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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 204-211, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374713

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: General anesthesia causes pulmonary atelectasis within few minutes of induction. This can have significant impact on postoperative outcome of cancer patients undergoing prolonged reconstructive surgeries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sonographically detected perioperative atelectasis on the need for postoperative oxygen supplementation, bronchodilator therapy and assisted chest physiotherapy in patients undergoing free flap surgeries for head and neck carcinoma. Methods: Twenty eight head and neck cancer patients underwent bilateral pulmonary ultrasonographic assessments before and after lung surgery. Lung ultrasound scores, serum lactate, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were measured both at the beginning and at end of the surgery. Patients were scanned in the supine position and the number of single and confluent B lines was noted. These values were correlated with the need for oxygen therapy, requirement of bronchodilators and total weaning time to predict the postoperative outcome. Other factors affecting weaning were also studied. Results: Among twenty eight patients, seven had mean lung ultrasound score of ≥10.5 which correlated with prolonged weaning time (144.56±33.5min vs. 66.7±15.7min; p = 0.005). The change in lung ultrasound score significantly correlated with change in PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = −0.56, p = 0.03). Elevated total leukocyte count >8200 ΜL and serum lactate >2.1 mmoL/L also predicted prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: This preliminary study detected significant levels of perioperative atelectasis using point of care lung ultrasonography in head and neck cancer patients undergoing long duration surgical reconstructions. Higher lung ultrasound scores highlighted the need for frequent bronchodilator nebulizations as well as assisted chest physiotherapy and were associated with delayed weaning. We propose more frequent point of care lung ultrasonographic evaluations and use of recruitment maneuvers to reduce the impact of perioperative pulmonary atelectasis.


Resumo Introdução: A anestesia geral causa atelectasia pulmonar poucos minutos após sua indução. Isso pode ter um impacto significativo no resultado pós-operatório de pacientes com câncer submetidos a cirurgias reconstrutivas prolongadas. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto das atelectasias perioperatórias detectadas por ultrassonografia na necessidade de suplementação pós-operatória de oxigênio, terapia broncodilatadora e fisioterapia respiratória assistida em pacientes com carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a cirurgias com uso de retalho livre. Método: Foram submetidos a avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares bilaterais antes e após a cirurgia 28 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Os escores de ultrassonografia pulmonar, lactato sérico, razão PaO2/FiO2 foram medidos no início e no fim da cirurgia. Os pacientes foram avaliados na posição supina e o número de linhas B confluentes e únicas foi observado. Esses valores foram correlacionados com a necessidade de oxigenoterapia, necessidade de broncodilatadores e tempo total de desmame para predizer o resultado pós-operatório. Outros fatores que afetam o desmame também foram estudados. Resultados: Entre os 28 pacientes, sete apresentaram escore médio de ultrassonografia pulmonar ≥ 10,5, que se correlacionou com o tempo de desmame prolongado (144,56 ± 33,5 minutos vs. 66,7 ± 15,7 minutos; p = 0,005). A mudança no escore de ultrassonografia pulmonar correlacionou-se significantemente com a mudança na razão PaO2/FiO2 (r = −0,56, p = 0,03). A contagem total elevada de leucócitos > 8200 uLe o nível de lactato sérico >2,1 mmoL/L também previram ventilação mecânica pós-operatória prolongada. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar detectou um nível significante de atelectasia perioperatória com ultrassonografia pulmonar no local de atendimento em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço submetidos a reconstruções cirúrgicas de longa duração. Escores mais altos de ultrassonografia pulmonar enfatizaram a necessidade de nebulizações broncodilatadoras frequentes e fisioterapia respiratória assistida e foram associados a desmame tardio. Propomos avaliações ultrassonográficas pulmonares mais frequentes no local de atendimento e o uso de manobras de recrutamento para reduzir o impacto das atelectasias pulmonares perioperatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/diagnostic imaging , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Bronchodilator Agents , Ultrasonography/adverse effects , Lactates , Lung
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 452-456, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285711

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters such as; maximum standardized uptake values, standard metabolic tumor volume and otal lesion glycosis are important prognostic biomarkers in cancers. Objective To investigate the prognostic value of these parameters in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods We performed a retrospective study including 47 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography prior to treatment. Standard metabolic tumor volume, otal lesion glycosis and standardized uptake were measured for each patient. The prognostic value of quantitative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters and clinicopathologic variables on disease free survival and overall survival were analyzed. Results The median (range) standard metabolic tumor volume and otal lesion glycosis and standardized uptake were 7.63 cm3 (0.6-34.3), 68.9 g (2.58-524.5 g), 13.89 (4.89-33.03 g/mL), respectively. Lymph node metastases and tumour differentiation were significant variables for disease free survival and overall survival, however, all 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography parameters were not associated with disease- free survival and overall survival. Conclusion Pretreatment quantities positron emission tomography parameters did not predict survival in head and neck cancer.


Resumo Introdução Os parâmetros da tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose, como os máximos valores de captação padronizados, o volume metabólico tumoral padrão e a glicólise total da lesão são importantes biomarcadores prognósticos de câncer. Objetivo Investigar o valor prognóstico desses parâmetros em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método Fizemos um estudo retrospectivo que incluiu 47 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e que foram submetidos à tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose antes do tratamento. Volume metabólico tumoral, glicólise total da lesão e valores de captação padronizados foram aferidos em cada paciente. O valor prognóstico de parâmetros quantitativos da tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose e das variáveis clínico-patológicas sobre a sobrevida livre de doença e a sobrevida geral foi analisado. Resultados A média (intervalo) de volume metabólico tumoral e glicólise total da lesão e valores de captação padronizados foram 7,63 cm3 (0,6-34,3), 68,9 g (2,58-524,5) e 13,89 g/mL (4,89-33,03), respectivamente. Metástase nos nódulos linfáticos e diferenciação tumoral foram variáveis significativas de sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida geral; contudo, nenhum parâmetro da tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose estava associado a sobrevida livre de doença e sobrevida geral. Conclusão As quantidades dos parâmetros da tomografia por emissão de pósitrons pré-tratamento não previram a sobrevida em câncer de cabeça e pescoço.


Subject(s)
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 11-18, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the seventh most common malignant tumor. The advances in treatment have improved the global survival rates in the past years, although the prognosis is still grave. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between positron emission computed tomography and computed tomography at the time of staging a previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and to determine which of the two imaging techniques gives us more information at the time of initial diagnosis. Methods: Data from all patients diagnosed in our hospital of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by a biopsy of any location or unknown primary tumor was collected, between January 2012 and July 2017. In all cases, computed tomography and positron emission computed tomography were performed with a maximum of 30 days difference between them and patients had not received any prior treatment to staging. The stage given to each case was compared based solely on the physical examination, only on the computed tomography/positron emission computed tomography, with respect to the stage given by the tumor board, observing the concordance obtained through Cramer's V statistical test. Results: We performed a comparative analysis obtaining a correlation of 0.729 between the stage given by the tumor board and the one assigned based on the physical examination without imaging techniques. When only using computed tomography as an imaging method, the correlation was 0.848, whereas with only the use of positron emission computed tomography it was estimated at 0.957. When comparing the statistical association between staging using exclusively one of the two imaging techniques, correlation was 0.855. Conclusion: Positron emission computed tomography is useful for the diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, improving the patient's staging especially when detecting cervical and distant metastases. Therefore, we consider that the use of positron emission computed tomography for the staging of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a diagnostic test to be considered.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço é o sétimo tumor maligno mais comum. Os avanços no tratamento melhoraram as taxas de sobrevida global nos últimos anos, embora o prognóstico ainda seja grave. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons e a tomografia computadorizada no estadiamento de carcinomas espinocelulares da cabeça e pescoço não tratados previamente e verificar qual das duas técnicas de imagem nos fornece mais informações no momento do diagnóstico inicial. Método: Os dados de todos os pacientes diagnosticados em nosso hospital com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço por biópsia de qualquer região ou adenopatias de origem desconhecida foram colhidos no período entre janeiro de 2012 e julho de 2017. Em todos os casos, uma tomografia computadorizada e uma tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons foram realizadas com um máximo de 30 dias de diferença entre elas. Nenhum paciente deveria ter recebido tratamento antes do estadiamento. O estadiamento atribuído a cada caso foi comparado com base apenas no exame físico, pela tomografia computadorizada ou apenas pela tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons, com relação ao estadiamento concedido pela margem tumoral, observou-se a concordância obtida pelo teste estatístico de V de Cramer. Resultado: Realizamos a análise comparativa obtendo uma correlação de 0,729 entre o estadio concedido pela margem tumoral e aquele atribuído com base no exame físico sem técnicas de imagem. Usando apenas a tomografia computadorizada como método de imagem, a correlação foi de 0,848, enquanto que a correlação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons foi estimada em 0,957. Ao comparar a associação estatística entre o estadiamento usando exclusivamente uma das duas técnicas de imagem, foi de 0,855. Conclusão: Tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons é útil para o diagnóstico de carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço, melhora o estadiamento, especialmente na detecção de metástases cervicais e à distância. Portanto, concluimos que seu uso para o estadiamento de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço é um exame diagnóstico a ser considerado.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 307-311, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144894

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores del espacio parafaríngeo son poco frecuentes. Dentro de ellos, las neoplasias benignas son las más frecuentes, destacando principalmente los adenomas pleomorfos. Estos tumores suelen permanecer asintomáticos hasta alcanzar el tamaño suficiente para producir alteraciones debido al efecto de masa. A pesar de su naturaleza benigna, es necesario realizar resección completa dada su alta tasa de recurrencia y potencial de transformación maligna. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 52 años que en estudio de vértigo se detecta incidentalmente una masa tumoral del espacio parafaríngeo de 45 mm × 32 mm de diámetro, de etiología incierta. Se realizó una biopsia incisional endoscópica que evidenció un adenoma pleomórfico, que actualmente se encuentra en etapa de evaluación y planificación de escisión completa. En conclusión, dado que los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos no siempre son suficientes para determinar la naturaleza de las lesiones del espacio parafaríngeo, es importante contar con un diagnóstico histológico. Los avances en las técnicas de cirugía endoscópica sinusal han permitido acceder a esta zona con una mínima morbilidad y estadía hospitalaria. Debido a la posibilidad de transformación maligna los adenomas pleomórficos requieren un manejo activo.


Abstract Tumors of the parapharyngeal space are rare. Benign neoplasms are the most frequent and, among them, pleomorphic adenomas stand out. These tumors are usually asymptomatic until they reach a size large enough to produce symptoms due to mass effect. Despite its benign nature, it is necessary to perform a complete resection given its high recurrence rate and its potential for malignant transformation. We present the case of a 52-year-old man in whom a study of vertigo incidentally detected a mass in the parapharyngeal space measuring 45 mm × 32 mm in diameter, of unknown etiology. An endoscopic incisional biopsy was performed, showing a pleomorphic adenoma, which is currently under assessment to plan complete removal. In conclusion, as clinical and radiological findings are not always sufficient to determine the nature of parapharyngeal space lesions, it is important to obtain a histological diagnosis. Advances in endoscopic sinus surgery techniques have allowed access to this area with minimal morbidity and hospital stay. Due to the possibility of malignant transformation pleomorphic adenomas require active management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Adenoma, Pleomorphic/diagnostic imaging , Parapharyngeal Space/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Parapharyngeal Space/abnormalities , Parapharyngeal Space/pathology
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 367-375, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144902

ABSTRACT

Resumen En adultos, una masa cervical detectada mediante examen físico o un estudio de imagen puede ser la única manifestación de un cáncer proveniente de cabeza y cuello. Un retraso en el diagnóstico repercute en el pronóstico de la enfermedad, por lo que debe haber un alto índice de sospecha. Las metástasis cervicales con primario desconocido (MCCPD) son tumores metastásicos en los que el estudio diagnóstico no logró identificar el sitio primario del cáncer, con una histología predominantemente de tipo escamosa. Según algunos estudios, el origen más frecuente resultó ser la orofaringe, incluyendo amígdala palatina y base de lengua. Factores de riesgo conocidos son edades avanzadas, consumo de tabaco y de alcohol. Actualmente, la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) está teniendo un rol cada vez más importante como factor de riesgo, formando parte de entre 20%-25% de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello. Al enfrentarse a un paciente con masa cervical es importante realizar una completa anamnesis y examen físico acucioso para detectar cualquier elemento sugerente de malignidad. Se debe complementar con nasofibroscopía para visualizar estructuras que no alcanzan a evaluarse en el examen habitual. También se puede orientar la búsqueda del primario desconocido en base a los patrones de drenaje linfático. Dentro del estudio complementario se puede comenzar con una tomografía computada (TC) y se puede considerar también el ultrasonido o un PET/TC. Si con esto aún no se logra definir el primario, continuar con una punción aspirativa con aguja fina (PAAF), luego biopsia core que consiste en tomar una muestra del centro de la lesión guiada por ecografía, si fuese necesario, incluyendo inmunohistoquímica para VPH; ambos estudios histológicos son preferibles en vez de una biopsia abierta debido al menor riesgo de diseminación y complicaciones. El siguiente paso incluye estudio endoscópico y biopsias bajo anestesia. El tratamiento de los pacientes con MCCPD, va a depender de factores relacionados con el estadio de la enfermedad: desde cirugía o radioterapia (RT) únicas, cirugía más RT, y en algunos casos quimioterapia. Se recomienda seguimiento clínico frecuente durante los primeros años y con imágenes dentro de los 6 primeros meses postratamiento.


Abstract In adults, a cervical mass detected by physical examination or an imaging study may be the only manifestation of cancer from the head and neck. A delay in the diagnosis affects the prognosis of the disease, so there must be a high index of suspicion. Cervical metastases from unknown primary tumor (CUP) are metastatic tumors in which the diagnostic study failed to identify the primary site of cancer, with predominantly squamous histology. According to some studies, the most frequent origin was the oropharynx, including palatine tonsil and tongue base. Known risk factors are advanced ages, tobacco and alcohol consumption. Currently, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is playing an increasingly important role as a risk factor, being the cause of between 20-25% of cancers of the head and neck. When confronting a patient with cervical mass it is important to carry out a complete anamnesis and a thorough physical examination to detect any element suggestive of malignancy. Physical examination could be complemented with a flexible nasal endoscopic to evaluate structures that can not be evaluated in the habitual examination. The search for the unknown primary can also be oriented based on lymphatic drainage patterns. Within the complementary evaluations, one can start with a study of images such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, and also could consider ultrasound or PET/CT. If the primary can not be defined yet, fine needle aspiration (FNAP) can be the next choice and then a core biopsy that consisting of taking a sample from the center of the ultrasound-guided lesion, if necessary, including immunohistochemistry for HPV; both histological studies are preferable to an open biopsy because of the lower risk of complications. The next step searching for the primary includes endoscopic study and biopsies under anesthesia. Regarding to the management of patients with CUP, it will depend on factors related to the stage of the disease: from surgery or radiotherapy (RT) only, surgery and RT, and in some cases chemotherapy. Frequent clinical follow-up is recommended during the first years and images within the first 6 months after treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neck
8.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(4): 482-492, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058726

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En la práctica clínica es habitual el estudio de linfonodos cervicales. La anamnesis y el examen físico orientan la etiología, pero ocasionalmente debemos recurrir a estudios imagenológicos. Esto es muy relevante en contexto de un linfonodo metastásico por un carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello. Para esto podemos utilizar diversas herramientas imagenológicas. El ultrasonido se utiliza para el estudio inicial de una masa cervical en donde clínicamente no queda claro el origen. La tomografía computarizada permite la evaluación de manera global del cuello. Se utiliza ante sospechas o diagnósticos confirmados de carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello. La resonancia magnética tiene utilidad en casos que requieren evaluación de un primario y el cuello, como cánceres de glándulas salivales, base de lengua, lengua oral o piso de boca. El PET-TC es un buen examen a la hora de evaluar un cáncer de cabeza y cuello de primario desconocido y posibles metástasis a distancia, como también cuando se quiere evaluar adenopatías persistentes postratamiento con radioquimioterapia. Tener una evaluación ordenada en el estudio de un linfonodo, por sobre todo con un uso adecuado del recurso imagenológico ayuda a no enlentecer el proceso diagnóstico y dar un diagnóstico y tratamiento más certero.


ABSTRACT In clinical practice, the study of cervical lymph nodes is common. The anamnesis and the physical examination often guide the etiology, however sometimes we have to use images studies. This is very relevant when we are assessing a metastatic lymph node due to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Ultrasound is usually used for the initial study of a cervical mass where the physician cannot determine its origin. The computed tomography allows a global evaluation of the neck. It is most often used when there is suspicion or confirmed diagnoses of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in cases that require evaluation of a primary neoplasm and the neck, such in salivary gland cancers, tongue base cancers, oral tongue or mouth floor tumors. PET-CT is a good test to evaluate head and neck cancers of unknown primary site and possible distant metastases, as well as evaluation of persistent adenopathies after treatment with radiochemotherapy. Having an organized evaluation in the study of a lymph node, with an adequate use of the imaging resource, helps not to hinder the diagnostic process and give an accurate diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/anatomy & histology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonics/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1270-1274, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is a common cancer that may present as superficial, invasive, or metastatic disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the majority of bladder cancer diagnoses, but represents a spectrum of disease with a variable clinical course, notably for significant risk of recurrence and potential for progression. NMIBC metastasis to distant organs without local invasion or regional metastasis is a very rare occurrence, so there are limited case reports about early metastasis in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(2): 67-70, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013851

ABSTRACT

El tumor desmoides es un tumor benigno raro, de origen fibroblastico no inflamatorio, algunas veces referido como fibromatosis no agresiva. Su etiología aún no está completamente clara, sin embargo, se asocia habitualmente a trauma previo y/o procedimientos quirúrgicos. La ubicación más frecuente es abdominal, el cual posee características imagenologicas claras, al igual que su presentación musculo esquelética plantar. La presentación fuera de estos lugares es infrecuente y difícil de diagnosticar. Presentamos un caso de un tumor desmoides cervical que genero un gran desafío diagnóstico, identificando sus claves diagnósticas y realizando una revisión de la bibliografía al respecto para esta ubicación.


Desmoid tumours are a rare benign tumour of fibroblastic non inflammatory origin, sometimes referred as non aggressive fibromatosis.The etiology is not yet completely clear, however, it is usually associated with previous trauma and / or surgical procedures. The most frequent location is in the abdomen, which has typical images characteristics, as well as its skeletal muscle presentation at the plantar level. The presentation outside these places is infrequent and difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a cervical desmoid tumour that generated a great diagnostic challenge, identifying its key imaging characteristics and performing a literature review of the bibliography regarding this location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Fibroma/surgery , Fibroma/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fibroma/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 297-302, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ultrasonography is the easiest non-invasive method to diagnose lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. However, since CT scans are often preferred in the evaluation of primary tumours of these patients, information about lymphatic metastases may also available in these patients. Therefore, ultrasound is not routinely employed in the evaluation of these patients. However, elastography technique, a recent development in ultrasound technology, could make use of ultrasonography in these patients even more widespread, even though it is still not widely used today. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic elastography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and scheduled for surgical treatment including neck dissection were included in the study. All patients underwent neck examination by palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography with contrast. To compare the diagnostic performance of palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography, the findings of each examination method were compared with the histopathological examination results of neck specimens. Results: 15 (65.2%) patients had a primary tumour in the larynx; 7 (30.4%) in the oral cavity; and 1 (4.3%) in the parotid. 7 (30.4%) out of 23 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection. In total, 30 neck dissections were hereby taken into account during study. Ultrasound elastography showed higher accuracy (83.3%) and higher sensitivity (82.4%) than palpation and computerized tomography, but the specificity of ultrasound elastography was lower (84.6%) than palpation and computerized tomography. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is helpful for the diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Due to its non-invasive character, it can be used safety in combination with other radiological techniques to support or improve their diagnostic performance.


Resumo Introdução: A ultrassonografia é o método mais fácil e não invasivo para diagnosticar metástases em linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, como as tomografias computadorizadas são frequentemente preferidas na avaliação de tumores primários desses pacientes, as informações sobre metástases linfáticas também se tornam disponíveis. Portanto, a ultrassonografia não faz parte da avaliação de rotina desses pacientes. Entretanto, a técnica de elastografia, um desenvolvimento mais recente na tecnologia de ultrassom, poderia tornar o uso da ultrassonografia mais difundido nesses pacientes, embora atualmente ainda não seja amplamente usado. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da elastografia ultrassonográfica no diagnóstico de metástases em linfonodos em casos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e com tratamento cirúrgico programado, inclusive esvaziamento cervical. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame cervical por palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Para comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada, os achados de cada método de exame foram comparados com os resultados do exame histopatológico de amostras obtidas do pescoço. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 15 (65,2%) apresentaram tumor primário na laringe; sete (30,4%) na cavidade oral; e um (4,3%) na parótida. Sete (30,4%) dos 23 pacientes foram submetidos a esvaziamento cervical bilateral. Foram considerados durante o estudo 30 pescoços. A elastografia ultrassonográfica mostrou maior acurácia (83,3%) e maior sensibilidade (82,4%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada, mas a especificidade da elastografia ultrassonográfica foi menor (84,6%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada. Conclusões: A elastografia ultrassonográfica é útil para o diagnóstico de metástases de linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Graças ao seu caráter não invasivo, pode ser usada com segurança em combinação com outras técnicas radiológicas para apoiar ou melhorar o desempenho diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180026, 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002493

ABSTRACT

Hemangioma é um tumor frequente, geralmente diagnosticado em crianças, constituindo quase 10% das neoplasias benignas. Um hemangioma com crescimento na parede de um vaso é extremamente raro, e deve ser diferenciado de outras malformações vasculares de mesma origem. Apresentamos um caso raro de hemangioma de veia jugular externa e discutimos sua propedêutica e manejo


Hemangioma is a common tumor, normally diagnosed in children, and accounting for almost 10% of benign neoplasms. A hemangioma arising from the wall of a vessel is rare, and must be differentiated from other vascular malformations of the same origin. We report a rare case of a hemangioma arising from the wall of an external jugular vein and discuss diagnostic work-up and management


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioma/therapy , Jugular Veins , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 161-166, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961609

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El angiofibroma nasofaríngeo es el tumor benigno más frecuente de la nasofaringe, representando el 0,05% del total de las neoplasias de cabeza y cuello. Los angiofibromas en localizaciones distintas a la nasofaringe son entidades raras. Ellos son descritos esporádicamente en la literatura, ubicándose principalmente en el seno maxilar. En este artículo presentamos un caso de fibroangioma extranasofaríngeo localizado en fosa temporal derecha seguido de una revisión de literatura.


ABSTRACT Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is the most common benign tumor of the nasopharynx, representing 0.05% of total neoplasms of the head and neck. Extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas are rare entities described sporadically in the literature, being located mainly in the maxillary sinus. We present a case of an extra-nasopharyngeal fibroangioma located in the right temporal fossa followed by a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Angiofibroma/radiotherapy , Angiofibroma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Angiofibroma/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 191-196, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961614

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los tumores de plexo braquial son poco frecuentes, representando menos del 5% de los tumores que afectan a las extremidades superiores. Suelen presentarse entre la tercera y quinta década de la vida como una masa palpable, que puede acompañarse de dolor, parestesias y déficit motor. A continuación, presentamos un caso de un schwannoma de plexo braquial tratado en nuestro servicio.


ABSTRACT Brachial plexus tumors are uncommon, accounting for less than 5% of tumors affecting the upper extremities. They usually present between the third and fifth decade of life as a palpable mass, which can be accompanied by pain, paresthesias and motor deficit. We present a case of a brachial plexus schwannoma treated in our service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Brachial Plexus , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neurilemmoma/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Neurilemmoma/pathology
15.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 221-227, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961619

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El PET-TC es un examen de alto costo y que expone a los pacientes a altas dosis de radiación comparado con las imágenes que habitualmente solicitamos, es por esto que hemos revisado la literatura, explicamos las bases de este tipo de examen, los rendimientos esperados, falsos positivos y negativos, asi como las recomendaciones internacionales para su correcto uso en los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello.


ABSTRACT The PET-CT is a high cost test that exposes patients to high doses of radiation compared to the images that we usually request, this is why we have reviewed the literature, we explain the bases of this type of examination, the expected, false positive and negative results, as well as international recommendations for its correct use in patients with head and neck cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography
16.
West Indian med. j ; 67(1): 25-30, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Paragangliomas are slow-growing tumours that present with varied clinical spectra. Early recognition is paramount in achieving reduced morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of data regarding head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGs) in the Caribbean literature. This study aimed to reflect the clinical experience in the management of HNPGs at two Jamaican tertiary referral centres: the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) and the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients presenting to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) departments of the UHWI in 2004-14 and of the KPH in 2012-14 with the diagnosis of a HNPG. Results: There were 15 patients, 1 male and 14 females. The average age at presentation was 47.1 years. The HNPGs in this series included eight patients with glomus tympanicum (GT, 53%), four with glomus jugulare (GJ, 27%), two with carotid body tumours (CBTs, 13%) and one with glomus vagale (GV, 7%). Eight patients underwent surgical resection (two CBTs, four GT and two GJ). Treatment outcomes achieved included: complete resection (four patients), stable with residual disease (two patients), and recurrence (two patients). Seven patients were awaiting definitive treatment, one patient with GJ was referred overseas, and one patient with GV defaulted. Conclusion: Glomus tympanicum is the most common HNPG in this series which contrasts with that of most international series. Despite the limitations within this region, such as limited access to angio-embolization and stereotactic modalities, the management outcomes are similar in some respects to the reported international literature.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Los paragangliomas son tumores de crecimiento lento que se presentan con variados espectros clínicos. Su detección precoz es fundamental para lograr una reducción de la morbilidad y la mortalidad. Hay escasez de datos con respecto a los paragangliomas de cabeza y cuello (PgCC) en la literatura del Caribe. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo reflejar la experiencia clínica en el tratamiento de PgCC en dos centros de remisión terciarios de Jamaica: jamaiquinos: el Hospital Público de Kingston (KPH) y el Hospital Universitario de UWI (HUWI). Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados con PgCC que acudieron a los Departamentos de Otorrinolaringología de HUWI en 2004-14 y de KPH en 2012-14. Resultados: Hubo 15 pacientes - 1 varón y 14 hembras. La edad promedio al momento de presentarse fue 47.1 años. El PgCC en esta serie incluyó a ocho pacientes con glomus timpánico (GT, 53%), cuatro con glomus yugular (GY, 27%), dos con tumores del cuerpo carotídeo (TCC, 13%), y uno con glomus vagal (GV, 7%). Ocho pacientes fueron sometidos a resección quirúrgica (dos TCC, cuatro GT, y dos GY). Los resultados logrados con el tratamiento incluyeron: resección total (cuatro pacientes), estables con enfermedad residual (dos pacientes), y recurrencia (dos pacientes). Siete pacientes esperaban un tratamiento definitivo, un paciente con GY fue remitido al extranjero, y un paciente con GV no se presentó. Conclusión: El glomus timpánico es el PgCC más común en esta serie que contrasta con el de la mayoría de las series internacionales. A pesar de las limitaciones dentro de esta región, tales como el acceso limitado a la angioembolización y las modalidades estereotácticas, los resultados del manejo de la enfermedad son similares en algunos aspectos a la literatura internacional reportada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Paraganglioma/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 194-200, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893210

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare autosomal dominant neurogenetic disease with variable clinical manifestations, which are primarily manifested as neurofibromas, café-au-lait macules (CALMs) and skeletal deformities. Although generally benign, expansile neurofibromas that are characteristic of NF1 readily lead to disturbing deformities. It is often difficult to surgically extirpate a tumor that involves these important tissues or organs. We report a rare case of a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1. The patient presented with a congenital giant scalp neurofibroma and CALMs in the occipito-cervical region, in addition to ear and occipital deformities. We performed a challenging surgical intervention (a near-total resection) to reduce the tumor burden and rehabilitate the appearance and function of the patient while preserving the intracranial tissue structure. Here, we review this case and analyze the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of NF1.


RESUMEN: La neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1) es una rara enfermedad neurogenética autosómica dominante, con manifestaciones clínicas variables, que se manifiestan principalmente como neurofibromas, máculas café con leche (CALM) y deformidades esqueléticas. Generalmente los neurofibromas expansivos benignos que son característicos de NF1 conducen fácilmente a deformidades exageradas. A menudo es difícil extirpar quirúrgicamente un tumor que involucra estos tejidos u órganos importantes. Presentamos un caso raro de un paciente con neurofibromatosis tipo 1. La paciente presentó un neurofibroma congénito gigante del cuero cabelludo y CALM en la región occipitocervical, además de deformidades del oido y región occipital. Realizamos una intervención quirúrgica desafiante (una resección casi total) para reducir la carga tumoral y rehabilitar la apariencia y función de la paciente mientras se preservó la estructura del tejido intracraneal. Aquí, revisamos este caso y analizamos las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de NF1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Neurofibromatosis 1/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
18.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(4): 407-411, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902795

ABSTRACT

Dentro de los quistes cervicales congénitos los quistes branquiales son los segundos en frecuencia luego del quiste tirogloso, representando el 24% de los casos. De éstos, los quistes de segundo arco branquial son los más frecuentes con 90%-95% de los casos. Se presentan en un amplio rango de edad siendo comúnmente diagnosticados en niños mayores y adultos, cuya primera manifestación clínica puede ser un aumento de volumen relativamente brusco por infección. Se presenta el caso clínico de un recién nacido (RN) que debuta a las 48 horas de vida con estridor y dificultad para la alimentación oral. El estudio de imágenes con tomografía computarizada (TC) y resonancia magnética (RM) muestran una lesión quística del espacio parafaríngeo derecho que se proyecta hacia nasofaringe y orofaringe. Se realiza la exéresis de la lesión vía transoral. Biopsia rápida y diferida confirman diagnóstico de quiste branquial. Se revisa literatura sobre quistes de segundo arco branquial de ubicación en el espacio parafaríngeo siendo muy pocos los casos reportados.


Within the congenital cervical necks, the branchial cleft cyst are the second in the frequency after the shooting, accounting for 24% of the cases. Of the Second branchial cleft cyst are with the most frequent with 90-95% of the cases. It occurs in a wide range of ages and is commonly diagnosed in older children and adults, whose first clinical manifestation may be an increase in volume after infection. We present a clinical case of newborn that debuts at 48 hours of life with stridor and difficulty for oral feeding. The imaging study with Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) show a cystic lesion of the right parapharyngeal space projecting into the nasopharynx and oropharynx. The excision of the transoral lesion is performed. Frozen biopsy and diagnostic biopsy demonstrating a branchial cyst. We review the literature on the second branchial cleft cyst of the location in the parapharyngeal space with very few reported cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Branchioma/surgery , Branchioma/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Branchioma/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 115-118, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors’ preliminary experience.


RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/diagnostic imaging , Pelvic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Multimodal Imaging/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Neuroimaging/methods , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159509

ABSTRACT

Liposarcoma is one of the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, comprising approximately 15% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. First described by “Virchow” in 1857, it has been extensively reported in the literature, although its incidence remains exceedingly rare in the head and neck region with an annual incidence estimated to be 2.5/1 million inhabitants in population-based studies. It is one of the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, comprising approximately 15% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. It is a heterogeneous disease with distinct sub-entities presenting with differential clinical behavior. The purpose of this article is to report an additional case of liposarcoma of the buccal vestibule and to review the literature.


Subject(s)
Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Liposarcoma/diagnosis , Liposarcoma/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue/diagnosis , Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue/epidemiology , Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Review Literature as Topic , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Sarcoma/epidemiology , Sarcoma/diagnostic imaging
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