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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 136-145, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373083

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Pandemia por SARS CoV ­ 2 (COVID ­ 19) tuvo un impacto significativo en el desarrollo de los servicios quirúrgicos en general y obligo a establecer protocolos de actuación para las distintas patologías a fin de cuidar al máximo los recursos humanos y la capacidad instalada de los hospitales para hacer frente a esta contingencia mundial. Objetivos: presentar una casuística de 7 pacientes con reconstrucción microquirúrgica de patología de cabeza y cuello en estadios avanzados y patología de miembros inferiores durante la pandemia por COVID - 19. Materiales y Métodos: trabajo retrospectivo, se revisaron las historias clínicas físicas y digitales. Se incluyeron 5 pacientes con patología avanzada de cabeza y cuello y 2 pacientes con patología de miembros inferiores. Resultados: cinco pacientes fueron operados por patología avanzada de cabeza y cuello: 3 pacientes con carcinomas escamosos de cavidad oral estadio IVa, 1 paciente con carcinoma escamoso de piel avanzado estadio IV y 1 paciente con fractura compleja de maxilar inferior por herida de arma de fuego con fistula oro-cutánea crónica, con exposición del material de osteosíntesis, mala oclusión y pérdida de peso importante por dificultad para alimentación. Dos pacientes fueron operados por patología de miembros inferiores en tercio inferior de pierna, uno por fractura expuesta grave con defecto de tejidos blandos y el otro por una ulcera arterial. Conclusión: la cirugía reconstructiva microquirúrgica puede realizarse con buenos niveles de seguridad para el personal de salud y para los pacientes afectados por patologías avanzadas de cabeza y cuello y otras patologías que requieran colgajos libres. Es fundamental respetar estrictamente los protocolos para evitar los contagios en el medio intrahospitalario, entendiendo que debe considerarse todo paciente que ingrese al hospital como COVID (+) hasta que se demuestre lo contrario


Introduction: the SARS CoV ­ 2 (COVID ­ 19) Pandemic had a significant impact on the development of surgical services in general and forced the establishment of action protocols for the different pathologies in order to take maximum care of human resources and capacity. installed in hospitals to deal with this global contingency. Objectives: to present a casuistry of 7 patients with microsurgical reconstruction of head and neck pathology in advanced stages and lower limb pathology during the COVID - 19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: retrospective work, physical and digital medical records were reviewed. Five patients with advanced head and neck disease and 2 patients with lower limb disease were included. Results: five patients underwent surgery for advanced head and neck disease: 3 patients with stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, 1 patient with stage IV advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and 1 patient with a complex fracture of the lower jaw due to a gunshot wound. with chronic oro-cutaneous fistula, with exposure of the osteosynthesis material, poor occlusion and significant weight loss due to difficulty feeding. Two patients underwent surgery for pathology of the lower limbs in the lower third of the leg, one for a severe open fracture with a soft tissue defect and the other for an arterial ulcer. Conclusion: microsurgical reconstructive surgery can be performed with good levels of safety for health personnel and for patients affected by advanced pathologies of the head and neck and other pathologies that require free flaps. It is essential to strictly respect the protocols to avoid contagion in the hospital environment, understanding that every patient who enters the hospital must be considered as COVID (+) until proven otherwise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Security Measures/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Clinical Protocols , Guidelines as Topic/prevention & control , Lower Extremity/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Head/surgery , Neck/surgery
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-10, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377223

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To establish a microcephaly cut-off size in adults using head circumference as an indirect measure of brain size, as well as to explore factors associated with microcephaly via data mining. METHODS In autopsy studies, head circumference was measured with an inelastic tape placed around the skull. Total brain volume was also directly measured. A linear regression was used to determine the association of head circumference with brain volume and clinical variables. Microcephaly was defined as head circumference that were two standard deviations below the mean of significant clinical variables. We further applied an association rule mining to find rules associating microcephaly with several sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS In our sample of 2,508 adults, the mean head circumference was 55.3 ± 2.7cm. Head circumference was related to height, cerebral volume, and sex (p < 0.001 for all). Microcephaly was present in 4.7% of the sample (n = 119). Out of 34,355 association rules, we found significant relationships between microcephaly and a clinical dementia rating (CDR) > 0.5 with an informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE) ≥ 3.4 (confidence: 100% and lift: 5.6), between microcephaly and a CDR > 0.5 with age over 70 years (confidence: 42% and lift: 2.4), and microcephaly and males (confidence: 68.1% and lift: 1.3). CONCLUSION Head circumference was related to cerebral volume. Due to its low cost and easy use, head circumference can be used as a screening test for microcephaly, adjusting it for gender and height. Microcephaly was associated with dementia at old age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Microcephaly/complications , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Brain , Brazil/epidemiology , Cephalometry , Head/anatomy & histology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927864

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) manifestations of Rosai-Dorfman disease(RDD) in central nervous system. Method The clinical and MRI data of 5 cases of RDD in central nervous system confirmed by pathology in the PLA General Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results The 5 cases included 4 males and 1 female,aged(39.8±21.7) years on average.Among them,4 cases were located in the intracranial area and 1 case in the thoracic spinal canal.The lesion showed isointense signal on T1 weighted image and iso,slight-hypo,and slight-hyperintense signals on T2 weighted image,and it presented intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.Two cases showed compressed brain area with edema around the left parietal and left frontotemporal dura,thickening and enhancement in the adjacent dura,and dural tail sign.Three cases presented bone destruction in adjacent diploe and thoracic vertebrae.One case showcased slight-hypo perfusion of the left parietal dura in arterial spin labeling. Conclusions RDD lesion usually appears as iso,slight hypo and slight hyper-intense signals on T2 weighted image and presents intensively homogeneous enhancement in contrast-enhanced MRI.The disease may involve the adjacent bone and the lesion shows slight hypo-perfusion on perfusion images.The MRI manifestations of RDD are characteristic,which are helpful for preoperative diagnosis and evaluation of RDD.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/pathology , Female , Head , Histiocytosis, Sinus/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(8): 423-429, 20210000. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358770

ABSTRACT

El propósito del estudio fue analizar la dinámica de los cambios relacionados con la edad de las estructuras craneofaciales de acuerdo con los parámetros antropométricos en hombres y mujeres de 17 a 24 años, y determinar la correlación, definida por análisis antropométrico, entre las formas de morfología craneofacial y los tipos de anomalías dento-maxilares. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un examen antropométrico de 851 individuos (418 hombres y 433 mujeres) de 17 a 24 años y la evaluación de 45 mediciones entre puntos de referencia de tejidos blandos. Además, se realizó una valoración odontológica general, que incluyó la clasificación de las anomalías dentomaxilares. Resultados: Se detectó que el ancho de la cabeza, el largo de la cabeza, así como el ancho de la mandíbula y el ancho morfológico facial en las hembras alcanzan valores máximos de crecimiento a la edad de 20 años. Además, se obtuvieron datos que indicaron la continuación del crecimiento de los parámetros antropométricos craneofaciales mencionados anteriormente en los hombres durante el período de transición de la adolescencia a la edad adulta. Conclusión: la mordida profunda distal es la anomalía dento-maxilar (DMAn) más común en hombres y mujeres bielorrusos de 17 a 24 años. Junto con esto, la frecuencia de ocurrencia de maloclusión de mordida profunda distal en individuos con morfología craneofacial dolicocefálica es mayor en hombres y mujeres en comparación con otras formas de morfología craneofacial. La mordida profunda distal se acompaña de la disminución de los parámetros antropométricos de la altura facial, en comparación con la mordida mesial y abierta en la que hay un aumento estadístico. Además, se observa una disminución estadística en el valor de la profundidad facial inferior en individuos diagnosticados con mordida distal, en comparación con individuos con mordida mesial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos del análisis antropométrico podrían ser útiles en el diagnóstico de anomalías dentofaciales y dento-maxilares, y en la simulación de resultados de tratamiento estéticamente estables.


The purpose of the study was to analyze the dynamics of age-related changes of craniofacial structures according to anthropometric parameters in males and females aged 17­24 years, and to determine the correlation, defined by anthropometric analysis, between forms of craniofacial morphology and the type of dento-maxillary anomalies. Materials and Methods: An anthropometric examination of 851 individuals (418 males and 433 females) aged 17­24 years and the evaluation of 45 measurements between soft tissue landmarks was performed. In addition, general dental assessment was conducted, which included the classification of the dento-maxillary anomalies. Results: It was detected that the head width, head length, as well as the mandible width, and the morphological facial width in females reach growth peak values at the age of 20 years. Furthermore, data was obtained which indicated growth continuation of the stated above craniofacial anthropometric parameters in males during the transitional period from adolescence to adulthood. Conclusion: Distal deep bite is the most commonly prevailed dento-maxillary anomalies (DMAn) in Belarusian men and women aged 17­24 years. Along with this, the frequency of distal deep bite malocclusion occurrence in individuals with dolichocephalic craniofacial morphology is higher in men and women when compared to other forms of craniofacial morphology. Distal deep bite is accompanied by the decrease of facial height anthropometric parameters, when compared to mesial and open bite in which there is a statistical increase. Moreover, a statistical decrease in the value of the inferior facial depth is observed in individuals diagnosed with distal bite, when compared to individuals with mesial and normal bite. These obtained results from anthropometric analysis could be useful in diagnosis of dentofacial and dento-maxillary anomalies, and in the simulation of aesthetically stable treatment results


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Body Weights and Measures , Anthropometry , Cephalometry , Maxillofacial Abnormalities , Open Bite/physiopathology , Head/growth & development , Age Factors
5.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 55(2): 177-189, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1355560

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los estreptococos del grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) son colonizantes habituales de las mucosas orofaríngea, intestinal y genitourinaria, pero, cada vez más frecuentemente, son reconocidos como patógenos humanos. En esta parte IIIa se describen la epidemiología de las infecciones por EGA y las características de las localizadas en cabeza y cuello. Es ampliamente conocida su capacidad de formar abscesos; en particular en la zona de cabeza y cuello se destacan los abscesos odontogénicos, los periorbitales y los cerebrales. También producen sinusitis, infecciones oculares, abscesos epidurales, síndrome de Lemierre, empiemas subdurales y colecciones en piel y tejidos blandos y huesos del cráneo. Su rol en la faringitis es controvertido aunque algunas de las subespecies podrían estar involucradas en ese tipo de infecciones. También se postula su potencial cancerígeno dada su asociación con carcinomas orofaríngeos, gástricos o esofágicos.


Abstract Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) organisms are common colonizers of the oropharyngeal, intestinal, and genitourinary mucosa, but are increasingly recognized as human pathogens. This part IIIa describes the epidemiology of SAG infections and the characteristics of those located in the head and neck. Its ability to form abscesses is widely known, particularly, in the head and neck area; odontogenic, periorbital and brain abscesses stand out. They also cause sinusitis, eye infections, epidural abscesses, Lemierre's syndrome, subdural empyemas, and collections in the skin and soft tissues and bones of the skull. Its role in pharyngitis is controversial, although some of the subspecies could be involved in such infections. Its carcinogenic potential is also postulated given its association with oropharyngeal, gastric or esophageal carcinomas..


Resumo Os estreptococos do grupo Streptococcus anginosus (EGA) são colonizadores comuns da mucosa orofaríngea, intestinal e geniturinária, mas são cada vez mais frequentemente reconhecidos como patógenos humanos. Esta parte IIIa descreve a epidemiologia das infecções por EGA e as características daquelas localizadas na cabeça e no pescoço. Sua capacidade de formar abscessos é amplamente conhecida, principalmente, na região da cabeça e pescoço, destacando-se os abscessos odontogênicos, os periorbitais e os cerebrais. Eles também causam sinusite, infecções oculares, abscessos epidurais, síndrome de Lemierre, empiemas subdurais e coleções em pele e tecidos moles, e ossos do crânio. Seu papel na faringite é controverso, embora algumas das subespécies possam estar envolvidas em tais infecções. Seu potencial carcinogênico também é postulado pela associação com carcinomas orofaríngeos, gástricos ou esofágicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Brain Abscess , Head , Herpes Zoster , Neck
6.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(1): 76-79, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341364

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Dieterich o necrosis avascular de la cabeza de los metacarpianos es una enfermedad muy poco frecuente, con poco más de 50 casos reportados en la literatura. De etiología desconocida, clínicamente se puede manifestar de forma variable, desde asintomática hasta con evidente inflamación y limitación funcional dolorosa de la articulación metacarpofalángica afectada. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 82 anos que presentaba dolor a nivel de la articulación metacarpofalángica del tercer dedo de la mano derecha, de un año de evolución, sin causa aparente. La exploración física no evidenciaba limitación funcional, ni dolor; tampoco se objetivó eritema, tumefacción o efecto masa. Se realizó un estudio radiológico con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Dieterich avanzada, estableciendo tratamiento conservador con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos con mejoría clínica significativa.


ABSTRACT Dieterich's disease, or avascular necrosis of the metacarpal head, is a very rare disease, with just over 50 cases reported in the literature. Of unknown aetiology, it can manifest clinically in a variable way, from asymptomatic to obvious inflammation and painful functional limitation of the affected metacarpophalangeal joint. The case is presented of an 82-yearold patient who presented with pain at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the third finger of the right hand of 1 year of duration without apparent cause. The physical examination showed no functional limitation or pain. Furthermore, no erythema, swelling, or mass effect was observed. A radiological study was carried out, leading to a diagnosis of advanced Dieterich's disease. Conservative treatment was started with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with a significant clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Osteonecrosis , Disease , Rare Diseases , Diagnosis , Conservative Treatment , Head , Metacarpophalangeal Joint
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888222

ABSTRACT

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a brain stimulation intervention technique, which has the problem of different criteria for the selection of stimulation parameters. In this study, a four-layer real head model was constructed. Based on this model, the changes of the electric field distribution in the brain with the current intensity, electrode shape, electrode area and electrode spacing were analyzed by using finite element simulation technology, and then the optimal scheme of electrical stimulation parameters was discussed. The results showed that the effective stimulation region decreased and the focusing ability increased with the increase of current intensity. The normal current density of the quadrilateral electrode was obviously larger than that of the circular electrode, which indicated that the quadrilateral electrode was more conducive to current stimulation of neurons. Moreover, the effective stimulation region of the quadrilateral electrode was more concentrated and the focusing ability was stronger. The focusing ability decreased with the increase of electrode area. Specifically, the focusing tended to increase first and then decrease with the increase of electrode spacing and the optimal electrode spacing was 64.0-67.2 mm. These results could provide some basis for the selection of electrical stimulation parameters.


Subject(s)
Brain , Electric Stimulation , Electrodes , Head , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
8.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 389-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922703

ABSTRACT

Leopard attacks on humans are reported most often from the Indian subcontinent. The bite wounds are complex injuries infected with polymicrobial inoculum and may present as punctures, abrasions, lacerations or avulsions. The presentation and acceptable treatment of these injuries vary according to the wound. We hereby describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a male victim with leopard bite injuries on the head and neck region. As bite injuries are commonly found on and around the face, maxillofacial surgeons should be familiar with the therapy. Through thorough clinical and radiological examination, it is essential to prevent missing any hidden injuries, which can easily turn lethal. To benefit the rural population, more health facilities need to be established in remote areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Facial Injuries/therapy , Head , Humans , Male , Neck Injuries/therapy , Panthera
9.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(2): 101-103, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280968

ABSTRACT

Este año celebramos los 60 años de fundada la Asociación Colombiana de Otorrinolaringología y cirugía de cabeza y cuello, estos sesenta años que se cumplen ,resultan ser una fecha muy importante para esta agremiación y donde considero importante recordar y homenajear a las cabezas lideres y fundadoras de esta sociedad. Descargas


Subject(s)
Humans , Otolaryngology/history , Academies and Institutes/history , Head/surgery , Neck/surgery , Colombia
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887487

ABSTRACT

On the base of the analysis on the original text in


Subject(s)
Animals , Face , Female , Head , Meridians , Rats , Spine , Torso
11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 804-807, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Neurothekeomas, also known as neural sheath myxomas, are rare benign tumors of the neural sheath affecting most commonly the head, arms and shoulder of women in their 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Due to the low prevalence and undefined clinical picture, they are hardly considered in the initial differential diagnosis of skin tumors. We report the case of a 24 year-old woman who was seen in 2016 reporting > 1 year of moderate pain and limited mobility of her left shoulder. Clinical evaluation revealed restricted mobility of the affected shoulder and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging showed a T2-weighted contrast-enhanced multilobular mass in the quadrilateral area apparently invading the adjacent humeral cortical region. Histopathology of a needle sample material revealed loose fibroconnective tissue with no signs of invasion, mitosis or atypical figures. Successful surgical excision was performed and the diagnosis of neurothekeoma was confirmed after detailed histopathology, including immunohistochemistry. The patient was asymptomatic at 18 months of follow-up, with full recovery of shoulder movement and no signs of relapse.


Resumo Neurotecomas, também conhecidos como mixomas da bainha neural, são tumores benignos raros da bainha neural afetando mais comumente a cabeça, braços e ombros de mulheres entre 20 e 40 anos de idade. Devido à baixa prevalência e quadro clínico mal definido, essas lesões são raramente consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores cutâneos. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 24 anos de idade que procurou atendimento em 2016 relatando dor moderada por mais de um ano e limitação dos movimentos do ombro esquerdo. Ao exame, foi constatada restrição da mobilidade dessa articulação e uma ressonância magnética revelou imagem multilobular com aumento de sinal em T2 na região quadrilateral, aparentando invasão da região cortical do úmero subjacente. A histopatologia de uma biópsia incisional mostrou lesão composta por tecido conjuntivo frouxo, sem sinais de invasão, figuras de mitose ou atipias. Foi realizada excisão completa da lesão e o diagnóstico de neurotecoma foi confirmado após análise histopatológica que incluiu painel imunohistoquímico. À revisão de 18 meses, a paciente estava assintomática com recuperação completa do movimento e sem evidência de recidiva da lesão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Arm , Recurrence , Skin Neoplasms , Axilla , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Neurothekeoma , Connective Tissue , Shoulder Pain , Diagnosis, Differential , Head , Joints , Mitosis , Myxoma , Neoplasms
12.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(6): 457-465, dic. 31, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178939

ABSTRACT

Soft tissue calcifications can indicate the presence of more serious, potentially life-threatening pathologies. Therefore, their study can lead to an early diagnosis of those conditions that have not yet become clinically apparent. Main objective: To determine the prevalence of calcifications in soft tissues of the head and neck in cone beam computed tomography images obtained from the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Service at Universidad Andrés Bello (UNAB), Viña del Mar, Chile. Material and Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study. A total of 288 images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were used. Images were obtained at random from the database of the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Service at UNAB, Viña Del Mar, between 2014 and 2019. Results: A prevalence of 59.72% of soft tissue calcifications was obtained. The most prevalent were: tonsilloliths and calcified stylohyoid ligament, accounting for 30.65% and 45.56%, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of soft tissue calcifications was found in a population that has not been studied previously; therefore, it is important that the dentist perform a detailed analysis of the cone beam computed tomography.


Introducción: Las calcificaciones en tejidos blandos pueden indicar patologías más graves, que incluso pueden comprometer la vida. Por lo tanto, investigarlas puede conducir a un diagnóstico temprano de aquellas que aún no se han manifestado clínicamente. Objetivo principal: determinar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos de cabeza y cuello en tomografía computarizada de haz cónico del Servicio de Radiología Oral y Maxilofacial de la UNAB, Viña del Mar, Chile. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo. Se utilizaron 288 volúmenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT, por las iniciales en inglés de Cone Beam Computed Tomography), obtenidas al azar, de la base de datos del Servicio de Radiología Oral y Maxilofacial de la Universidad Andrés Bello (UNAB), Viña del Mar entre 2014 y 2019. Resultados: Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 59.72% de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos. Las más prevalentes fueron: tonsilolitos, con un 30,65% y ligamento estilohioídeo calcificado, con un 45,56%. Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de calcificaciones en tejidos blandos en una población que no ha sido estudiada previamente, por ello es importante que el odontólogo realice un análisis detallado de la tomografía computarizada de haz cónico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Head/diagnostic imaging , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Palatine Tonsil/diagnostic imaging , Calcinosis/epidemiology , Chile , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Ligaments
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 642-650, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131688

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Intracranial vessel wall imaging plays an increasing role in diagnosing intracranial vascular diseases. With the growing demand and subsequent increased use of this technique in clinical practice, radiologists and neurologists should be aware of the choices in imaging parameters and how they affect image quality, clinical indications, methods of assessment, and limitations in the interpretation of these images. Due to the improvement of the MRI techniques, the possibility of accurate and direct evaluation of the abnormalities in the arterial vascular wall (vessel wall imaging) has evolved, adding substantial data to diagnosis when compared to the indirect evaluation based on conventional flow analyses. Herein, the authors proposed a comprehensive approach of this technique reinforcing appropriated clinical settings to better use intracranial vessel wall imaging.


RESUMO O estudo angiográfico intracraniano não invasivo está sendo amplamente utilizado no diagnóstico de doenças vasculares intracranianas. Com a crescente demanda e o aumento subsequente do uso dessa técnica na prática clínica, radiologistas e neurologistas devem estar cientes das opções nos parâmetros de imagem e como estes afetam a qualidade da imagem, as indicações clínicas, os métodos de avaliação e as limitações na interpretação dessas imagens. Devido ao aprimoramento das técnicas de imagem por RM, a possibilidade de avaliação precisa e direta das anormalidades na parede vascular arterial (vessel wall imaging) evoluiu, agregando dados substanciais ao diagnóstico quando comparados à avaliação indireta baseada em análises de fluxo convencionais. Neste artigo, os autores discorrem sobre a avaliação e interpretação dos achados de imagem desta nova técnica e suas aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Head
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(4): 511-519, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: (a) To determine the 3rd, 50th, and 97th percentiles of weight, length, and head circumference of newborns from the Ribeirão Preto BRISA cohort, according to gender and gestational age, and compare them with the Intergrowth-21st standard; (b) To estimate the small for gestational age ( < 3rd percentile), large for gestational age ( > 97th percentile), stunting (length < 3rd percentile), and wasting (body mass index < 3rd percentile). Methods: Observational study of a cohort of 7702 newborns between 01/01/2010 and 12/31/2010 in the city of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The 3rd, 50th, and 97th percentiles were determined for the anthropometric measurements using fractional polynomial regression. Results: The weight difference between Ribeirão Preto and Intergrowth-21st was small, being more pronounced in preterm infants (mean difference between the two populations of +266 g); for full-term newborns, there was a mean difference of +66 g, and for post-term infants, of -113 g. For length, the mean variation was always <1 cm; whereas for head circumference, preterm newborns showed a variation >1 cm, and full-term and post-term newborns showed a variation of <1 cm. The small and large for gestational age detection rates were 2.9% and 4.3%, respectively. Stunting affected 6.5% of all newborns and wasting, 1.5%, with a predominance in girls and in full-term pregnancies; both conditions were present in 0.4% of the sample. Conclusions: Newborns from Ribeirão Preto, when compared to the Intergrowth-21 standard, are heavier, longer, and have a larger head circumference until they reach full-term.


Resumo Objetivos: Determinar os percentis 3, 50 e 97 de peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico de recém-nascidos da Coorte BRISA Ribeirão Preto, segundo sexo e idade gestacional, e comparar com o padrão Intergrowth-21st; b) Estimar os fenótipos pequeno para idade gestacional (< percentil 3), grande para idade gestacional (> percentil 97), stunting (comprimento < percentil 3) e waisting (índice de massa corporal < percentil 3). Método: Estudo observacional de uma coorte de 7.702 recém-nascidos entre 01/01 e 31/12/2010 na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Os percentis 3, 50 e 97 para as medidas antropométricas foram determinados com regressão polinomial fracionária. Resultados: A diferença de peso entre Ribeirão Preto e Intergrowth-21st foi pequena, mais acentuada nos recém-nascidos pré-termo (diferença média entre as duas populações foi de + 266 gramas); para os recém-nascidos a termo a diferença média foi de + 66 gramas e para os pós-termo de -113 gramas. Para comprimento, a variação média foi sempre < 1 cm; enquanto que para perímetro cefálico os recém-nascidos pré-termo apresentaram variação > 1 cm e os recém-nascidos a termo e pós-termo tiveram variação < 1 cm. As taxas de detecção de pequeno e grande para idade gestacional foram 2,9% e 4,3%, respectivamente. Stunting afetou 6,5% de todos os recém-nascidos e waisting 1,5%, com predomínio em meninas e em gestações a termo; ambas as condições estavam presentes em 0,4% da amostra. Conclusões: Os recém-nascidos de Ribeirão Preto, quando comparados com o padrão Intergrowth-21st, apresentam-se mais pesados, mais longos e com maior circunferência craniana até chegarem a termo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Birth Weight , Body Height , Brazil/epidemiology , Cephalometry , Gestational Age , Head
16.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e381, abr.-jun. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138994

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fístula quilosa posoperatoria debida a lesión iatrogénica del conducto torácico es una complicación infrecuente y grave de la cirugía de cabeza y cuello. Objetivo: Describir las opciones de tratamiento de la fístula quilosa cervical posquirúrgica. Caso clínico: Se presenta un paciente de 18 años de edad con diagnóstico de linfangioma quístico de la región lateral izquierda del cuello, intervenido en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital "Mnazi Mmoja", de Zanzíbar, Tanzania. Durante la evolución posoperatoria se constató una fístula quilosa de bajo débito la cual resolvió mediante tratamiento médico. El enfermo egresó curado a los 28 días después de la intervención quirúrgica. Conclusión: El tratamiento conservador es efectivo en la mayoría de las fístulas quilosas cervicales de bajo débito, mientras que en las de débito alto la cirugía ofrece una rápida resolución, aunque no existe consenso en torno al momento ideal para realizarla(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative chylous fistula due to iatrogenic thoracic duct injury is an infrequent and serious complication of head and neck surgery. Objective: To describe the treatment options of postoperative cervical chylous fistula. Clinical case: It was presented an 18-year-old patient with diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma of the left lateral region of the neck, which was removed in the General Surgery Service of the National Hospital Mnazi Mmoja of Zanzibar, Tanzania. During the postoperative evolution, a low-output chylous fistula was found and resolved by medical treatment. The patient withdrew cured at 28 days after the surgical intervention. Conclusion: Conservative treatment is effective in the majority of low-out put cervical chylous fistulas, while in high-debit, surgery offers a rapid resolution, although there is no consensus about the ideal time to perform it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Fistula , Conservative Treatment , Head , Neck
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

ABSTRACT

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Height , Cephalometry/methods , Head/anatomy & histology , Anthropology , Time Factors , Albania , Face/anatomy & histology , Kosovo
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 34-42, mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179292

ABSTRACT

Anthropometric studies began as a methodology in biological anthropology for comparing of the anthropological features of the today's nations and previous nations too, as well as in screening and diagnosing of malnutrition. It is evident that a large number of studies have been performed on measures of body height, weight, trunk and limb dimensions, subcutaneous fatness and body composition, etc., but less attention has been paid to cephalofacial measurements. The purpose of this research was to study and explain the latent structure of the humans' cephalofacial variables.On 754 healthy entities (561 male entities and 193 female entities), aged 18-35 years, were measured 11 cephalofacial variables. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive parameters, Correlation analysis, and Factorial analyses. Correlation analysis confirms the existing of some variables' sets, which are characterized with the higher correlations between variables within the set. Through the principal component analysis of the Factor Analysis (rotation method direct obliging, Keiser criterion) were extracted four latent factors which explain 66.39 % of the total variance: Factor of intracranial capacity; Transversal factor of the face; Longitudinal factor of the face.Conclusion: The composition of the extracted factors was compatible with the scientific explanation of the anthropologists regarding the development of the head.


Los estudios antropométricos comenzaron como una metodología en antropología biológica para comparar las características antropológicas de las naciones modernas y también de las naciones en la antigüedad, así como para el cribado y diagnóstico de desnutrición. Se han realizado una gran cantidad de estudios sobre medidas de altura corporal, peso, dimensiones del tronco y las extremidades, grasa subcutánea y composición corporal, etc., pero se ha prestado menos atención a las medidas cefalofaciales. El propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar y explicar la estructura latente de las variables cefalofaciales de los humanos. Se midieron 11 variables cefalofaciales en 754 sujetos sanos (561 hombres y 193 mujeres), de 18 a 35 años. Los datos recolectados fueron analizados mediante parámetros descriptivos, análisis de correlación y análisis factoriales. El análisis de correlación confirma la existencia de algunos conjuntos de variables, que se caracterizan por tener las correlaciones más altas entre las variables dentro del conjunto. Mediante el análisis de componentes principales del Análisis Factorial se extrajeron cuatro factores latentes que explican el 66,39% de la varianza total: Factor de capacidad intracraneal; Factor transversal de la cara; Factor longitudinal del rostro. Conclusión: La composición de los factores extraídos fue compatible con la explicación científica de los antropólogos sobre el desarrollo de la cabeza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Anthropometry , Cephalometry , Albania , Kosovo , Head/growth & development
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