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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021361, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360149

ABSTRACT

Cervical thymic cysts are relatively rare benign cystic lesions that tend to be diagnosed clinically as branchial cysts, which usually present as painless, enlarging neck masses. They can occur anywhere along the normal path of descent of thymic primordia from the angle of the mandible to the sternal notch, with mediastinal extension observed in approximately 50% of cases. They are usually seen in the first decade of life on the left side with a male predominance. Here we report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented to the hospital with left-sided neck swelling for about 2 months. The neck's contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed a large, well-defined cystic swelling in the left neck region, showing peripheral enhancement, seen from the submandibular region to the superior mediastinum extending into the retrosternal region. Direct fine needle aspiration (FNA) was done, which showed a benign lesion with inflammatory and cystic characteristics, leading to the possibility of a branchial cyst. The cyst was completely excised surgically. Histopathology showed a thymic cyst with parathyroid tissue. The presence of thymic tissue with Hassall's corpuscles is essential for the diagnosis. Knowledge of the clinical presentation, cyto-histological findings, and differential diagnosis of cystic cervical lesions in the pediatric population is important to diagnose this rare entity. Hence, though uncommon, when one comes across a cystic cervical region mass in children, a diagnosis of cervical thymic cyst should be kept in mind. Nonetheless, a definitive diagnosis depends on imaging findings as well as intraoperative findings and histopathological examination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Mediastinal Cyst/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e24820, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348511

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O carcinoma de células escamosas de cavidade oral e orofaringe é uma neoplasia epitelial maligna comum, respondendo pela maioria dos casos de tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Ele está relacionado a hábitos comportamentais, como tabagismo e etilismo de longa duração, e à infecção pelo Papilomavírus humano. Objetivos:Esse estudo objetivou descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes diagnosticados com essa neoplasia na Liga Mossoroense de Estudos e Combate ao Câncer. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional com delineamento transversal a partir de dados presentes nos prontuários clínicos e laudos anatomopatológicos e no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade no período entre 2006 a 2018. Os dados foram analisados a partir do Software R, utilizandoo teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para as análises inferenciais e o método de Kaplan-Meier para análise da sobrevida. Resultados:225 prontuários foram analisados, sendo 70,22% de homens, 65,33% na faixa etária entre 46-70 anos e cor branca (51,57%). Destes, 25,78% eram tabagistas e 39,11% tabagistas e etilistas. O principal tratamento identificado foi a associação de cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Observou-se que 49,10% dos óbitos foram em decorrência dessa neoplasia. O principal estádio patológico encontrado foi o quatro A (34,22%). Foi identificada maior sobrevida nos pacientes acima de 70 anos, cujo tratamento foi exclusivamente cirúrgico. Menor sobrevida foi identificada em indivíduos que tinham associação de hábitos (etilismo e tabagismo). Conclusões:Nossos resultados sugerem que a evolução à óbito foi o principal desfecho clínico e, isso pode estar relacionado aos hábitos comportamentais que influenciam diretamente o curso e prognóstico da doença. Ademais, destaca-se a importância do diagnóstico precoce a fim de reduzir óbitos e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos, assim como a necessidade de implementar políticas educativas sobre os principais fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento dessa neoplasia (AU).


Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx is a common malignant epithelial neoplasm, accounting for most cases of head and neck tumors. It is related to behavioral habits, such as long-standing smoking and alcoholism, as well as to the human Papillomavirus infection. Objectives: This study aimed at describing the epidemiological profile of the patients diagnosed with this neoplasm in the Mossoró League for Studying and Combating Cancer. Methodology:An observational study with a cross-sectional design was carried out based on data present in the medical records and anatomopathological reports and in the Mortality Information System during the 2006-2018 period. The data were analyzed using the R Software, resorting to the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitneytest for the inferential analyses and to the Kaplan-Meier method for survival analysis. Results: 225 medical records were analyzed: 70.22% belonging to men, 65.33% aged between 46 and 70 years old and white-skinned (51.57%). Of these, 25.78% were smokers and 39.11% were smokers and alcoholics. The main treatment identified was the association of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It was observed that 49.10% of the deaths were due to this neoplasm. The main pathological stage found wasfour A(34.22%).Longer survival was identified in patients over 70 years of age, whose treatment was exclusively surgical. Shorter survival was identified in individuals who had associated habits (alcoholism and smoking). Conclusions:Our results suggest that evolution to death was the main clinical outcome; this can be related to the behavioral habits that exert a direct influence on the course and prognosis of the disease. Furthermore, the importance of early diagnosis is highlighted in order to reduce the number of deaths and improve the individuals' quality of life, as well as the need to implement educational policies on the main risk factors associated with the development of this neoplasm (AU).


Introducción: El carcinoma de células escamosas de la cavidad oral y la orofaringe es una neoplasia epitelial maligna común, que representa la mayoría de los casos de tumores de cabeza y cuello. Se relaciona con hábitos de comportamiento, como el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo, y la infección por el virus papiloma humano. Objetivos:Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes diagnosticados con esta neoplasiaen la Liga Mossoroense de Estudios y Combate al Cáncer. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal a partir de los datos presentes en las historias clínicas e informes patológicos y en el Sistema de Información de Mortalidad en el período 2006-2018. Los datos se analizaron mediante el Software R, con utilización de la Prueba de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para análisis inferencial y el método de Kaplan-Meier para análisis de supervivencia. Resultados:Se analizaron 225 historias clínicas, 70,22% en hombres, 65,33% con edades entre 46-70 años y blancos (51,57%). De estos, 25,78% eran fumadores y 39,11% eran fumadores y alcohólicos. El principal tratamiento identificado fue la asociación de cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia. 49,10% de las muertes se debieron a esta neoplasia. El principal estadio patológico encontrado fue cuatro A (34,22%). Se identificó mayor sobrevida en pacientes mayores de 70 años, cuyo tratamiento fue exclusivamente quirúrgico. Se identificó una menor sobrevida en personas que tenían hábitos asociados. Conclusiones:Nuestros resultados sugieren que la evolución hacia la muerte fue el principal resultado clínico y esto puede estar relacionado con hábitos de comportamiento que influyen directamente en el curso y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Además, se destaca la importancia del diagnóstico precoz para reducir las muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida, así como la necesidad de implementar políticas educativas sobre los principales factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de esta neoplasia (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Survival Analysis , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Papillomavirus Infections , Research Report , Smokers
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e24554, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348513

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O câncer de cabeça e pescoço é um conjunto de neoplasias que atingem o trato aero digestivo superior. Essas neoplasias apresentam sintomatologia variada, que depende da localização do tumor, gravidade e tempo de ocorrência. Objetivo:Avaliar o nível de conhecimento da população, usuária da atenção básica, acerca da prevenção e tratamento dos Cânceres de Cabeça e Pescoço.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo de campo transversal descritivo, em que se coletou informações acerca do conhecimento sobre cânceres de cabeça e pescoço, informações sociodemográficas, histórico familiar, características clínicas e de tratamentos. A coleta foi realizada em julho de 2019, em três Estratégias de Saúde da Família da cidade de Piripiri,Piauí. A pesquisa foi submetida e aprovadapelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa com o Parecer nº 3.221.522.Resultadose discussão:A maioria dos entrevistados foram mulheres solteiras com idade média de 44,4 anos e de baixa renda. Dentre os questionamentos realizados, grande parte não soube responderquestões sobre conhecimentos gerais a respeito dessas enfermidades. Outro fator importante é a baixa procura por serviços de saúde. Conclusões:Observou-se que os entrevistados apresentam desinformação a respeito da prevenção e tratamento desse grupo de cânceres, sendo necessário o fortalecimento de ações de educação popular em saúde (AU).


Introduction:Head and neck cancer is a group of neoplasms that affect the upper aerodigestive tract. These neoplasms have varied symptoms, depending on the location of the tumor, severity and time of occurrence.Objective:To assess the level of knowledge of the population, users of primary care, about the prevention and treatment of Head and Neck Cancer. Methodology:This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, in which information about knowledge about head and neck cancers, sociodemographic information, family history, clinical and treatment characteristics was collected. The collection was carried out in July 2019, in three Family Health Strategies in the city of Piripiri, Piauí. The research was submitted and approved by theResearch Ethics Committee with Opinion No. 3,221,522. Resultsand discussion:Most of the interviewees were single women with an average age of 44.4 years and low income. Among the questions asked, most of them did not know how to answer questions about general knowledge about these diseases. Another important factor is the low demand for health services. Conclusions:It was observed that the interviewees have misinformation regarding the prevention and treatment of this group of cancers, and it is necessary to strengthen popular health education actions (AU).


Introducción:El cáncer de cabeza y cuello es un grupo de neoplasias que afectan el tracto aerodigestivo superior. Estas neoplasias tienen síntomas variados, que dependen de la ubicación del tumor, la gravedad y el momento de aparición. Objetivo:Evaluar el nivel de conocimiento de la población, usuarios de la atención primaria de salud, sobre la prevención y el tratamiento del Cáncer de Cabeza y Cuello. Metodología:Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el que se recopiló información sobre conocimientos sobre cánceres de cabeza y cuello, información sociodemográfica, antecedentes familiares, características clínicas y de tratamiento. La recolección se realizó en julio de 2019, en tres Estrategias de Salud de la Familia en la ciudad de Piripiri, Piauí. La investigación fue sometida y aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Opinión No. 3.221.522. Resultados y discusión:La mayoría de los encuestados eran mujeres solteras con una edad promedio de 44,4 años y bajos ingresos. Entre las preguntas formuladas, la mayoría de ellos no sabía cómo responder preguntas sobre conocimientos generales sobre estas enfermedades. Otro factor importante es la baja demanda de servicios de salud. Conclusiones:Se observó que los entrevistados tienen desinformación sobre la prevención y tratamiento de este grupo de cánceres, y es necesario fortalecer las acciones de educación popular en salud (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Primary Health Care , Primary Prevention , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Education , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Prevention
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021251, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285418

ABSTRACT

Introduction Squamous carcinoma is the commonest malignancy of the head and neck region. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates downstream signaling pathways through its tyrosine kinase (TK) domains that play a role in cell proliferation and survival. EGFR mutations have been found to occur between exons 18 to 21 on chromosome 7. Limited studies are available on EGFR-TK mutations in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) globally. This study explores EGFR mutations in 30 HNSCC cases presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of two years. Material and Methods Fresh tumor tissue was collected from the resection specimens of cases of primary HNSCC. Cases with pre-operative therapy were not included. Parameters in the form of patients' age, gender, smoking/tobacco intake, site of the lesion were recorded. Tumor parameters after histopathological examination were recorded in the form of TNM stage, tumor grade. DNA was extracted from fresh tissue of all the cases. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit assay was used to detect mutations of the EGFR gene. PCR was run and results were analyzed. Results EGFR Mutations were found in 6.7%of the patients. There was no significant association of the EGFR Mutation with the studied parameters. Conclusion EGFR mutations are present in a subset of patients of HNSCC. Patients having these mutations may benefit from targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genes, erbB-1 , ErbB Receptors , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Reference Parameters
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020216, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142395

ABSTRACT

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a rare mesenchymal soft tissue benign neoplasm with an uncertain line of differentiation, which arises most frequently in extremities. The head and neck region involvement is uncommon, with only ten intraoral cases published in the English-language literature. One additional case of OFMT is reported here, including a literature review of intraoral reported cases. A 45-year-old female patient presented a painless nodule involving the buccal mucosa of approximately two years duration, measuring nearly 1.3 cm in maximum diameter. The main histopathological features include ovoid to round cells embedded in a fibromyxoid matrix with a perpheral shell of lamellar bone. Immunohistochemically, the tumor showed immunoreactivity for vimentin and S100. No recurrence has been detected after 7 years of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 334-343, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144898

ABSTRACT

Resumen El paraganglioma (PG) es una neoplasia infrecuente originada de las células paraganglionares, embriológicamente derivadas de la cresta neural. Se localizan en la cabeza, base de cráneo, cuello, mediastino, abdomen y pelvis. La mayor parte de los PG muestran un curso clínico benigno, sin embargo, algunos casos pueden mostrar un comportamiento biológico agresivo con invasión local y metástasis a distancia. Un avance significativo en patología molecular ha sido el reconocimiento que el 30%-40% de estas neoplasias presentan alteraciones genéticas. Se han descrito más de 45 genes involucrados, incluyendo mutaciones de la línea germinal succinato deshidrogenasa. Actualmente se recomienda hacer test genético a todos los portadores de PG incluyendo los de presentación esporádica. El PG más frecuente se ubica en la glándula suprarrenal llamado feocromocitoma. El diagnóstico definitivo se realiza con histología, sin embargo, el estudio imagenológico puede entregar una aproximación diagnóstica certera. Debido a la aceptación actual que todos los PG tienen potencial metastásico, el concepto de PG benigno y maligno ha cambiado a uno de estimación de riesgo de metástasis, aunque no existe un esquema único aceptado para tal efecto. El tratamiento considera la cirugía, la radioterapia, la observación y terapias combinadas. Dado el lento crecimiento de este tipo de neoplasia y las potenciales complicaciones de la terapia quirúrgica, la observación es una opción especialmente para pacientes añosos dejando las otras opciones para pacientes más jóvenes. En este trabajo se presenta un caso de paraganglioma yugular bilateral gigante tratado con radioterapia de intensidad modulada incluyendo una revisión bibliográfica pertinente.


Abstract Paraganglioma (PG) is a rare neoplasm derived from paraganglionic cells of the neural crest. They are located in the head, skull base, neck, mediastinum, abdomen and pelvis. Most PGs show a benign clinical course, however, some cases may show aggressive biological behavior with local invasion and distant metastasis. A significant advance in molecular pathology has been the recognition that 30%-40% of these neoplasms present genetic alterations; more than 45 genes have been described, including mutations of the germline succinate dehydrogenase. Currently it is recommended to make genetic test to all patients with PG, including sporadic presentation. The most frequent PG is located in the adrenal gland called pheochromocytoma. The definitive diagnosis is made with histology; however, the imaging study can provide an accurate diagnostic approach. It is now accepted that all PG have a metastatic potential, therefore the concept of benign or malignant has been changed to a metastasis risk stratification approach however no single scheme is been widely used. The treatment considers surgery, radiotherapy, observation and combination therapies. Given the slow growth of this type of neoplasia and the potential complications of surgical therapy, observation is an option especially for elderly patients leaving the other options for younger patients. In this work we present a case of giant bilateral jugular paraganglioma treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy, including a pertinent literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Paraganglioma/pathology , Glomus Jugulare Tumor/pathology , Neck/pathology , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Glomus Jugulare Tumor/genetics , Glomus Jugulare Tumor/radiotherapy , Glomus Jugulare Tumor/therapy , Glomus Jugulare Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Metastasis
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(3): 367-375, set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144902

ABSTRACT

Resumen En adultos, una masa cervical detectada mediante examen físico o un estudio de imagen puede ser la única manifestación de un cáncer proveniente de cabeza y cuello. Un retraso en el diagnóstico repercute en el pronóstico de la enfermedad, por lo que debe haber un alto índice de sospecha. Las metástasis cervicales con primario desconocido (MCCPD) son tumores metastásicos en los que el estudio diagnóstico no logró identificar el sitio primario del cáncer, con una histología predominantemente de tipo escamosa. Según algunos estudios, el origen más frecuente resultó ser la orofaringe, incluyendo amígdala palatina y base de lengua. Factores de riesgo conocidos son edades avanzadas, consumo de tabaco y de alcohol. Actualmente, la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) está teniendo un rol cada vez más importante como factor de riesgo, formando parte de entre 20%-25% de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello. Al enfrentarse a un paciente con masa cervical es importante realizar una completa anamnesis y examen físico acucioso para detectar cualquier elemento sugerente de malignidad. Se debe complementar con nasofibroscopía para visualizar estructuras que no alcanzan a evaluarse en el examen habitual. También se puede orientar la búsqueda del primario desconocido en base a los patrones de drenaje linfático. Dentro del estudio complementario se puede comenzar con una tomografía computada (TC) y se puede considerar también el ultrasonido o un PET/TC. Si con esto aún no se logra definir el primario, continuar con una punción aspirativa con aguja fina (PAAF), luego biopsia core que consiste en tomar una muestra del centro de la lesión guiada por ecografía, si fuese necesario, incluyendo inmunohistoquímica para VPH; ambos estudios histológicos son preferibles en vez de una biopsia abierta debido al menor riesgo de diseminación y complicaciones. El siguiente paso incluye estudio endoscópico y biopsias bajo anestesia. El tratamiento de los pacientes con MCCPD, va a depender de factores relacionados con el estadio de la enfermedad: desde cirugía o radioterapia (RT) únicas, cirugía más RT, y en algunos casos quimioterapia. Se recomienda seguimiento clínico frecuente durante los primeros años y con imágenes dentro de los 6 primeros meses postratamiento.


Abstract In adults, a cervical mass detected by physical examination or an imaging study may be the only manifestation of cancer from the head and neck. A delay in the diagnosis affects the prognosis of the disease, so there must be a high index of suspicion. Cervical metastases from unknown primary tumor (CUP) are metastatic tumors in which the diagnostic study failed to identify the primary site of cancer, with predominantly squamous histology. According to some studies, the most frequent origin was the oropharynx, including palatine tonsil and tongue base. Known risk factors are advanced ages, tobacco and alcohol consumption. Currently, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is playing an increasingly important role as a risk factor, being the cause of between 20-25% of cancers of the head and neck. When confronting a patient with cervical mass it is important to carry out a complete anamnesis and a thorough physical examination to detect any element suggestive of malignancy. Physical examination could be complemented with a flexible nasal endoscopic to evaluate structures that can not be evaluated in the habitual examination. The search for the unknown primary can also be oriented based on lymphatic drainage patterns. Within the complementary evaluations, one can start with a study of images such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast, and also could consider ultrasound or PET/CT. If the primary can not be defined yet, fine needle aspiration (FNAP) can be the next choice and then a core biopsy that consisting of taking a sample from the center of the ultrasound-guided lesion, if necessary, including immunohistochemistry for HPV; both histological studies are preferable to an open biopsy because of the lower risk of complications. The next step searching for the primary includes endoscopic study and biopsies under anesthesia. Regarding to the management of patients with CUP, it will depend on factors related to the stage of the disease: from surgery or radiotherapy (RT) only, surgery and RT, and in some cases chemotherapy. Frequent clinical follow-up is recommended during the first years and images within the first 6 months after treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neck
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133733

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is used to provide enteral nutritional support for patients with obstructive oropharyngeal or esophageal neoplasms. The placement of the catheter is considered safe, with few complications. Despite this, a specific complication that is considered rare, has been increasingly described in the literature, i.e., metastasis of head and neck cancer in the gastrostomy stoma. In this report, we described a case of metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in the gastrostomy site, and discussed the possible etiologies and alternatives, seeking to reduce the incidence of this complication.


RESUMO A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea é utilizada para oferecer suporte nutricional enteral para pacientes com neoplasias obstrutivas de orofaringe ou esôfago. A colocação da sonda é considerada segura, com poucas complicações. Apesar disso, uma complicação em particular, considerada rara, está sendo cada vez mais descrita na literatura: a metástase de neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço para o estoma da gastrostomia. Neste relato, descrevemos um caso de metástase de carcinoma espinocelular de laringe para o sítio da gastrostomia, e discutimos as possíveis etiologias e alternativas, buscando diminuir a incidência desta complicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/secondary , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e009, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055527

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sense of coherence (SOC) is a measure of global orientation regarding the ability of individuals to cope with stressful situations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between SOC and quality of life (QoL) and clinical and sociodemographic characteristics among survivors of oral, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 90 cancer patients in follow up at the Santa Maria University Hospital in southern Brazil who had completed conformal 3D radiotherapy at least three months earlier. QoL was assessed using the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaire and SOC was measured using the Brazilian version of the SOC-13 questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and the disease were obtained from patients' charts. Oral clinical conditions were also evaluated. Associations between exploratory variables and mean UW-QOL scores were evaluated through Poisson regression and the results were presented as rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean overall UW-QOL score was 67.90 (± 18.71). Moderate and high SOC scores were associated with higher mean UW-QOL scores, that is, individuals with a stronger SOC demonstrated better QoL, (p < 0.05). Regarding the clinical variables, individuals with advanced stage cancer and those with hyposalivation and trismus had poorer QoL (p < 0.05). Patients with a greater SOC reported a better quality of life. Our findings show the importance of focusing on psychosocial factors, which can alleviate the impact caused by the disease and improve the QoL of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/psychology , Sense of Coherence , Head and Neck Neoplasms/psychology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Trismus/psychology , Xerostomia/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e009, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sense of coherence (SOC) is a measure of global orientation regarding the ability of individuals to cope with stressful situations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between SOC and quality of life (QoL) and clinical and sociodemographic characteristics among survivors of oral, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 90 cancer patients in follow up at the Santa Maria University Hospital in southern Brazil who had completed conformal 3D radiotherapy at least three months earlier. QoL was assessed using the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaire and SOC was measured using the Brazilian version of the SOC-13 questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and the disease were obtained from patients' charts. Oral clinical conditions were also evaluated. Associations between exploratory variables and mean UW-QOL scores were evaluated through Poisson regression and the results were presented as rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean overall UW-QOL score was 67.90 (± 18.71). Moderate and high SOC scores were associated with higher mean UW-QOL scores, that is, individuals with a stronger SOC demonstrated better QoL, (p < 0.05). Regarding the clinical variables, individuals with advanced stage cancer and those with hyposalivation and trismus had poorer QoL (p < 0.05). Patients with a greater SOC reported a better quality of life. Our findings show the importance of focusing on psychosocial factors, which can alleviate the impact caused by the disease and improve the QoL of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/psychology , Sense of Coherence , Head and Neck Neoplasms/psychology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Trismus/psychology , Xerostomia/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200094, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Poor oral hygiene, regular use of mouthwash and absence of visits to the dentist could correspond to potential risk factors for the development of head and neck cancer. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether oral hygiene is associated with the occurrence of oral cavity and head and neck cancer in a Brazilian sample. Method: The variables of oral hygiene condition, such as toothbrushing frequency, dental loss, need and use of prosthesis, and regular visit to the dentist in a case-control study were analyzed in patients from five hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, paired by gender and age, from the multicenter project Genoma do Câncer de Cabeça e Pescoço (GENCAPO). Results: The most frequent malignancies in the 899 patients included were those of the tongue border (11.41%) and tongue base (10.92%). The multivariable statistical analysis found odds ratio values: Brushing once 0.33 (95%CI 0.25 - 0.44); Brushing twice 0.42 (95%CI 0.35 - 0.52); Flossing always 0.19 (95%CI 0.13 - 0.27); Flossing sometimes 0.19 (95%CI 0.15 - 0.24); Bleeding 2.40 (95%CI 1.40 - 4.09); Prosthesis 1.99 (95%CI 1.54 - 2.56); Visiting the dentist 0.29 (95%CI 0.22 - 0.37); Good hygiene 0.21 (95%CI 0.17 - 0.27); Regular hygiene 0.20 (95%CI 0.15 - 0.25); number of missing teeth (6 or more) 3.30 (95%CI 2.67 - 4.08). Conclusion: These data showed that, in the population studied, indicators of good hygiene such as brushing teeth and flossing were protective factors for mouth and head and neck cancer, while bleeding and many missing teeth were risk factors.


RESUMO: Introdução: Má higiene bucal, uso regular de enxaguante bucal e ausência de visitas ao dentista podem corresponder a potenciais fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Objetivo: Determinar se a higiene bucal está associada à ocorrência de câncer em cavidade oral e cabeça e pescoço em uma amostra brasileira. Método: O estudo caso controle analisou variáveis de higiene bucal, como frequência de escovação, perda dentária, necessidade e uso de prótese e visita regular ao dentista em pacientes de cinco hospitais do estado de São Paulo, pareados por sexo e idade, provenientes do projeto multicêntrico Genoma do Câncer de Cabeça e Pescoço (GENCAPO). Resultados: As neoplasias mais frequentes nos 899 pacientes incluídos foram: bordo de língua (11,41%) e base de língua (10,92%). A análise estatística múltipla encontrou os seguintes valores de odds ratio: escovar uma vez 0,33 (IC95% 0,25 - 0,44); escovar duas vezes 0,42 (IC95% 0,35 - 0,52); uso de fio dental sempre 0,19 (IC95% 0,13 - 0,27); uso de fio dental às vezes 0,19 (IC95% 0,15 - 0,24); sangramento 2,40 (IC95% 1,40 - 4,09); prótese 1,99 (IC95% 1,54 - 2,56), visita ao dentista 0,29 (IC95% 0,22 - 0,37); boa higiene 0,21 (IC95% 0,17 - 0,27); higiene regular 0,20 (IC95% 0,15 - 0,25); e número de dentes ausentes (6 ou mais) 3,30 (IC95% 2,67 - 4,08). Conclusões: Esses dados mostraram que, na população estudada, indicadores de boa higiene, como escovar os dentes e uso do fio dental, foram fatores de proteção para o câncer de boca e cabeça e pescoço, enquanto sangramento e muitos dentes ausentes foram fatores de risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Toothbrushing , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135533

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the relationship between tobacco and alcohol consumption and staging of head and neck cancer in patients treated at a referral hospital for cancer treatment. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on medical records of patients with head and neck cancer treated between 2008 and 2015. The following variables were considered: gender, age, marital status, educational level, place of residence, profession, affected site, clinical staging of neoplasms, histopathological diagnosis, tobacco and alcohol consumption. Results: Of the 154 medical records analyzed, there was a predominance of male patients (72.7%), single (50%), with low education (88.1%), rural workers (38.3%), residents in the state countryside (70.2%) and aged 20-94 years. T3 and T4 size tumors prevailed. A significant correlation was found between alcohol use and tumor size (p=0.03) and presence of nodules (p<0.001), as well as between alcohol use and smoking with tumor size (p=0.04) and presence of nodules (p=0.019). No correlations were observed between tobacco use and injury staging. Conclusion: There was strong significance between tumor size and presence of nodules, both with the use of alcohol alone and with tobacco, thus suggesting the existence of important carcinogenic action of this substance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Factors , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Rural Workers , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies
13.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019116, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024253

ABSTRACT

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. It generally has an indolent course with low rates of metastasis and mortality. However, BCC is locally invasive and can cause significant morbidity due to destructive local spread. We report our experience with a patient who was referred to our skin cancer unit due to a previously neglected lesion on the parietal region of the scalp, which had developed for 7 years. The patient was prescribed vismodegib on the basis that surgery could cause excessive functional and aesthetic damage. The patient had an objective partial response after 20 months of treatment. He was then submitted to radical skin excision, leaving a large defect that was reconstructed using a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The patient recovered well, and at the 1-year follow-up there were no signs of local recurrence. Our case demonstrates the value of vismodegib treatment prior to surgery in a locally advanced, high-risk scalp BCC and highlights the importance of an individualized and specialized approach with these patients, within a multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Care Team , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1270-1274, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is a common cancer that may present as superficial, invasive, or metastatic disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the majority of bladder cancer diagnoses, but represents a spectrum of disease with a variable clinical course, notably for significant risk of recurrence and potential for progression. NMIBC metastasis to distant organs without local invasion or regional metastasis is a very rare occurrence, so there are limited case reports about early metastasis in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
15.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(3): e2019109, July-Sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021053

ABSTRACT

Primary intraosseous non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the mandible is uncommon, representing about 0.6% of all extranodal lymphomas. We present the case of a 51-year-old male with a 4-month complaint of mandibular swelling and paresthesia, which had been previously submitted to an unsuccessful periodontal treatment. The intra-oral evaluation showed an extensive swelling with teeth mobility in the right mandible body. The panoramic radiography and computed tomography images showed an extensive osteolytic lesion. An incisional biopsy was performed and the histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis established the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The treatment included six cycles of chemotherapy with complete remission. The patient is under the seventh month of follow-up with no evidence of relapse. Although uncommon in the oral cavity, lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Oral Medicine , Diagnosis, Differential , Mandible
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 297-302, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Ultrasonography is the easiest non-invasive method to diagnose lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. However, since CT scans are often preferred in the evaluation of primary tumours of these patients, information about lymphatic metastases may also available in these patients. Therefore, ultrasound is not routinely employed in the evaluation of these patients. However, elastography technique, a recent development in ultrasound technology, could make use of ultrasonography in these patients even more widespread, even though it is still not widely used today. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of sonographic elastography in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer and scheduled for surgical treatment including neck dissection were included in the study. All patients underwent neck examination by palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography with contrast. To compare the diagnostic performance of palpation, ultrasound elastography and computerized tomography, the findings of each examination method were compared with the histopathological examination results of neck specimens. Results: 15 (65.2%) patients had a primary tumour in the larynx; 7 (30.4%) in the oral cavity; and 1 (4.3%) in the parotid. 7 (30.4%) out of 23 patients underwent bilateral neck dissection. In total, 30 neck dissections were hereby taken into account during study. Ultrasound elastography showed higher accuracy (83.3%) and higher sensitivity (82.4%) than palpation and computerized tomography, but the specificity of ultrasound elastography was lower (84.6%) than palpation and computerized tomography. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is helpful for the diagnosis of lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer. Due to its non-invasive character, it can be used safety in combination with other radiological techniques to support or improve their diagnostic performance.


Resumo Introdução: A ultrassonografia é o método mais fácil e não invasivo para diagnosticar metástases em linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, como as tomografias computadorizadas são frequentemente preferidas na avaliação de tumores primários desses pacientes, as informações sobre metástases linfáticas também se tornam disponíveis. Portanto, a ultrassonografia não faz parte da avaliação de rotina desses pacientes. Entretanto, a técnica de elastografia, um desenvolvimento mais recente na tecnologia de ultrassom, poderia tornar o uso da ultrassonografia mais difundido nesses pacientes, embora atualmente ainda não seja amplamente usado. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel da elastografia ultrassonográfica no diagnóstico de metástases em linfonodos em casos de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 23 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de cabeça e pescoço e com tratamento cirúrgico programado, inclusive esvaziamento cervical. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame cervical por palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada com contraste. Para comparar o desempenho diagnóstico da palpação, elastografia ultrassonográfica e tomografia computadorizada, os achados de cada método de exame foram comparados com os resultados do exame histopatológico de amostras obtidas do pescoço. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 15 (65,2%) apresentaram tumor primário na laringe; sete (30,4%) na cavidade oral; e um (4,3%) na parótida. Sete (30,4%) dos 23 pacientes foram submetidos a esvaziamento cervical bilateral. Foram considerados durante o estudo 30 pescoços. A elastografia ultrassonográfica mostrou maior acurácia (83,3%) e maior sensibilidade (82,4%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada, mas a especificidade da elastografia ultrassonográfica foi menor (84,6%) do que a palpação e a tomografia computadorizada. Conclusões: A elastografia ultrassonográfica é útil para o diagnóstico de metástases de linfonodos em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Graças ao seu caráter não invasivo, pode ser usada com segurança em combinação com outras técnicas radiológicas para apoiar ou melhorar o desempenho diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 25(2): 67-70, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013851

ABSTRACT

El tumor desmoides es un tumor benigno raro, de origen fibroblastico no inflamatorio, algunas veces referido como fibromatosis no agresiva. Su etiología aún no está completamente clara, sin embargo, se asocia habitualmente a trauma previo y/o procedimientos quirúrgicos. La ubicación más frecuente es abdominal, el cual posee características imagenologicas claras, al igual que su presentación musculo esquelética plantar. La presentación fuera de estos lugares es infrecuente y difícil de diagnosticar. Presentamos un caso de un tumor desmoides cervical que genero un gran desafío diagnóstico, identificando sus claves diagnósticas y realizando una revisión de la bibliografía al respecto para esta ubicación.


Desmoid tumours are a rare benign tumour of fibroblastic non inflammatory origin, sometimes referred as non aggressive fibromatosis.The etiology is not yet completely clear, however, it is usually associated with previous trauma and / or surgical procedures. The most frequent location is in the abdomen, which has typical images characteristics, as well as its skeletal muscle presentation at the plantar level. The presentation outside these places is infrequent and difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a cervical desmoid tumour that generated a great diagnostic challenge, identifying its key imaging characteristics and performing a literature review of the bibliography regarding this location.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Fibroma/surgery , Fibroma/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fibroma/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 172-177, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015180

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute carotid blowout syndrome (aCBS) is a severe complication of head and neck cancer (HNC). It can be defined as a rupture of the extracranial carotid arteries, or one of their branches, that causes life-threatening hemorrhage, and which nowadays can be treated with urgent endovascular intervention. Objective: We retrospectively evaluate the endovascular management of aCBS and its outcome in years of survival. Methods: Retrospectively, we describe our experience with endovascular control of aCBS in patients treated for HNC. We review the characteristics, pathology, endovascular treatment and morbidity and assess the gain in life years. Results: Nine individuals were included in this study. Four patients had been previously diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one with paranasal SCC, one with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and three with oral or maxillary adenocarcinoma. All subjects underwent radiotherapy and surgical excision to different extents. Twelve endovascular procedures were performed for injuries to the internal carotid artery (n = 3; 25%), external carotid artery (n = 1; 7%) or one of their branches (n = 8; 67%). Deconstructive methods were used in nine procedures, and three procedures were mainly reconstructive with deployment of covered stents. Total control of bleeding was achieved in all individuals with no intraprocedural complications. Conclusion: Endovascular therapy is an effective alternative for the management of exsanguinating CBS. In our series, this palliative therapy increased the overall patient survival by an estimated 9 months (AU)


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Artery Injuries/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Angiography , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Carotid Artery Injuries/etiology , Balloon Occlusion , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(2): 191-196, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961614

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los tumores de plexo braquial son poco frecuentes, representando menos del 5% de los tumores que afectan a las extremidades superiores. Suelen presentarse entre la tercera y quinta década de la vida como una masa palpable, que puede acompañarse de dolor, parestesias y déficit motor. A continuación, presentamos un caso de un schwannoma de plexo braquial tratado en nuestro servicio.


ABSTRACT Brachial plexus tumors are uncommon, accounting for less than 5% of tumors affecting the upper extremities. They usually present between the third and fifth decade of life as a palpable mass, which can be accompanied by pain, paresthesias and motor deficit. We present a case of a brachial plexus schwannoma treated in our service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Brachial Plexus , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neurilemmoma/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Neurilemmoma/pathology
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(4): 457-464, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891430

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Translate to brazilian portuguese, culturally adapt and test the rating and classification scales of cervicofacial lymphedema of the MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema Protocol (MDACC HNL) in patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer. Methods: The process followed international guidelines and translation stages by two head and neck surgeons, and back translation independently by two native Americans. The test of final version was based on the evaluation of 18 patients by one speech pathologist and one physical therapist who applied the scales in Portuguese. Results: The translation of the three scales was carried out independently and the translators reached a consensus for the final version. Minor modifications were made by translating two terms into the Assessment of the Face. Versions of back-translation were similar to each other. The instrument was successfully applied to patients independently. Conclusion: The translation and cultural adaptation of the assessment and rating scale of the cervicofacial lymphedema of the MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema Protocol to the Brazilian Portuguese were successful.


RESUMO Objetivo: Traduzir, para o português brasileiro, adaptar culturalmente e testar as escalas de avaliação e classificação do linfedema cérvico-facial do MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema Protocol (MDACC HNL) em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Métodos: O processo seguiu as diretrizes internacionais e as etapas de tradução por dois cirurgiões de cabeça e pescoço, além de retrotradução de forma independente por dois nativos norte-americanos. O teste da versão final foi realizado a partir da avaliação de 18 pacientes por um fonoaudiólogo e um fisioterapeuta, por meio da aplicação das escalas em português. Resultados: A tradução das três escalas foi realizada de forma independente, e os tradutores chegaram a um consenso para a versão final. Foram feitas pequenas modificações, ao serem traduzidos dois termos em Assessment of the Face . As versões da retrotradução foram semelhantes entre si. O instrumento foi aplicado com sucesso nos pacientes de forma independente. Conclusão: A tradução e a adaptação das escalas de avaliação e classificação do linfedema cérvico-facial do MD Anderson Cancer Center Head and Neck Lymphedema protocol para o português foram bem sucedidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Lymphedema/etiology , Neck Dissection/adverse effects , Translations , Fibrosis , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Edema/etiology , Edema/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/complications , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Language , Lymphedema/surgery , Lymphedema/diagnosis , Lymphedema/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
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