Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 148
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 391-397, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409951


Resumen En la terapia con oxígeno hiperbárico (HBO) se utiliza oxígeno al 100% de concentración en una cámara presurizada con presiones supraatmosféricas, que corresponden de 2 a 3 atmósferas. Los mecanismos por los cuales funciona esta terapia se relacionan con propiedades físicas de los gases y su comportamiento fisiológico en el organismo, lo que lleva finalmente a la hiperoxia, evento fisiológico que permite la obtención de diversos efectos beneficiosos. La evidencia en medicina ha demostrado su utilidad mayormente en la enfermedad por descompresión, infecciones cutáneas graves e intoxicación por monóxido de carbono. En el ámbito de la otorrinolaringología ha probado ser útil en algunas enfermedades como la hipoacusia súbita idiopática, tanto como terapia única como asociada al uso de corticosteroides, como en la osteomielitis refractaria del oído externo, la que en conjunto con antibioticoterapia y manejo quirúrgico presenta un evidente aumento en la tasa de mejoría. Cabe mencionar que la terapia con HBO ha demostrado también beneficios en los tratamientos y complicaciones posteriores a la radiación en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello. Es importante mencionar que la terapia con HBO no está exenta de riesgos y requiere que los pacientes cumplan con características específicas para su utilización, por lo que su indicación debe ser juiciosa y en casos seleccionados.

Abstract In hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 100% pure oxygen is used in a pressurized chamber with super atmospheric pressures which correspond to 2-3 atmospheres. The mechanism by which this treatment works is related to the physical properties of gases and their physiological behavior in the body, which leads to hyperoxia, the physiological event which allows for diverse beneficial health effects. The evidence in medicine has proven its utility mainly in decompression sickness, severe skin infections and carbon monoxide poisoning. In the otolaryngology field it has been proven useful in diseases like idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, both as the only treatment and as a concurrent treatment along with corticosteroids, in malignant otitis externa which in conjunction with antibiotic treatment and a surgical approach presents a clear increase in improvement rates. It must be mentioned that hyperbaric chamber treatment has also shown benefits in radiation treatment and post radiation complications in head and neck cancer patients. It is important to note that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not without risks and patients must meet specific criteria for it to be applied, therefore it must be indicated using careful judgement and only in necessary cases.

Humans , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Deafness/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Otolaryngology , Hyperoxia , Hearing Loss/therapy , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/therapy
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.

Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(supl): 5-10, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399220


A sobrevivência de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço vêm melhorando, entretanto, algumas deformidades podem ocorrer devido dos tratamentos cirúrgicos que geram mutilações bucomaxilofaciais como perda de dentes, estruturas do palato, língua ou assoalho, resultando em alterações na fonética, mastigação e deglutição. Nesses casos há a necessidade que seja realizado uma reabilitação protética buscando torná-los indivíduos com menos problemas sociais, psicológicos e físicos, visto que mais procedimentos cirúrgicos estão contra indicados para solucionar os efeitos colaterais gerados pelo tratamento das neoplasias. Esse tipo de reabilitação protética com prótese ou placa obturadora possibilita benefícios na fonética, facilita a convivência social e atividades nutricionais como alimentação e deglutição, permitindo ao paciente uma vida com menos constrangimentos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar dois casos clínicos onde os pacientes foram submetidos a reabilitação com placa obturadora palatina feitos após cirurgias oncológicas. Os pacientes de gêneros diferentes e com comunicações buco-nasal similares receberam o mesmo planejamento reabilitador que foram confeccionadas a partir de um molde que foi enviado ao laboratório. Após a instalação foi possível verificar que houve sucesso no tratamento, notando uma melhora imediata comprovando a eficácia do método reabilitador(AU)

This paper relates two clinical cases where patients were recovered with a palatal splint made after oncological surgeries. Survival of patients and necks can occur, however, some deformities can occur during oral and maxillofacial treatment, such as the appearance of teeth, palate structures, mutilations or posterior jaws, leading to changes in aesthetics, surgery and swallowing. If the need to perform a prosthetic rehabilitation is necessary so that the results are seen with less problems, psychological and physical, that more procedures are performed so that the effects of neoplasms are contraindicated by the treatment. This type of prosthetic rehabilitation with prosthesis or obturator plate provides benefits in phonetics, facilitates social coexistence and nutritional activities such as eating and swallowing, allowing the patient a life with less constraints. Patients of different genders and with similar oral and nasal communications received the same rehabilitation plan that were made from a mold that was sent to the laboratory. After installation, it was possible to verify that the treatment was successful, noting an immediate improvement, proving the effectiveness of the rehabilitation method(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Palatal Obturators , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Esthetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936194


Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, treatment methods and outcomes of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 10 cases with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck who were admitted to Henan Tumor Hospital from January 2005 to January 2020. Among the 10 patients, 6 were male and 4 were female. The average age at diagnosis was 56.3 years old (34-74 years old). Among them, 3 cases were located in the nasal cavity, 2 cases in the nasopharynx, 1 case in the sinuses, 2 cases in the larynx, 1 case in the oropharynx, and 1 case in the cervical lymph nodes. Treatments were administered according to tumor size and resection extent. Complete surgical excision (negative margins) was preferred, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of EMP were analyzed. Results: The patients' symptoms were not specific, frequently with local obstruction symptom and localized masses. All patients were confirmed pathologically as suffering from monoclonal plasmacytoma, with negative bone marrow biopsy and negative skeletal survey. Five patients received surgery, 3 received radiotherapy, and 2 received surgery with additional radiation. The follow-up time was 16-125 months, with a median of 92 months. Two patients developed into multiple myeloma. One patient who received radiotherapy after surgery relapsed after 7 years of follow-up and again received surgical treatment, with no evidence of second recurrence. The remaining patients had no recurrence or progression. Conclusion: Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck has a good prognosis. Surgical treatment can be considered for completely resectable lesions.

Adult , Aged , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Plasmacytoma/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929138


The heterogeneity of exhausted T cells (Tex) is a critical determinant of immune checkpoint blockade therapy efficacy. However, few studies have explored exhausted T cell subpopulations in human cancers. In the present study, we examined samples from two cohorts of 175 patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) by multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to investigate two subsets of Tex, CD8+PD1+TCF1+ progenitor exhausted T cells (TCF1+Texprog) and CD8+PD1+TCF1- terminally exhausted T cells (TCF1-Texterm). Moreover, fresh tumor samples from 34 patients with HNSCC were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to further investigate their properties and cytotoxic capabilities and their correlation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). mIHC and flow cytometry analysis showed that TCF1-Texterm represented a greater proportion of CD8+PD1+Tex than TCF1+Texprog in most patients. TCF1+Texprog produced abundant TNFα, while TCF1-Texterm expressed higher levels of CD103, TIM-3, CTLA-4, and TIGIT. TCF1-Texterm exhibited a polyfunctional TNFα+GZMB+IFNγ+ phenotype; and were associated with better overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The results also indicated that larger proportions of TCF1-Texterm were accompanied by an increase in the proportion of Tregs. Therefore, it was concluded that TCF1-Texterm was the major CD8+PD1+Tex subset in the HNSCC TIME and that these cells favor patient survival. A high proportion of TCF1-Texterm was associated with greater Treg abundance.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 3-10, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153599


Abstract Introduction: Even with improved treatment outcomes with multimodality approaches, the question of what is the best initial treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer still remains unanswered. Objective: To review the overall survival of a large cohort of head and neck cancer, patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer treated in a single institution. Material and methods: We studied a cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer treated in our institution in the last fifteen years. To gather a large sample of patients with adequate follow-up time, a cross-check between ours and Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo databases were done. We included patients with head and neck cancer, clinical or pathological staging III or IV, treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone or chemoradiation alone. Results: 796 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were included, 88% male, 44% age >60 years and 76% stage IV. The tumor location was the oral cavity (34%), oropharynx (27%), hypopharynx (17%) and larynx (17%). The treatment groups were chemoradiation alone (39.7%), surgery plus chemoradiation (26.3%), surgery followed by radiotherapy (18.5%) and radiotherapy alone (15.5%). Comparing the clinical variables between the treatment groups significant differences in age and clinical stage were observed. With a median follow up of 7.5 years (1-16 years), for the entire cohort, the overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 34.8% and 28%. The overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 16.7% and 12.2% for radiotherapy alone, 38.8% and 26.3% for surgery followed by radiotherapy, 28% and 16.6% for chemoradiation alone, and 37.3% and 23.2% for surgery plus chemoradiation. The staging IV (p = 0.03) and radiotherapy alone (p = 0.05), had a worst survival in multivariate analysis. Surgical groups vs. chemoradiation alone had no significant difference for overall survival. Conclusion: The present study is the largest cohort of locally advanced head and neck cancer of Brazilian patients to evaluate treatment outcomes. Although there were significant clinical differences between surgical and radiotherapy groups, surgery or chemoradiation alone as the initial treatment resulted in no significant difference in survival.

Resumo Introdução: Mesmo com a melhora dos desfechos de tratamento com abordagens multimodais, a dúvida sobre qual seria o melhor tratamento inicial para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço localmente avançado ainda permanece sem resposta. Objetivo: Mostrar a sobrevida global de uma grande coorte de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço localmente avançado tratados em uma única instituição. Material e método: Projetamos uma coorte de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço localmente avançado tratados em nossa instituição nos últimos 15 anos. Para reunir uma grande amostra de pacientes com tempo de seguimento adequado, foi realizada uma verificação cruzada entre nosso banco de dados e o banco de dados da fundação oncocentro de São Paulo. Foram incluídos os pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço, estadiamento clínico ou histopatológico III ou IV, tratados com cirurgia seguida de radioterapia ou quimiorradioterapia ou radioterapia isolada ou quimiorradioterapia isolada. Resultados: Foram incluídos 796 pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço localmente avançado, sendo 88% do sexo masculino, 44% com idade > 60 anos e 76% no estágio IV. O tumor estava localizado na cavidade oral (34%), orofaringe (27%), hipofaringe (17%) e laringe (17%). Os grupos de tratamento foram quimiorradioterapia (39,7%), cirurgia seguida de radioterapia ou quimiorradioterapia (26,3%), cirurgia seguida de radioterapia (18,5%) e radioterapia isolada (15,5%). Comparando as variáveis clínicas entre os grupos de tratamento, foram observadas diferenças significativas de idade e estágio clínico. Com uma mediana de tempo de seguimento de 7,5 anos (1-16 anos) para toda a coorte, a sobrevida global em 5 e 10 anos foi de 34,8% e 28%. A sobrevida global em 5 e 10 anos foi de 16,7% e 12,2% para radioterapia isolada, 38,8% e 26,3% para cirurgia seguida de radioterapia, 28% e 16,6% para quimiorradioterapia e 37,3% e 23,2% para cirurgia seguida de radioterapia ou quimiorradioterapia. O estágio IV (p = 0,03) e a radioterapia isolada (p = 0,05) apresentaram pior sobrevida na análise multivariada. Grupos cirúrgicos versus quimiorradioterapia não apresentaram diferença significante para a sobrevida global. Conclusão: O presente estudo é a maior coorte de câncer de cabeça e pescoço localmente avançado de pacientes brasileiros para avaliação dos desfechos do tratamento. Embora houvesse diferenças clínicas significativas entre os grupos cirúrgico e radioterápico, a cirurgia ou a quimiorradioterapia, como tratamento inicial, não apresentaram diferenças significantes em relação à sobrevida.

Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Brazil , Chemoradiotherapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(1): 11-18, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153585


Abstract Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the seventh most common malignant tumor. The advances in treatment have improved the global survival rates in the past years, although the prognosis is still grave. Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between positron emission computed tomography and computed tomography at the time of staging a previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and to determine which of the two imaging techniques gives us more information at the time of initial diagnosis. Methods: Data from all patients diagnosed in our hospital of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by a biopsy of any location or unknown primary tumor was collected, between January 2012 and July 2017. In all cases, computed tomography and positron emission computed tomography were performed with a maximum of 30 days difference between them and patients had not received any prior treatment to staging. The stage given to each case was compared based solely on the physical examination, only on the computed tomography/positron emission computed tomography, with respect to the stage given by the tumor board, observing the concordance obtained through Cramer's V statistical test. Results: We performed a comparative analysis obtaining a correlation of 0.729 between the stage given by the tumor board and the one assigned based on the physical examination without imaging techniques. When only using computed tomography as an imaging method, the correlation was 0.848, whereas with only the use of positron emission computed tomography it was estimated at 0.957. When comparing the statistical association between staging using exclusively one of the two imaging techniques, correlation was 0.855. Conclusion: Positron emission computed tomography is useful for the diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, improving the patient's staging especially when detecting cervical and distant metastases. Therefore, we consider that the use of positron emission computed tomography for the staging of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a diagnostic test to be considered.

Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço é o sétimo tumor maligno mais comum. Os avanços no tratamento melhoraram as taxas de sobrevida global nos últimos anos, embora o prognóstico ainda seja grave. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons e a tomografia computadorizada no estadiamento de carcinomas espinocelulares da cabeça e pescoço não tratados previamente e verificar qual das duas técnicas de imagem nos fornece mais informações no momento do diagnóstico inicial. Método: Os dados de todos os pacientes diagnosticados em nosso hospital com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço por biópsia de qualquer região ou adenopatias de origem desconhecida foram colhidos no período entre janeiro de 2012 e julho de 2017. Em todos os casos, uma tomografia computadorizada e uma tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons foram realizadas com um máximo de 30 dias de diferença entre elas. Nenhum paciente deveria ter recebido tratamento antes do estadiamento. O estadiamento atribuído a cada caso foi comparado com base apenas no exame físico, pela tomografia computadorizada ou apenas pela tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons, com relação ao estadiamento concedido pela margem tumoral, observou-se a concordância obtida pelo teste estatístico de V de Cramer. Resultado: Realizamos a análise comparativa obtendo uma correlação de 0,729 entre o estadio concedido pela margem tumoral e aquele atribuído com base no exame físico sem técnicas de imagem. Usando apenas a tomografia computadorizada como método de imagem, a correlação foi de 0,848, enquanto que a correlação com a tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons foi estimada em 0,957. Ao comparar a associação estatística entre o estadiamento usando exclusivamente uma das duas técnicas de imagem, foi de 0,855. Conclusão: Tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons é útil para o diagnóstico de carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço, melhora o estadiamento, especialmente na detecção de metástases cervicais e à distância. Portanto, concluimos que seu uso para o estadiamento de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cabeça e pescoço é um exame diagnóstico a ser considerado.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE00892, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1248534


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar os modos de adaptação de autoconceito e a função do papel em pacientes em tratamento de câncer de cavidade oral. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com pacientes de hospital de referência em câncer, em Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. Utilizou-se da entrevista como técnica de coleta de dados, a partir de instrumento semiestruturado, tendo como base o referencial teórico de Callista Roy. A verificação dos dados ocorreu a partir da análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Emergiram duas categorias temáticas: Sentimentos envolvidos no cotidiano da doença e Perdas de papéis sociais e familiares frente ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Revelaram-se declive na autoestima, respostas adaptativas no self-físico, sentimentos negativos no self-pessoal, adaptação positiva no self-pessoal, adaptação positiva, mediada pela crença e religiosidade, na categoria de sentimentos envolvidos. No tocante às perdas de papéis sociais e familiares, identificaram-se alteração de papéis na relação com a família e sociedade, em decorrência da situação trabalhista, e distância entre o convívio da família e necessidade de continuar os ciclos de radioterapia. Conclusão: Constatou-se que as respostas eficazes no modo de autoconceito se encontram na possibilidade de esclarecer o enfoque que deve ser atribuído ao atendimento a essa condição em tela, como forma de promover adaptação à nova condição de vida.

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar los modos de adaptación de autoconcepto y función de rol en pacientes en tratamiento de cáncer de cavidad oral. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo, realizado con pacientes de hospital de referencia en cáncer, en Fortaleza, estado de Ceará, Brasil. Se utilizó la entrevista como técnica de recolección de datos, a partir de un instrumento semiestructurado y con base en el marco referencial teórico de Callista Roy. La verificación de datos se realizó a partir del análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Surgieron dos categorías temáticas: Sentimientos relacionados con la cotidianidad de la enfermedad y Pérdida de roles sociales y familiares frente al cáncer de cabeza y cuello. Se observó declive de la autoestima, respuestas adaptativas del yo físico, sentimientos negativos del yo personal, adaptación positiva del yo personal, adaptación positiva, a través de las creencias y religiosidad, en la categoría de sentimientos relacionados. En lo que se refiere a la pérdida de roles sociales y familiares, se identificó la alteración de roles en la relación con la familia y la sociedad, como resultado de la situación laboral, y la distancia entre la convivencia de la familia y la necesidad de continuar con los ciclos de radioterapia. Conclusión: Se constató que las respuestas eficaces del modo de autoconcepto se encuentran en la posibilidad de aclarar el enfoque que debe ser atribuido a la atención de esta condición, como forma de promover la adaptación a la nueva condición de vida.

Abstract Objective: To analyze self-concept adaptation and role function models in patients with oral cavity cancer. Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted with patients at a cancer reference hospital in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. The interview was used as a data collection technique, using a semi-structured instrument, based on Callista Roy's theoretical framework. Data verification occurred based on thematic content analysis. Results: Two thematic categories emerged: Feelings involved in the daily life with the disease and Loss of social and family roles in the face of head and neck cancer. Slope in self-esteem, adaptive responses in self-physical, negative feelings in self-personal, positive adaptation in self-personal, positive adaptation, mediated by belief and religiosity were revealed in the category of feelings involved. Concerning loss of social and family roles, changes in roles were identified in the relationship with the family and society, due to the work situation, and the distance between the family and the need to continue radiotherapy cycles. Conclusion: It was found that effective responses in the self-concept model are found in the possibility of clarifying the focus that should be attributed to meeting this condition on screen as a way of promoting adaptation to the new condition of life.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Concept , Social Conditions , Adaptation, Psychological , Emotions , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888701


Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), an aggressive malignancy, is characterized by high morbidity and low survival rates with limited therapeutic options outside of regional surgery, conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, and irradiation. Increasing studies have supported the synergistic role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer advancement. The immune system, in particular, plays a key role in surveillance against the initiation, development, and progression of HNSCC. The understanding of how neoplastic cells evolve and evade the immune system whether through self-immunogenicity manipulation, or expression of immunosuppressive mediators, provides the foundation for the development of advanced therapies. Furthermore, the crosstalk between cancer cells and the host immune system have a detrimental effect on the TME promoting angiogenesis, proliferation, and metastasis. This review provides a recent insight into the role of the key inflammatory cells infiltrating the TME, with a focus on reviewing immunological principles related to HNSCC, as cancer immunosurveillance and immune escape, including a brief overview of current immunotherapeutic strategies and ongoing clinical trials.

Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immune Evasion , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Tumor Microenvironment
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 104-109, mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249879


Resumen El cáncer epidermoide es el más frecuente en cabeza y cuello y sus primeras descripciones datan de la época faraónica. Ha impactado en la humanidad al afectar la productividad laboral, científica y cultural y, en ocasiones, ha influido en el derrotero de la historia. El cáncer de cabeza y cuello es más frecuente en países e individuos depauperados económicamente, sin embargo, puede afectar cualquier estrato socioeconómico; lo han padecido personajes conocidos, famosos, económicamente poderosos, intelectuales y artistas. El tratamiento del cáncer de cabeza y cuello ha sido motivo de controversia desde su descripción inicial hasta la actualidad. En la decisión terapéutica ha influido no solo el estadio del cáncer sino el entorno del paciente; en ocasiones, en un afán de disminuir la morbilidad derivada de los diversos tratamientos oncológicos, se han tomado decisiones erróneas que han implicado la pérdida de la vida del enfermo. Infortunadamente, en la actualidad seguimos viendo estas conductas. Se presenta una síntesis de casos de connotados personajes que presentaron este cáncer y se describe el impacto que ello implicó en la sociedad de ese momento.

Abstract Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common head and neck malignancy, and its first descriptions date from the pharaonic era. It has impacted humanity by affecting labor, scientific and cultural productivity and, sometimes, it has influenced the course of history. Head and neck cancer is common in economically impoverished countries and individuals; however, it can affect any socioeconomic stratum; it has been suffered by known, famous, economically powerful celebrities, intellectuals and artists. Head and neck cancer treatment has been controversial since its initial description up to the present day. Therapeutic decisions have been influenced not only by the stage but by the patient's environment and, sometimes, in an effort to reduce the morbidity resulting from the various oncological treatments, erroneous decisions have been made that have implied the loss of the patient's life; unfortunately, currently we continue to see these behaviors. A synthesis of cases of renowned celebrities that suffered from this cancer is presented, and the impact this implied in the society of their times is described.

Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 655-664, Feb. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055813


Resumo Este artigo objetiva apresentar o uso da triangulação na pesquisa qualitativa como estratégia para atingir os objetivos propostos, garantir credibilidade, confiabilidade e maior rigor científico em sua realização. Nesse sentido, a triangulação - por não se restringir à utilização de apenas um método, teoria, fonte de dados ou investigador no processo de análise de um mesmo fenômeno - possibilita a apreensão de uma dada realidade sob diversos ângulos, possibilitando o confrontamento de informações, de maneira a minimizar vieses resultantes de uma única perspectiva de análise. Com o intuito de evidenciar as possibilidades do uso de tal desenho metodológico, utilizou-se como exemplo um estudo qualitativo sobre vivências de cuidadores de pacientes com neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço, desenvolvido por meio de triangulação múltipla, a saber: triangulação metodológica (intramétodo), de dados, de investigador e ambiental. Ao se demonstrar um estudo estruturado, em forma de triangulação, tem-se como finalidade orientar pesquisadores interessados em realizar estudos qualitativos com um maior aprofundamento e rigor metodológico em pesquisa qualitativa.

Abstract This paper aims to present the use of triangulation in qualitative research as a strategy to achieve the proposed objectives, to ensure credibility, reliability, and greater scientific accuracy in its achievement. In this sense, triangulation - since it is not restricted to the use of only one method, theory, data source or researcher in the process of analyzing an event - allows the apprehension of a given reality from several angles, enabling information confrontation, in order to minimize bias resulting from a single analytical perspective. Thus, aiming at evidencing the possibilities of using such a methodological design, we used as an example a qualitative study about experiences of caregivers for patients with head and neck neoplasms, developed through multiple triangulation, namely: methodological (intra-method), data, researcher and environmental triangulation. When demonstrating a structured study in the form of triangulation, one aims to guide researchers interested in conducting qualitative studies with greater depth and methodological rigor in qualitative research.

Humans , Research Design , Caregivers/psychology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Focus Groups , Qualitative Research
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e120, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132685


Abstract With the onset of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the dental treatment of patients at risk of infection has become quite challenging. In view of this, patients with head and neck cancer may present with oral complications due to anticancer therapy, making dental assistance necessary. Thus, the objective of the study was to review the literature and critically discuss important concerns about the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because dental professionals are in close contact with the main viral transmission routes, this study presents recommendations for management and protection during clinical dental care. The main characteristics and transmission routes of COVID-19 are also discussed. Dental professionals should control pain and the side effects of antineoplastic treatment and use preventive measures for infection control. During this pandemic, patients with head and neck cancer should not undergo elective procedures, even if they do not have symptoms or a history of COVID-19; therefore, in asymptomatic or painless cases, only preventive actions are recommended. In symptomatic or painful cases, precautions for safe interventional treatments must be implemented by following the hygiene measures recommended by health agencies and using personal protective equipment. During health crises, new protocols emerge for cancer treatment, and professionals must act with greater attention toward biosafety and updated knowledge. It is important to offer adequate individualized treatment based on the recommendations of preventative and interventional treatments so that patients can face this difficult period with optimized quality of life.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Mouth Diseases/therapy , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mouth Diseases/etiology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e126, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142611


Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has created unprecedent challenges for healthcare systems worldwide. Oncology services have been reorganized to decrease the risk of nosocomial acquisition of SARS-CoV-2, but changes in treatment pathways and follow-up cancer care can result in patients receiving suboptimal or delayed care. Herein, we describe a cross-sectional nested cohort study conducted to evaluate delays in care for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in post-treatment follow-up or palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Northeast Brazil and its impact on health outcomes. Information was extracted from medical records and supplemented by telephone interviews. We compared the following health outcomes: self-perception of anxiety or sadness, fear of COVID-19 infection, cancer-related complications during social isolation, self-medication, diagnosis of COVID-19, and death between patients with and without delayed cancer care. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare distributions of continuous variables and the Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables. Thirty-one HNC patients were included in the study, and no case of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was found. Delayed cancer care due to restriction in health services was reported in 58.1% of cases, and there was no report of telemedicine use during the COVID-19 outbreak. Cancer-related complications during the COVID-19 pandemic were described for most patients (67.7%) and included pain or discomfort, swelling, and dyspnea. Eight (25.8%) patients reported use of prescribed morphine or codeine to manage pain and six (19.4%) patients reported self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We found an association between delayed HNC care and the use of self-medication (p = 0.028). This study indicated that patients with delayed HNC care during the COVID-19 outbreak are more likely to use self-medication with NSAIDs for pain management. Better strategies to follow HNC patients in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities need to be discussed and implemented.

Humans , Time-to-Treatment , COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5409, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133733


ABSTRACT Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is used to provide enteral nutritional support for patients with obstructive oropharyngeal or esophageal neoplasms. The placement of the catheter is considered safe, with few complications. Despite this, a specific complication that is considered rare, has been increasingly described in the literature, i.e., metastasis of head and neck cancer in the gastrostomy stoma. In this report, we described a case of metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in the gastrostomy site, and discussed the possible etiologies and alternatives, seeking to reduce the incidence of this complication.

RESUMO A gastrostomia endoscópica percutânea é utilizada para oferecer suporte nutricional enteral para pacientes com neoplasias obstrutivas de orofaringe ou esôfago. A colocação da sonda é considerada segura, com poucas complicações. Apesar disso, uma complicação em particular, considerada rara, está sendo cada vez mais descrita na literatura: a metástase de neoplasia de cabeça e pescoço para o estoma da gastrostomia. Neste relato, descrevemos um caso de metástase de carcinoma espinocelular de laringe para o sítio da gastrostomia, e discutimos as possíveis etiologias e alternativas, buscando diminuir a incidência desta complicação.

Humans , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/secondary , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Gastrostomy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/secondary , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Laryngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 17(2): 4-6, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129817


La mucositis es una respuesta inflamatoria del epitelio de la mucosa a los efectos citotóxicos de la quimioterapia y la radioterapia, que causan dolor y ulceración oral severa. En los estudios de los últimos años se ha propuesto el uso de la miel en el manejo de la mucositis oral inducida por quimioterapia y radioterapia en pacientes pediátricos. La miel reduce la severidad y duración de la mucositis, reduce el dolor y es un producto agradable a los niños. Por tanto, podría ser un producto eficaz tanto en la profilaxis como en el tratamiento de la mucositis oral. Sin embargo, la pequeña cantidad de investigaciones realizadas en humanos no es suficiente para establecer recomendaciones generalizadas. Por ello, se debe aumentar las investigaciones en este campo. Con ello se podrá examinar la eficacia y posibles complicaciones a corto y largo plazo, explorar su posible efecto sinérgico con otras terapias, analizar su rentabilidad económica y el tipo de miel más adecuado. De esta forma, los profesionales sanitarios podrán ofrecer a los pacientes pediátricos los mejores cuidados basados en las últimas evidencias científicas demostradas.

Mucositis is an inflammatory response of the mucosal epithelium to the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, causing pain and severe oral ulceration. In the studies of recent years, the use of honey has been proposed in the management of oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in pediatric patients. Honey reduces the severity and duration of mucositis, reduces pain and is a child-friendly product. Therefore, it could be an effective product both in the prophylaxis and in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, the small amount of human research is not enough to establish widespread recommendations. Therefore, research in this field should be increased. With this, it will be possible to examine the efficacy and possible complications in the short and long term, explore its possible synergistic effect with other therapies, analyze its economic profitability and the most appropriate type of honey. In this way, healthcare professionals will be able to offer pediatric patients the best care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Humans , Child , Mucositis/therapy , Honey , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(1)20200129.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094925


Introdução: O câncer de cabeça e pescoço aumentou significativamente na última década. Objetivo: Determinar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço atendidos em um Centro Oncológico de referência no Sul do Brasil no período de janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2018. Método: Estudo de caráter descritivo e retrospectivo realizado no Centro de Pesquisas Oncológicas (Cepon). Resultados: Foram obtidos dados preliminares de 133 pacientes. O gênero masculino foi o mais prevalente (65,4%), com média de idade acima dos 50 anos, baixa escolaridade (40%), baixa renda (77,3%), sendo sua grande maioria tabagistas (72%) e etilistas (58,1%). A região de cavidade oral (26,3%) foi o sítio mais prevalente, a cirurgia mais realizada foi a tireoidectomia total (19,4%) e o estadiamento mais observado foi T2 (30,8%) N2 (41,1%). Foram encontradas complicações pós-radioterapia como a radiodermite (82,7%) e, pós-quimioterapia, náuseas (81%). As fibroses cicatriciais foram mais frequentes após a cirurgia (18,2%), sendo avaliadas no pós-operatório tardio. Conclusão: Caracterizar o perfil dos pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço permite conhecer os diversos acometimentos advindos do tratamento e possibilita, dessa maneira, maior qualidade e direcionamento das ações de reabilitação.

Introduction: Head and neck cancer has increased significantly in the last decade. Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile in patients with head and neck cancer treated at an oncological referral center in Brazil Southern region from january 2013 to december 2018. Method: Descriptive and retrospective study carried out at CEPON (Oncology Research Center). Results: Preliminary data were obtained from 133 patients. Male gender was the most prevalent (65.4%), with mean age above 50 years, low education (40%), low income (77.3%), many of them were smokers (72%) and alcoholics (58.1%). The oral cavity region (26.3%) was the most prevalent site, the most performed surgery was total thyroidectomy (19.4%) and the most observed staging was T2 (30.8%) and N2 (41.1%). Post-radiotherapy and post-chemotherapy complications as radiodermatitis (82.7%) and nausea (81%), respectively, were found. Scarring fibrosis was more frequent after surgery (18.2%) and were evaluated in the late postoperative period. Conclusion: Characterizing the profile of patients with head and neck cancer allows to know the several affections resulting from the treatment to ensure better quality and focus of rehabilitation actions.

Introducción: El cáncer de cabeza y cuello ha aumentado significativamente en la última década. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil epidemiológico en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello tratados en un centro de referencia en el sur de Brasil desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2018. Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado en el Centro de Investigación Oncológica (Cepon). Resultados: Se obtuvieron datos preliminares de 133 pacientes. El sexo masculino fue el más prevalente (65.4%), con una edad promedio de más de 50 años, baja escolaridad (40%), bajos ingresos (77.3%), la mayoría de ellos fumadores (72%) y alcohólicos. (58.1%). La región de la cavidad oral (26.3%) fue el sitio más prevalente, la cirugía más realizada fue la tiroidectomía total (19.4%) y la estadificación más observada fue T2 (30.8%) y N2 (41.1%). Se encontraron complicaciones posteriores a la radioterapia, como radiodermatitis (82,7%) y después de la quimioterapia, náuseas (81%). La fibrosis cicatricial fue más frecuente después de la cirugía (18,2%) y se evaluó en el postoperatorio tardío. Conclusión: La caracterización del perfil de los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello nos permite conocer las diversas afecciones que surgen del tratamiento y, por lo tanto, permitir una mayor calidad y dirección de las acciones de rehabilitación.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Therapeutics/adverse effects , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 90(4): e680, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978465


Introducción: La radioterapia es una de las variantes de tratamiento más antiguas con que contamos hoy día para curar los pacientes afectos de neoplasias malignas, pero debe ser cuidadosamente seleccionada en pacientes pediátricos. Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento radiante en niños con tumores de cabeza y cuello. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo lineal, donde se incluyeron 26 pacientes ingresados en el Servicio de Oncocirugía del hospital William Soler desde enero de 2000 a enero de 2013, con diferentes tipos de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello y edades comprendidas entre 1 y 18 años. Se tuvieron en cuenta los efectos tóxicos a largo plazo del tratamiento radiante, asociado o no a tratamiento quimioterápico adyuvante o concurrente y a la cirugía. Resultados: Todos los pacientes recibieron radioterapia corporal externa, el 73,1 por ciento de los casos recibió quimioterapia adyuvante en su mayoría con diagnóstico de linfomas y 7,7 por ciento recibió quimioterapia concurrente. Esta última en dos pacientes: uno con sarcoma facial y otro con carcinoma de parótida. Cinco pacientes (19,2 por ciento) solo recibieron cirugía y radioterapia como tratamiento: dos casos con neuroblastoma, un caso con sarcoma facial y dos con hemangiopericitomas. Conclusión: El estudio demostró la gran utilidad del empleo de la radioterapia en el control de las enfermedades malignas de la infancia localizadas en cabeza y cuello(AU)

Introduction: Radiotherapy is one of the oldest treatments used nowadays for curing patients suffering from malignant neoplasias, but it must be carefully selected in pediatric patients. Objective: To evaluate the response of radiotherapy treatments in children with head and neck tumors. Methods: A descriptive, lineal retrospective study was carried out, in which were included 26 patients admitted in the Service of Oncosurgery of William Soler Hospital from January, 2000 to January, 2013. These patients presented different kinds of head and neck malignant tumors; their ages were among 1 and 18 years. The long term toxic effects of radiotherapy were taken into account, being those associated or not to concurrent or adyuvant chemotherapy, and to surgery. Results: All the patients received physical external radiotherapy. 73,1 percent of the cases (most of them with a diagnosis of lymphoma) received adyuvant chemotherapy and 7,7 percent had concurrent chemotherapy. This last one in two patients: one with facial sarcoma and the other one with parotid carcinoma. Just five patients (19.2 percent) had surgery and radiotherapy as treatment: two cases with neuroblastoma, one case with facial sarcoma, and two cases of hemangiopericytomas. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the usefulness of radiotherapy in the control of head and neck malignant diseases in children(AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Treatment Outcome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 303-312, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975588


Abstract Introduction Supracricoid laryngectomy still has selected indications; there are few studies in the literature, and the case series are limited, a fact that stimulates the development of new studies to further elucidate the structural and functional aspects of the procedure. Objective To assess voice and deglutition parameters according to the number of preserved arytenoids. Methods Eleven patients who underwent subtotal laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy were evaluated by laryngeal nasofibroscopy, videofluoroscopy, and auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and voice pleasantness analyses, after resuming oral feeding. Results Functional abnormalities were detected in two out of the three patients who underwent arytenoidectomy, and in six patients from the remainder of the sample. Almost half of the sample presented silent laryngeal penetration and/or vallecular/ hypopharyngeal stasis on the videofluoroscopy. The mean voice analysis scores indicated moderate vocal deviation, roughness and breathiness; severe strain and loudness deviation; shorter maximum phonation time; the presence of noise; and high third and fourth formant values. The voices were rated as unpleasant. There was no difference in the number and functionality of the remaining arytenoids as prognostic factors for deglutition; however, in the qualitative analysis, favorable voice and deglutition outcomes were more common among patients who did not undergo arytenoidectomy and had normal functional conditions. Conclusion The number and functionality of the preserved arytenoidswere not found to be prognostic factors for favorable deglutition efficiency outcomes. However, the qualitative analysis showed that the preservation of both arytenoids and the absence of functional abnormalities were associated with more satisfactory voice and deglutition patterns.

Humans , Male , Aged , Arytenoid Cartilage/surgery , Voice/physiology , Laryngectomy/methods , Arytenoid Cartilage/physiology , Auditory Perception , Speech Acoustics , Tracheostomy , Fluoroscopy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Deglutition/physiology , Visual Analog Scale , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Language Therapy , Laryngoscopy
Medisan ; 22(5)mayo 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955029


Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de 36 pacientes incluidos en el ensayo clínico (fase IV) Seguridad y efectividad del nimotuzumab en tumores de cabeza y cuello, desarrollado en el Hospital Oncológico Conrado Benítez de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2016, con vistas a identificar las características humorales de dichos tumores en los afectados. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student con una significación estadística de p <0,05. Predominaron el sexo masculino en mayores de 60 años de edad, los efectos adversos clínicos y el tumor de faringe; el estadio clínico III y el carcinoma epidermoide bien diferenciado fueron los más frecuentes. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los parámetros de laboratorio antes del tratamiento combinado con nimotuzumab y durante este. Dicho medicamento constituyó una alternativa terapéutica segura, ventajosa y factible como parte del plan terapéutico convencional en las condiciones asistenciales

An observational, descriptive and retrospective study of 36 patients included in the (phase IV) clinical trial Security and effectiveness of nimotuzumab in head and neck tumors was carried out. It was developed at Conrado Benítez Oncological Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2013 to December, 2016, aimed at identifying the humoral characteristics of these tumors in the affected patients. The Student t test was used with a statistical significance of p <0.05. There was a prevalence of the male sex in older than 60 years, the clinical adverse effects and the pharynx tumor; the clinical stage III and the well differentiated epidermoid carcinoma were the most frequent findings. There were no statistically significant differences among the laboratory parameters before and during the combined treatment with nimotuzumab. This medication constituted a sure, advantageous and feasible therapeutic alternative as part of the conventional therapeutic plan in assistance conditions

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Secondary Care , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Trial , Observational Study , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use