), pretos/pardos (73,6%), com atividade remunerada (76,4%). Uso de capacete foi relatado por 79,1% das vítimas, 13,3% haviam consumido álcool nas seis horas anteriores ao acidente, 41,4% dos eventos estavam relacionados ao trabalho da vítima. Os acidentes foram mais frequentes nos finais de semana, durante a manhã e final da tarde. Estas características pode apoiar o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas de prevenção de acidentes e na promoção da saúde.


Abstract Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level. Motorcyclist-related attendances (n = 9,673) reported a prevalence of men (gender ratio = 3.2), young people aged 20–39 years (65.7%), black / brown (73.6%), paid work (76.4%). Helmet use was reported by 79.1% of the victims, 13.3% had consumed alcohol in the six hours prior to the accident, 41.4% of the events were related to the victim's work. Accidents were more frequent on weekends, in the morning and late afternoon. These characteristics can support the development of public accident prevention policies and health promotion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Head Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Time Factors
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(12): 3703-3710, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828521

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to describe the profile of motorcycle users and determine the prevalence of use. Also, to evaluate the reason for using a motorcycle, users' perceived risk of traffic accident, pattern of helmet wearing and number of accidents related to motorcycle use in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Sampling process was carried out in two stages, with the primary unit being the census track and the secondary the house. The study included 3,004 individuals aged 10 to 59 years, which answered a structured questionnaire. The outcome of the study was the use of motorcycle. The prevalence of motorcycle use was 25%. The majority of the riders were composed by males (79%). Individuals aged from 18 to 35-years-old comprised 42% of the total number of users, mainly as riders (24%). Forty percent of the users were not using properly the helmet strap. The major part of the users (76%) had a perception of high risk for accidents. The prevalence of accidents was 8%; it was higher among males and among those individuals aged from 18 to 35 years. The use of motorcycle was widespread in the population. Users were aware of the risk of accident, even though they reported to not wear correctly the helmet.


Resumo Este estudo buscou descrever o perfil dos usuários de motocicleta e determinar a prevalência de uso desta. Além disso, avaliar a razão para o uso da motocicleta, o risco percebido de acidente de trânsito, o padrão de uso do capacete e o número de acidentes com injúrias ocorridos nos últimos 12 meses. Estudo transversal realizado na cidade de Pelotas com processo de amostragem conduzido em dois estágios. A primeira unidade foi o setor censitário e a segunda a casa dos indivíduos. Foram incluídos 3.004 indivíduos com idades entre 10 e 59 anos, que responderam um questionário estruturado. O desfecho do estudo foi o uso de motocicleta. A prevalência do uso de motocicleta foi de 25,1%. A maioria dos motociclistas foi composta por homens (79%). Indivíduos com idade entre 18 e 35 anos representaram 42% do total de usuários, especialmente como motoristas (24%), e 40% reportaram não usar adequadamente o capacete. A maior parte dos usuários (76%) considerou estar em alto risco para acidentes. A prevalência de acidentes foi de 8%, sendo mais alto entre os homens e entre os indivíduos com idade entre 18 a 35 anos. A motocicleta é amplamente usada nesta população. Usuários estão cientes do risco de acidentes, embora tenham reportado não usar o capacete de forma adequada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Head Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(12): 3793-3801, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-828532

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la prevalencia y algunas características asociadas al uso de casco en dos ciudades en Colombia; se usaron tanto técnicas cuantitativas como cualitativas. La prevalencia de uso de casco en conductores de motocicleta fue mayor en Ibagué (98,1%) que en Valledupar (82,4%); en pasajeros de Valledupar no fue superior a 2%. Los hombres tuvieron 2.1 veces más posibilidad de usar el casco que las mujeres (IC 95: 1,6-2,7). Con las técnicas cualitativas se identificaron factores que explicaron los motivos de uso/no uso del casco (higiénicas, climáticas, estéticas y de seguridad) en Valledupar. El casco es una medida que protege ante un siniestro vial; no obstante, la prevalencia de uso no es la ideal. Es importante que las autoridades de tránsito, salud y la sociedad civil se organicen para diseñar y aplicar medidas orientadas para fortalecer el uso de este elemento de protección personal.


Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and some characteristics associated with the use of motorcycle helmets in two Colombian cities. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative techniques. The prevalence of the use of a motorcycle helmet among motorcyclists was greater in Ibague (98.1%) than in Valledupar (82.4%); among passengers in the city of Valledupar, it did not reach 2%. Men were 2.1 times more likely to wear helmets than women (IC 95:1.6-2.7). Using qualitative techniques, the factors explaining the reasons for use/non-use of helmets (being hygienic, climatic, esthetic and safety reasons) were identified for Valledupar. The use of the helmet is a protective measure in the event of traffic accidents; however, the prevalence of usage is not ideal. It is important for traffic and health authorities as well as the civil society to organize, in order to design and implement measures aimed at strengthening the use of this road safety gear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Head Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Cities , Colombia , Focus Groups , Interviews as Topic , Sex Factors
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68482

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of bicycle injuries in Korea. It analyzed the injury severity of bicycle accidents by making a comparison between accidents that originated from bicycle lanes and accidents that originated in other sites since the inception of the Korea Promoting Bicycle Usage Act in 2011. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study on 23,038 cases from January 2011 to December 2014, utilizing the data from the emergent department-based, in-depth injury surveillance system. The main analysis of death was conducted by a multivariate logistic regression, using SPSS statistics ver. 18.0. We also classified bicycle accidents in accordance with the sites of accident bicycle lane and other sites, accident year, age, gender, injury location, activity, helmet use, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The entire study population of 23,038 patients were divided into two groups depending on accident site: 4045 from bicycle lane and 18,993 from other accident sites. According to the analysis, the percentage of accidents involving female was significantly higher in bicycle lane than in other accident sites (75.8% vs. 79.3% p<0.001). The highest bicycle accident occurred alone (77.3%) in bicycle lane and 57% in other accident sites. However, motor vehicle crash was significantly higher in other accident sites than in bicycle lane (32.9% vs. 10.2%). The result from a multivariate logistic regression demonstrates that bicycle lanes significantly decreases the severity of mortality on average (odd ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.91). CONCLUSION: We found that bicycle lanes have a significant impact on decreasing not only general accidents caused by bicycles, but also mortality.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Bicycling , Epidemiology , Female , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Mortality , Motor Vehicles , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42453

ABSTRACT

Various operative techniques are available for the treatment of craniosynostosis. The patient's age at presentation is one of the most important factors in the determination of the surgical modality. Minimally invasive suturectomy and postoperative helmet therapy may be performed for relatively young infants, whose age is younger than 6 months. It relies upon the potential for rapid brain growth in this age group. Its minimal invasiveness is also advantageous. In this article, we review the advantages and limitations of minimally invasive suturectomy followed by helmet therapy for the treatment of craniosynostosis.


Subject(s)
Brain , Craniosynostoses , Head Protective Devices , Humans , Infant
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