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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1720-1726, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528779

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Humans throughout history have shown similarities between both their cephalic and facial complexion, among certain ethnic groups, due to genetic and demographic factors. Several studies have demonstrated the different constitutions of specific groups of people in order to generate data of a certain population or group. The present research aims to preliminarily study the existence of possible relations between Cephalic Index and Facial Index among categories of individuals in an odontology student population from a private university in Santiago, Chile. Empirical, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. In this study, 129 students with age range 18-21 were taken as subjects in a non-probabilistic way. Regarding Cephalic Index (CI), the Retzius classification was used, and the Facial Index (FI) was measured considering the maximum height of the face, from nasion to gnathion (Na-Gn), and the maximum width, from right zygion to left zygion (Zr-Zl). In this study, 129 people were taken as sample, 82 females and 47 males. Among women, the most predominant cephalic biotype was brachycephalic (59.8 %), followed by mesocephalic (37.8 %), and dolichocephalic (2.4 %). On the other hand, men's most common biotype was mesocephalic (57.5 %), followed by brachycephalic (36.2 %), and dolichocephalic (6.4 %). Regarding facial biotype, both in female and male subjects the following pattern was shown: euryprosopic (F: 59.7 %, M: 59.6 %), mesoprosopic (F: 26.8 %, M: 29.8 %), and leptoprosopic (F: 13.4 %, M: 10.6 %). Facial parameters of the subjects (odontology students from a Chilean university) tend to be mostly euryprosopic, followed by mesoprosopic and leptoprosopic. Additionally, mesocephalic biotypes tend to be similar to other studies conducted in Chile.


Los seres humanos a lo largo de la historia han mostrado similitudes tanto entre su complexión cefálica como facial, entre ciertos grupos étnicos, debido a factores genéticos y demográficos. Varios estudios han demostrado las diferentes constituciones de grupos específicos de personas para poder generar datos de una determinada población o grupo. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar preliminarmente la existencia de posibles relaciones entre el Índice Cefálico y el Índice Facial entre categorías de individuos en una población de estudiantes de odontología de una universidad privada de Santiago, Chile, en un estudio empírico, descriptivo y transversal. En este estudio, se tomó como sujetos de forma no probabilística a 129 estudiantes con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 21 años. Respecto al Índice Cefálico (IC), se utilizó la clasificación de Retzius, y el Índice Facial (FI) se midió considerando la altura máxima de la cara, desde nasión hasta gnatión (Na-Gn), y el ancho máximo, desde cigio derecho a izquierdo. cigio (Zr-Zl). En este estudio se tomó como muestra 129 personas, 82 mujeres y 47 hombres. Entre las mujeres, el biotipo cefálico más predominante fue el braquicéfalo (59,8 %), seguido del mesocefálico (37,8 %) y el dolicocéfalo (2,4 %). Por otro lado, el biotipo más común en los hombres fue el mesocefálico (57,5 %), seguido del braquicéfalo (36,2 %) y el dolicocéfalo (6,4 %). Respecto al biotipo facial, tanto en sujetos femeninos como masculinos se mostró el siguiente patrón: euriprosópico (F: 59,7 %, M: 59,6 %), mesoprosópico (F: 26,8 %, M: 29,8 %) y leptoprosópico (F: 13,4 %, M: 10,6 %). Los parámetros faciales de los sujetos (estudiantes de odontología de una universidad chilena) tienden a ser en su mayoría euriprosópicos, seguidos de mesoprosópicos y leptoprosópicos. Además, los biotipos mesocefálicos tienden a ser similares a otros estudios realizados en Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Head/anatomy & histology , Chile , Cephalometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Face/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1304-1309, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521013

ABSTRACT

Los trabajos realizados sobre batoideos han demostrado que existen grandes variaciones en la musculatura de la región cefálica ventral, estos cambios están asociados a los diferentes estilos de vida de los organismos y por tanto, a los mecanismos de alimentación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo un estudio comparativo de la morfología de la musculatura cefálica dorsal y ventral de dos especies de la familia Narcinidae: Narcine vermiculatus y Diplobatis ommata. Se observó que ambas especies comparten un patrón morfológico común. Los músculos que mostraron mayores variaciones en la región dorsal fueron el depresor rostral, el preorbital lateral y el elevador rostral. La diferencia más importante en esta región, entre ambas especies, fue la ausencia del músculo cucularis en D. ommata. En la región ventral las principales diferencias se observaron en los músculos depresor mandibular, preorbital medial, interbranquial y depresor hiomandibular. Este último músculo está formado por dos paquetes en D. ommata, en tanto que en N. vermiculatus por uno. Se puede concluir que la morfología de la musculatura cefálica es constante; sin embargo, se observan diferencias importantes en el grado de desarrollo de los músculos tanto en la región dorsal como en la ventral.


SUMMARY: Works conducted on batoids have revealed large variations in the musculature of the ventral cephalic region, associated to the different lifestyles of these organisms and, therefore, to their feeding mechanisms. This work aimed to conduct a comparative study of the dorsal and ventral cephalic muscular morphology of two species of the family Narcinidae: Narcine vermiculatus and Diplobatis ommata. It was observed that both species share a common morphological pattern. Muscles with larger variations in the dorsal region were the rostral depressor, the lateral preorbital and the rostral elevator. The most relevant difference in this region between both species was the absence of the cucularis muscle in D. ommata. In the ventral region, the main differences were observed in the mandibular depressor, medial preorbital, interbranchial and hyomandibular depressor muscles. In D. ommata, the latter is formed by two packages, and by one in N. vermiculatus. It can be concluded that the cephalic musculature is constant; however, significant differences are observed in the muscle development degree in both the dorsal and the ventral regions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology , Elasmobranchii/anatomy & histology , Head/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 873-880, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514311

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Due to the complexity of head shape, limited 1D or 2D head anthropometry fail to fully capture its shape characteristics. Currently, there is limited research on clustering analysis of head shape from a shape difference perspective, especially for the head shape of Chinese people. Head shape is influenced by factors such as race, sex, and age, making it imperative to create a head shape database for Chinese individuals. In this study, three-dimensional head data of 339 Chinese young adult were collected, and the head shapes were clustered into 7 clusters using an improved k-medoids algorithm. The differences between clusters and the average head shape were further analyzed. It can be foreseen that the head shape database for Chinese young adult constructed in this study has important reference value for the ergonomic design of head-related products and head morphology research, among other fields.


Debido a la complejidad de la forma de la cabeza, la antropometría limitada de ésta, en 1D o 2D, no logra capturar completamente sus características de forma. Actualmente, existen estudios limitados sobre el análisis de agrupamiento de la forma de la cabeza, desde una perspectiva de diferencia de forma, especialmente en el caso de la población china. La forma de la cabeza está influenciada por factores como la raza, el sexo y la edad, por lo que resulta imperativo crear una base de datos sobre la forma de la cabeza de los individuos chinos. En este estudio, se recopilaron datos tridimensionales de la cabeza de 339 adultos jóvenes chinos, y las formas de la cabeza se agruparon en 7 grupos utilizando un algoritmo k-medoids mejorado. Las diferencias entre los grupos y la forma promedio de la cabeza se analizaron a profundidad. Se puede prever que la base de datos sobre la forma de la cabeza de adultos jóvenes chinos construida en este estudio, tiene un valor de referencia importante para el diseño ergonómico de productos relacionados con la morfología de la cabeza, entre otros campos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anthropometry , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Head/anatomy & histology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 889-893, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514319

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of head and cervical spine posture of skeletal class malocclusion in adolescent with maxillary protraction. Thirty cases of skeletal class malocclusion were randomly selected from the Stomatological Hospital of Shanxi Medical University. High-quality lateral cephalograms were collected including pre- and posttreatment to compare the changes of head and cervical spine posture. Data were processed using SPSS 26.0 statistical software. The paired-t test was used to compare pre- and posttreatment mean angular measurements.A significant difference in the SNA(p<0.001), SNB(p<0.01), and ANB(p<0.001) between T1 and T2 showed an improvement in the sagittal relationships. A significant change was observed in middle cervical spine posture, while upper cervical spine posture variables showed no significant difference after treatment. Skeletal class with maxillary protraction appliance not only led to the improvement of sagittal relationship, but also changed the middle cervical spine posture.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios en la postura de la cabeza y la columna cervical debido a la maloclusión clase esquelética en adolescentes con protracción maxilar. Treinta casos de maloclusión de clase esquelética fueron seleccionados al azar del Hospital Estomatológico de la Universidad Médica de Shanxi. Se recogieron cefalogramas laterales de alta calidad, incluidos el tratamiento previo y posterior, para comparar los cambios en la postura de la cabeza y la columna cervical. Los datos se procesaron con el software estadístico SPSS 26.0. Se utilizó la prueba t pareada para comparar las medidas angulares medias antes y después del tratamiento. Una diferencia significativa en SNA (p <0,001), SNB (p <0,01) y ANB (p <0,001) entre T1 y T2 mostró una mejora en las relaciones sagitales. Se observó un cambio significativo en la postura de la columna cervical media, mientras que las variables de postura de la columna cervical superior no mostraron diferencias significativas después del tratamiento. La clase esquelética con aparato de protracción maxilar no solo condujo a la mejora de la relación sagital, sino que también cambió la postura de la columna cervical media.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Posture , Cervical Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Head/anatomy & histology , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Cephalometry , Anatomic Landmarks
5.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 44(1): 47-52, jan.-abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1427917

ABSTRACT

A odontologia reabilitadora tem como um dos seus ramos a especialidade de Prótese Bucomaxilofacial (PBMF), que visa restaurar ou substituir estruturas perdidas na região facial e no sistema estomatognático artificialmente, podendo ser ou não removidos pelo paciente. O presente trabalho objetiva revisar a leitura a respeito da reabilitação com PBMF e a sua aplicabilidade na clínica odontológica. Os indivíduos com alguma perda de estrutura na região de cabeça e pescoço, devido a traumas físicos e/ou químicos, defeitos congênitos, doenças autoimunes, neoplasias, infecções e parasitas, são pacientes para os quais há a indicação da reposição da parte ausente. As reconstruções podem ser perdas intraorais (área da maxila, mandíbula), extraorais (oculopalpebral, ocular, nasal, facial extensa e auricular) ou conjugadas. Esse é um trabalho multidisciplinar, com especialistas de áreas abrangentes e todos os especialistas trabalham de forma conjunta. Pode-se concluir que, embora seja uma das especialidades mais nobres da odontologia, ainda é muito desconhecida por parte dos estudantes e profissionais das áreas da saúde e são próteses absolutamente fundamentais para a reabilitação e qualidade de vida dos indivíduos que tem a necessidade do uso da prótese PBMF(AU)


Rehabilitating dentistry has as one of its branches the specialty of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthesis (PBMF), which aims to restore or replace structures lost in the facial region and in the stomatognathic system artificially, which may or may not be removed by the patient. The present study aims to review the reading about rehabilitation with PBMF and its applicability in dental clinic. Individuals with some loss of structure in the head and neck region, due to physical and/or chemical trauma, birth defects, autoimmune diseases, neoplasms, infections and parasites, are patients in whom there is an indication for replacement of the absent part. Reconstructions can be intraoral (maximal area, mandible), extraoral (oculopalpebral, ocular, nasal, extensive facial and auricular) or conjugated losses. It is a multidisciplinary work, with specialists from the comprehensive areas and that all specialists work together. It can be concluded that although it is one of the noblest specialties of dentistry, it is still very unknown to students and health professionals, and they are absolutely fundamental prostheses for the rehabilitation and quality of life of individuals who need the use the PBMFprosthesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Head/abnormalities , Maxillofacial Prosthesis , Neck/abnormalities , Quality of Life , Rehabilitation , Autoimmune Diseases , Congenital Abnormalities , Stomatognathic System/injuries , Mandibular Reconstruction , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Neoplasms
6.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1149-1155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the research progress on the evaluation methods of head-neck nail positions in femoral intertrochanteric fractures.@*METHODS@#The literature about the evaluation methods of head-neck nail positions for femoral intertrochanteric fractures in recent years was extensively reviewed, and research progress in the aspects of evaluation methods, clinical applications, and limitations were summarized.@*RESULTS@#The position of head-neck nails in femoral intertrochanteric fractures is closely related to postoperative complications of head-neck nail cutting. Currently, the tip-apex distance (TAD) and femoral head zoning are widely used to evaluate the position of head-neck nails. The main opinion in the literature is that the use of TAD and femoral head zoning can effectively reduce the incidence of head-neck nails cutting. Parker's ratio, as one of the evaluation methods, has been controversial in subsequent studies and has not been widely used in clinical practice. The TAD as referenced to the calcar (CalTAD), which was modified based on TAD, has been gradually accepted by the clinic, but whether it is better than the TAD has not yet been conclusively determined. In recent years, new evaluation methods have been proposed to supplement the previous evaluation methods, such as the tip-neck distance ratio (TNDR) and the standardized TAD (STAD) to avoid the limitations of the TAD and the CalTAD by the volume of the femoral head, and the axis-blade angle (ABA) to supplement the direction of the head-neck nails channel, but at present the clinical application is relatively underutilized, and the validity of the method needs to be further verified.@*CONCLUSION@#Currently, there are many methods for evaluating the position of head-neck nails in femoral intertrochanteric fractures, TAD<25 mm combined with head-neck nails placed in the middle-middle quadrant or lower-middle quadrant of the femoral head division is currently a highly recognized assessment in the literature, but the optimal assessment is still controversial, and further research needs to be studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nails , Head , Neck , Femoral Fractures , Hip Fractures/surgery
7.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1175-1184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008948

ABSTRACT

Soft tissue defects resulting from head and neck tumor resection seriously impact the physical appearance and psychological well-being of patients. The complex curvature of the human head and neck poses a formidable challenge for maxillofacial surgeons to achieve precise aesthetic and functional restoration after surgery. To this end, a normal head and neck volunteer was selected as the subject of investigation. Employing Gaussian curvature analysis, combined with mechanical constraints and principal curvature analysis methods of soft tissue clinical treatment, a precise developable/non-developable area partition map of the head and neck surface was obtained, and a non-developable surface was constructed. Subsequently, a digital design method was proposed for the repair of head and neck soft tissue defects, and an in vitro simulated surgery experiment was conducted. Clinical verification was performed on a patient with tonsil tumor, and the results demonstrated that digital technology-designed flaps improved the accuracy and aesthetic outcome of head and neck soft tissue defect repair surgery. This study validates the feasibility of digital precision repair technology for soft tissue defects after head and neck tumor resection, which effectively assists surgeons in achieving precise flap transplantation reconstruction and improves patients' postoperative satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Head/surgery , Neck/surgery
8.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1005-1011, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008927

ABSTRACT

Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is a non-invasive, economical, and well-tolerated neuromodulation technique. However, traditional TES is a whole-brain stimulation with a small current, which cannot satisfy the need for effectively focused stimulation of deep brain areas in clinical treatment. With the deepening of the clinical application of TES, researchers have constantly investigated new methods for deeper, more intense, and more focused stimulation, especially multi-electrode stimulation represented by high-precision TES and temporal interference stimulation. This paper reviews the stimulation optimization schemes of TES in recent years and further analyzes the characteristics and limitations of existing stimulation methods, aiming to provide a reference for related clinical applications and guide the following research on TES. In addition, this paper proposes the viewpoint of the development direction of TES, especially the direction of optimizing TES for deep brain stimulation, aiming to provide new ideas for subsequent research and application.


Subject(s)
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Deep Brain Stimulation , Brain/physiology , Head , Electric Stimulation/methods
9.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 894-902, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008914

ABSTRACT

For patients with partial jaw defects, cysts and dental implants, doctors need to take panoramic X-ray films or manually draw dental arch lines to generate Panorama images in order to observe their complete dentition information during oral diagnosis. In order to solve the problems of additional burden for patients to take panoramic X-ray films and time-consuming issue for doctors to manually segment dental arch lines, this paper proposes an automatic panorama reconstruction method based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). The V-network (VNet) is used to pre-segment the teeth and the background to generate the corresponding binary image, and then the Bezier curve is used to define the best dental arch curve to generate the oral panorama. In addition, this research also addressed the issues of mistakenly recognizing the teeth and jaws as dental arches, incomplete coverage of the dental arch area by the generated dental arch lines, and low robustness, providing intelligent methods for dental diagnosis and improve the work efficiency of doctors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiography, Panoramic/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Head , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods
10.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 829-836, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008906

ABSTRACT

The portable light-weight magnetic resonance imaging system can be deployed in special occasions such as Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and ambulances, making it possible to implement bedside monitoring imaging systems, mobile stroke units and magnetic resonance platforms in remote areas. Compared with medium and high field imaging systems, ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging equipment utilizes light-weight permanent magnets, which are compact and easy to move. However, the image quality is highly susceptible to external electromagnetic interference without a shielded room and there are still many key technical problems in hardware design to be solved. In this paper, the system hardware design and environmental electromagnetic interference elimination algorithm were studied. Consequently, some research results were obtained and a prototype of portable shielding-free 50 mT magnetic resonance imaging system was built. The light-weight magnet and its uniformity, coil system and noise elimination algorithm and human brain imaging were verified. Finally, high-quality images of the healthy human brain were obtained. The results of this study would provide reference for the development and application of ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Head , Equipment Design , Magnets
11.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 676-682, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008887

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the active force characteristics of the neck muscles under the condition of rapid braking, which can provide theoretical support for reducing the neck injury of pilots when carrier-based aircraft blocks the landing. We carried out static loading and real vehicle braking experiments under rapid braking conditions, collected the active contraction force and electromyography (EMG) signals of neck muscles, and analyzed the response characteristics of neck muscle active force response. The results showed that the head and neck forward tilt time was delayed and the amplitude decreased during neck muscle pre-tightening. The duration of the neck in the extreme position decreased, and the recovery towards the seat direction was faster. The EMG signals of trapezius muscle was higher than sternocleidomastoid muscle. This suggests that pilots can reduce neck injury by pre-tightening the neck muscles during actual braking flight. In addition, we can consider the design of relevant fittings for pre-tightening the neck muscles.


Subject(s)
Neck Muscles , Neck , Electromyography , Head
12.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 843-852, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011056

ABSTRACT

Necrotizing otitis externa is a progressive infectious disease involving the external auditory canal and even the skull base, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated in time. In this paper, the latest advances in etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment were reviewed based on previous literature, providing reference for clinical diagnosis, treatment and future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Externa/therapy , Skull Base/pathology , Ear Canal/pathology , Head
13.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 734-739, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011035

ABSTRACT

Oropharyngeal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors of head and neck. In recent years, the incidence of Human papilloma virus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma(HPV-OPSCC) has been increasing year by year. With the advancement of minimally invasive surgical techniques, the wide application of intensity modulated radiation therapy, and the demand of patients for organ function protection and higher quality of life, the unique biological behavior and better prognosis of HPV-OPSCC have led to the exploration of a series of attenuated treatment modes. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment status of oropharyngeal cancer and related research progress based on relevant reports.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Head , Papillomaviridae , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms
14.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 600-604, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980766

ABSTRACT

After reviewing and evaluating the Discipline History of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in China, the authors concludes that this book has the following characteristics: the scientific research focuses on the combination of internal and external history, and the conclusions are rigorous; the narrative style and structure featured by the division of discipline history of ancient times, modern times and current times are quite characteristic and enlightening; the reference materials are detailed and advanced, which showes profound thoughts and concerns about the difficulties and challenges faced by the development of acupuncture and moxibustion discipline and the internal path selection of acupuncture and moxibustion research. In addition, this book discusses the unique importance of the cultural attribute behind acupuncture and moxibustion technology in the process of theoretical research of acupuncture and moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Moxibustion , Acupuncture Therapy , China , Books , Head
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 99-112, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971538

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have become a significant threat to an aging human society. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past decades to clarify their pathologic mechanisms and search for reliable biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for investigating structural and functional brain alterations in NDs. With the advantages of being non-invasive and non-radioactive, it has been frequently used in both animal research and large-scale clinical investigations. MRI may serve as a bridge connecting micro- and macro-level analysis and promoting bench-to-bed translational research. Nevertheless, due to the abundance and complexity of MRI techniques, exploiting their potential is not always straightforward. This review aims to briefly introduce research progress in clinical imaging studies and discuss possible strategies for applying MRI in translational ND research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Translational Research, Biomedical , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Brain/pathology , Head/pathology
16.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 37-41, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971404

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the anatomical classification of adductor magnus perforator flap and its application in head and neck reconstruction. Methods: From January 2017 to January 2020, Hunan Cancer Hospital treated 27 cases of oral tumor patients (15 cases of tongue cancer, 9 cases of gingival cancer and 3 cases of buccal cancer), including 24 males and 3 females, aged 31-56 years old. The course of disease was 1-12 months. Secondary soft tissue defects with the sizes of 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm to 11.0 cm × 8.0 cm were left after radical resection of the tumors, and were repaired with free adductor magnus perforator flaps. The flaps based on the origing locations of perforator vessels were divided into three categories: ① intramuscular perforator: vessel originated between the gracilis muscle and the adductor magnus or passed through a few adductor magnus muscles; ② adductor magnus middle layer perforator: vessel run between the deep and superficial layers of adductor magnus; ③ adductor magnus deep layer perforator: vessel run between the deep layer of adductor magnus and the semimembranous muscle. Descriptive analysis was used in this research. Results: Perforator vessels of adductor magnus were found in all cases, with a total of 62 perforator branches of adductor magnus. The anatomical classification of the perforator vessels was as follows: 12 branches for class ①, 31 branches for class ② and 19 branches for class ③. The vascular pedicles of the free adductor major perforator flaps included type ① for 3 cases, type ② for 16 cases and type ③ for 8 cases. All 27 flaps survived and the donor sites were closed directly. In 18 cases, the perforator arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the superior thyroid arteries and veins. In 9 cases, the pedicle arteries and the venae comitan were respectively anastomosed with the facial arteries and veins. Follow up for 12-40 months showed that the appearances of the flaps and the swallowing and language functions of patients were satisfactory, apart from linear scars were left in the donor sites with no significant affect on the functions of thigh. Local recurrence occurred in 3 cases and radical surgeries were performed again followed by repairs with pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps. Cervical lymph node metastasis occurred in 2 cases and cervical lymph node dissection was performed again. Conclusions: The adductor magnus perforator flap has soft texture, constant perforator vessel anatomy, flexible donor location and harvesting forms, and less damage to the donor site. It is an ideal choice for postoperative reconstruction in head and neck tumors.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap/transplantation , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Thigh/surgery , Head/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
17.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 136-145, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373083

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Pandemia por SARS CoV ­ 2 (COVID ­ 19) tuvo un impacto significativo en el desarrollo de los servicios quirúrgicos en general y obligo a establecer protocolos de actuación para las distintas patologías a fin de cuidar al máximo los recursos humanos y la capacidad instalada de los hospitales para hacer frente a esta contingencia mundial. Objetivos: presentar una casuística de 7 pacientes con reconstrucción microquirúrgica de patología de cabeza y cuello en estadios avanzados y patología de miembros inferiores durante la pandemia por COVID - 19. Materiales y Métodos: trabajo retrospectivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas físicas y digitales. Se incluyeron 5 pacientes con patología avanzada de cabeza y cuello y 2 pacientes con patología de miembros inferiores. Resultados: cinco pacientes fueron operados por patología avanzada de cabeza y cuello: 3 pacientes con carcinomas escamosos de cavidad oral estadio IVa, 1 paciente con carcinoma escamoso de piel avanzado estadio IV y 1 paciente con fractura compleja de maxilar inferior por herida de arma de fuego con fistula oro-cutánea crónica, con exposición del material de osteosíntesis, mala oclusión y pérdida de peso importante por dificultad para alimentación. Dos pacientes fueron operados por patología de miembros inferiores en tercio inferior de pierna, uno por fractura expuesta grave con defecto de tejidos blandos y el otro por una ulcera arterial. Conclusión: la cirugía reconstructiva microquirúrgica puede realizarse con buenos niveles de seguridad para el personal de salud y para los pacientes afectados por patologías avanzadas de cabeza y cuello y otras patologías que requieran colgajos libres. Es fundamental respetar estrictamente los protocolos para evitar los contagios en el medio intrahospitalario, entendiendo que debe considerarse todo paciente que ingrese al hospital como COVID (+) hasta que se demuestre lo contrario


Introduction: the SARS CoV ­ 2 (COVID ­ 19) Pandemic had a significant impact on the development of surgical services in general and forced the establishment of action protocols for the different pathologies in order to take maximum care of human resources and capacity. installed in hospitals to deal with this global contingency. Objectives: to present a casuistry of 7 patients with microsurgical reconstruction of head and neck pathology in advanced stages and lower limb pathology during the COVID - 19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: retrospective work, physical and digital medical records were reviewed. Five patients with advanced head and neck disease and 2 patients with lower limb disease were included. Results: five patients underwent surgery for advanced head and neck disease: 3 patients with stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, 1 patient with stage IV advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and 1 patient with a complex fracture of the lower jaw due to a gunshot wound. with chronic oro-cutaneous fistula, with exposure of the osteosynthesis material, poor occlusion and significant weight loss due to difficulty feeding. Two patients underwent surgery for pathology of the lower limbs in the lower third of the leg, one for a severe open fracture with a soft tissue defect and the other for an arterial ulcer. Conclusion: microsurgical reconstructive surgery can be performed with good levels of safety for health personnel and for patients affected by advanced pathologies of the head and neck and other pathologies that require free flaps. It is essential to strictly respect the protocols to avoid contagion in the hospital environment, understanding that every patient who enters the hospital must be considered as COVID (+) until proven otherwise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Security Measures/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Clinical Protocols , /prevention & control , Lower Extremity/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Head/surgery , Neck/surgery
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 452-458, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To reconstruct the cases of acceleration craniocerebral injury caused by blunt in forensic cases by finite element method (FEM), and to study the biomechanical mechanism and quantitative evaluation method of blunt craniocerebral injury.@*METHODS@#Based on the established and validated finite element head model of Chinese people, the finite element model of common injury tool was established with reference to practical cases in the forensic identification, and the blunt craniocerebral injury cases were reconstructed by simulation software. The cases were evaluated quantitatively by analyzing the biomechanical parameters such as intracranial pressure, von Mises stress and the maximum principal strain of brain tissue.@*RESULTS@#In case 1, when the left temporal parietal was hit with a round wooden stick for the first time, the maximum intracranial pressure was 359 kPa; the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 3.03 kPa at the left temporal parietal; the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.016 at the left temporal parietal. When the right temporal was hit with a square wooden stick for the second time, the maximum intracranial pressure was 890 kPa; the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 14.79 kPa at the bottom of right temporal lobe; the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.103 at the bottom of the right temporal lobe. The linear fractures occurred at the right temporal parietal skull and the right middle cranial fossa. In case 2, when the forehead and left temporal parietal were hit with a round wooden stick, the maximum intracranial pressure was 370 kPa and 1 241 kPa respectively, the maximum von Mises stress of brain tissue was 3.66 kPa and 26.73 kPa respectively at the frontal lobe and left temporal parietal lobe, and the maximum principal strain of brain tissue was 0.021 and 0.116 respectively at the frontal lobe and left temporal parietal lobe. The linear fracture occurred at the left posterior skull of the coronary suture. The damage evaluation indicators of the simulation results of the two cases exceeded their damage threshold, and the predicted craniocerebral injury sites and fractures were basically consistent with the results of the autopsy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The FEM can quantitatively evaluate the degree of blunt craniocerebral injury. The FEM combined with traditional method will become a powerful tool in forensic craniocerebral injury identification and will also become an effective means to realize the visualization of forensic evidence in court.


Subject(s)
Humans , Finite Element Analysis , Biomechanical Phenomena , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Head , Craniocerebral Trauma
19.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 181-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927864

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease(RDD) in central nervous system. Method The clinical and MRI data of 5 cases of RDD in central nervous system confirmed by pathology in the PLA General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results The 5 cases included 4 males and 1 female,aged(39.8±21.7) years on average.Among them,4 cases were located in the intracranial area and 1 case in the thoracic spinal canal.The lesion showed isointense signal on T1 weighted image and iso,slight-hypo,and slight-hyperintense signals on T2 weighted image,and it presented intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.Two cases showed compressed brain area with edema around the left parietal and left frontotemporal dura,thickening and enhancement in the adjacent dura,and dural tail sign.Three cases presented bone destruction in adjacent diploe and thoracic vertebrae.One case showcased slight-hypo perfusion of the left parietal dura in arterial spin labeling. Conclusions RDD lesion usually appears as iso,slight hypo and slight hyper-intense signals on T2 weighted image and presents intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.The disease may involve the adjacent bone and the lesion shows slight hypo-perfusion on perfusion images.The MRI manifestations of RDD are characteristic,which are helpful for preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of RDD.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Central Nervous System/pathology , Head , Histiocytosis, Sinus/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-10, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To establish a microcephaly cut-off size in adults using head circumference as an indirect measure of brain size, as well as to explore factors associated with microcephaly via data mining. METHODS In autopsy studies, head circumference was measured with an inelastic tape placed around the skull. Total brain volume was also directly measured. A linear regression was used to determine the association of head circumference with brain volume and clinical variables. Microcephaly was defined as head circumference that were two standard deviations below the mean of significant clinical variables. We further applied an association rule mining to find rules associating microcephaly with several sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS In our sample of 2,508 adults, the mean head circumference was 55.3 ± 2.7cm. Head circumference was related to height, cerebral volume, and sex (p < 0.001 for all). Microcephaly was present in 4.7% of the sample (n = 119). Out of 34,355 association rules, we found significant relationships between microcephaly and a clinical dementia rating (CDR) > 0.5 with an informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) ≥ 3.4 (confidence: 100% and lift: 5.6), between microcephaly and a CDR > 0.5 with age over 70 years (confidence: 42% and lift: 2.4), and microcephaly and males (confidence: 68.1% and lift: 1.3). CONCLUSION Head circumference was related to cerebral volume. Due to its low cost and easy use, head circumference can be used as a screening test for microcephaly, adjusting it for gender and height. Microcephaly was associated with dementia at old age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Microcephaly/complications , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Brain , Brazil/epidemiology , Cephalometry , Head/anatomy & histology
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