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1.
Buenos Aires; IECS; 16 mayo 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1119365

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La enfermedad por el Coronavirus 2019 (COVID­19, por su sigla en inglés Coronavirus Disease 2019) es una enfermedad respiratoria de humanos producida por un nuevo coronavirus identificado con la sigla SARS-CoV-2. TECNOLOGÍA: La ventilación en decúbito prono o ventilación en prono se refiere a la ventilación mecánica brindada a los pacientes que se encuentran en posición prono ("boca abajo"). El posicionamiento de estos pacientes en prono requiere de la coordinación de entre 5 y 6 integrantes de los cuales uno debe ser un terapista respiratorio (kinesiólogo respiratorio) el cual debe asegurar la estabilidad de tubo endotraqueal y un medico clínico experimentado que pueda re intubar al paciente de ser necesario. Si bien esta técnica no requiere de monitoreo adicional, se debe evaluar con mayor frecuencia el manejo de las secreciones y la necesidad de aspiraciones endotraqueal ya que puede aumenta la cantidad de secreciones. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia y seguridad de la ventilación en decúbito prono en el tratamiento de la infección por COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas y guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y recomendaciones de diferentes sistemas de salud. CONCLUSIONES: Evidencia de muy baja calidad proveniente de series de casos y un estudio observacional no permite determinar al eficacia y seguridad del posicionamiento en prono en pacientes con COVID-19 y insuficiencia respiratoria aguda con o sin ventilación mecánica invasiva. Podría mejorar la oxigenación, pero es menos claro su efecto en mortalidad, tiempo de ventilación mecánica, tiempo de internación o en la tasa de pacientes intubados en el caso de pacientes sin ventilación mecánica. No hay información sobre posibles efectos adversos como obstrucción del tubo endotraqueal y úlceras por presión. Instituciones como el Ministerio de Salud de Argentina, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, o Institutos Nacionales de Salud de Estados Unidos, entre otras, recomiendan considerar el posicionamiento prono en pacientes con síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo, moderado o severo por COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. En el caso de posicionamiento en prono en pacientes sin ventilación mecánica invasiva, instituciones como Institutos Nacionales de Salud de Estados Unidos, la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva y otras instituciones nacionales e internacionales, no mencionan su uso en pacientes con COVID-19. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera su uso solo en protocolos de investigación para establecer su seguridad y eficacia e Institutos Nacionales de Salud de Estados Unidos considera esta intervención para mejorar la oxigenación en pacientes con hipoxemia refractaria, con el objetivo de retrasar el inicio de la ventilación mecánica invasiva, o cuando la misma está contraindicada. Al momento de realizar este documento es muy alta la incertidumbre asociada a la eficacia y seguridad del posicionamiento en prono para el tratamiento de la infección por COVID-19, debido a que la evidencia disponible es de muy baja calidad, y esto impide arribar a conclusiones firmes. Es importante tener en cuenta que se encuentran en curso más de 50 estudios por lo que puede ser que la incertidumbre actualmente existente se reduzca en el corto a mediano plazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Head-Down Tilt , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 65 p. ilust, tabelas, quadros.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1121607

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O delirium no pós-operatório é a complicação neurológica pós-cirúrgica mais comum. A cirurgia laparoscópica, quando associada à posição de Trendelenburg (PT), traz inúmeras alterações na fisiologia e pode aumentar o risco para o aparecimento de alterações neurocognitivas. A associação de anestesia geral com bloqueio subaracnóideo permite utilizar uma dose menor de agentes anestésicos para a manutenção da anestesia e proporciona melhor controle da dor pós-operatória. Objetivos: Avaliar se o bloqueio subaracnóideo pode influenciar na incidência de delirium no pós-operatório em pacientes oncológicos após cirurgia laparoscópica em PT. Analisar outros fatores associados. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo randomizado e controlado, realizado com pacientes oncológicos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas laparoscópicas em PT. Alocamos 150 pacientes em 2 grupos: G1 - anestesia geral; G2 - anestesia geral associada ao bloqueio subaracnóideo com 15 mg de bupivacaína. Ambos os grupos receberam 50 mcg de morfina intratecal. Os pacientes foram avaliados no pós-operatório imediato até a alta hospitalar para descartar delirium no pós-operatório. Resultados: Foram avaliados 130 pacientes e a incidência de delirium no pós-operatório foi 29 (22,3%), G1 (30,8%) e G2 (13,8%). Os pacientes que receberam apenas anestesia geral apresentaram maior risco de delirium no pós-operatório do que os pacientes que receberam anestesia geral associada ao bloqueio subaracnóideo (OR 3,4 IC 1,2-9,6 p = 0,020). Os pacientes com maior risco foram aqueles com ausência de ensino superior (OR 6,2 IC 1,8-21,5 p = 0,003), idade> 65 anos (OR 3,3 IC 1,2-9,2 p = 0,017) e maior pressão de pneumoperitônio (OR 1,7 IC 1,1-2,5 p = 0,008). Conclusões: O bloqueio subaracnóideo foi associado à redução da incidência de delirium no pós-operatório em pacientes oncológicos submetidos a cirurgias eletivas laparoscópicas em PT. Ausência de ensino superior, idade avançada e maior pressão de pneumoperitônio foram outros fatores de risco identificados e associados a um aumento na incidência de delirium no pós-operatório


Background: Postoperative delirium is the most common post-surgical neurological complication. Laparoscopic surgery, when associated with Trendelenburg position, brings innumerable changes in physiology and could increase the risk for the appearance of neurocognitive changes. The association of general anesthesia with spinal anesthesia allows to use a lower dose of anesthetic agents for the maintenance of anesthesia and provides a better control of postoperative pain. Objectives: The primary outcome was to evaluate if spinal block could influence in the incidence of postoperative delirium in oncologic patients after laparoscopic surgery in Trendelenburg position. The secondary outcome was to analyze if there were factors associated. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was realized with oncologic patients underwent to elective laparoscopic surgeries in Trendelenburg position. We allocated 150 patients in 2 groups. G1 - general anesthesia; G2 - general anesthesia associated with a spinal anesthesia with 15 mg of bupivacaine. Both groups received 50 mcg of spinal morphine. Patients were evaluated in immediate postoperative until discharge from hospital to rule out neurocognitive disorders. Results: We evaluated 130 patients and the incidence of postoperative delirium was 29 (22,3%), G1 (30,8%) and G2 (13,8%). Patients who received only general anesthesia had higher risk for postoperative delirium than patients who received general anesthesia associated with spinal block (OR 3,4 CI 1,2-9,6 p=0,020). Patients at a higher risk were those with absence higher education (OR 6,2 CI 1,8-21,5 p=0,003), age > 65 years (OR 3,3 CI 1,2-9,2 p=0,017) and higher pneumoperitoneum pressure (OR 1,7 CI 1,1-2,5 p=0,008). Conclusions: Spinal block was associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative delirium with oncologic patients underwent to elective laparoscopic surgeries in Trendelenburg position. Low educational level, advanced age and higher pneumoperitoneum pressure were other risk factors identified and associated with an increase in the incidence of postoperative delirium


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Subarachnoid Space , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy , Head-Down Tilt , Delirium , Neoplasms
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 553-560, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the pressure-controlled, volume-guaranteed (PCV-VG) and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) modes for maintaining adequate airway pressures, lung compliance and oxygenation in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy in the Trendelenburg position. Methods: Patients (104) who underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery with a body mass index between 30 and 40 kg.m-2 were randomized to receive either VCV or PCV-VG ventilation. The tidal volume was set at 8 mL.kg-1, with an inspired oxygen concentration of 0.4 with a Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) of 5 mmHg. The peak inspiratory pressure, mean inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, driving pressure, dynamic compliance, respiratory rate, exhaled tidal volume, etCO2, arterial blood gas analysis, heart rate and mean arterial pressure at 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia in the and at 5, 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, after pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position were recorded. Results: The PCV-VG group had significantly decreased peak inspiratory pressure, mean inspiratory pressur, plateau pressure, driving pressure and increased dynamic compliance compared to the VCV group. Mean PaO2 levels were significantly higher in the PCV-VG group than in the VCV group at every time point after pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. Conclusions: The PCV-VG mode of ventilation limited the peak inspiratory pressure, decreased the driving pressure and increased the dynamic compliance compared to VCV in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. PCV-VG may be a preferable modality to prevent barotrauma during laparoscopic surgeries in obese patients.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a eficácia dos modos de ventilação garantida por volume controlado por pressão (PCV-VG) e ventilação controlada por volume (VCV) para manter pressões adequadas nas vias aéreas, complacência pulmonar e oxigenação em pacientes obesos submetidos à histerectomia laparoscópica na posição de Trendelenburg. Métodos: Cento e quatro pacientes submetidos à cirurgia ginecológica laparoscópica, com índice de massa corporal entre 30 e 40 kg.m-2, foram randomizados para receber ventilação com VCV ou PCV-VG. O volume corrente foi fixado em 8 mL.kg-1, com uma concentração inspirada de oxigênio de 0,4 e pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP) de 5 mmHg. Registramos os seguintes parâmetros: pressão de pico inspiratório, pressão inspiratória média, pressão de platô, driving pressure, complacência dinâmica, frequência respiratória, volume corrente expirado, etCO2, gasometria arterial, frequência cardíaca e pressão arterial média aos 5, 30 e 60 minutos, respectivamente, após o pneumoperitônio na posição de Trendelenburg. Resultados: O grupo PCV-VG apresentou uma redução significativa da pressão de pico inspiratório, pressão inspiratória média, pressão de platô, driving pressure e aumento da complacência dinâmica comparado ao grupo VCV. Os níveis médios de PaO2 foram significativamente maiores no grupo PCV-VG do que no grupo VCV em todos os momentos após o pneumoperitônio na posição de Trendelenburg. Conclusões: O modo de ventilação PCV-VG limitou a pressão de pico inspiratório, diminuiu a driving pressure e aumentou a complacência dinâmica, comparado ao VCV em pacientes obesas submetidas à histerectomia laparoscópica. O PCV-VG pode ser uma modalidade preferida para prevenir o barotrauma durante cirurgias laparoscópicas em pacientes obesos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Head-Down Tilt , Obesity/complications , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Tidal Volume/physiology , Lung Compliance/physiology , Prospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Middle Aged
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), a disadvantage of laparoscopic or robotic surgery, is caused by the steep angle of the Trendelenburg position and the CO₂ pneumoperitoneum. Recently, sonographically measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) was suggested as a simple and non-invasive method for detecting increased ICP. This study aimed to explore the changes in ONSD in relation to different anesthetic agents used in gynecologic surgery.METHODS: Fifty patients were randomly allocated to two groups, sevoflurane (group SEV, n = 25) and propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) group (group TIVA, n = 25). The ONSD was measured at five time points (T0–T4): T0 was measured 5 min after induction of anesthesia in the supine position; T1, T2, and T3 were measured at 5, 15, and 30 min after CO₂ pneumoperitoneum induction in the Trendelenburg position; and T4 was measured at 5 min after discontinuation of CO₂ pneumoperitoneum in the supine position. Respiratory and hemodynamic variables were also recorded.RESULTS: The intra-group changes in mean ONSD in the Trendelenburg position were significantly increased in both groups. However, inter-group changes in mean ONSD were not significantly different at T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4. Heart rates in group TIVA were significantly lower than those in group SEV at points T1–T4.CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the ONSD between the two groups until 30 min into the gynecologic surgery with CO₂ pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. This study suggests that there is no difference in the ONSD between the two anesthetic methods.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Head-Down Tilt , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Methods , Optic Nerve , Pneumoperitoneum , Propofol , Supine Position , Ultrasonography
5.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(6): 931-942, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991298

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cada día resulta mayor la proporción de ancianos que asiste a los quirófanos. El manejo de estos pacientes ha ido evolucionando aparejadamente a las técnicas mínimamente invasivas, encaminadas a evitar la hospitalización, las complejas pruebas complementarias y los costosos tratamientos. Objetivo: Determinar los factores que repercuten en la hemodinamia del paciente geriátrico durante la colecistectomía laparoscópica. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y analítico de 132 pacientes mayores de 60 años intervenidos por colecistectomía laparoscópica electiva, en el Hospital clínico-quirúrgico Julio Trigo López durante el período comprendido desde enero de 2014 hasta junio de 2016. Resultados: Predominó el grupo correspondiente a los 60 - 69 años de edad, el sexo femenino y el estado físico ASA II. El 75 por ciento de los pacientes no sufrió cambios hemodinámicos. Se presentó un 25 por ciento de variabilidades hemodinámicas predominantes en el grupo de 70-79 años de edad. La diferencia en la variabilidad hemodinámica entre los grupos etarios resultó altamente significativa. La hipertensión arterial (51,5 por ciento) y la taquicardia (27,3 por ciento) fueron las variaciones más frecuentes. Los factores determinantes en los cambios fueron dependientes del proceder quirúrgico: mayor presión intrabdominal posneumoperitoneo (22 por ciento) y Trendelenburg superior a 10 grados (93,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los factores determinantes en la hemodinamia fueron dependientes del acto quirúrgico. Se presentaron variaciones significativas entre los diferentes grupos etarios, sugiriendo cierta influencia del factor edad, pero la mayor longevidad no constituyó un aspecto decisivo. La colecistectomía laparoscópica es una valiosa alternativa terapéutica para los pacientes ancianos(AU)


Introduction: The number of elderly patients undergoing surgery is greater every day. The management of these patients has been evolving together with minimal invasive techniques, aimed at avoiding hospitalization, complex complementary tests, and expensive treatments. Objective: To determine the factors that have an effect on the hemodynamics of the geriatric patient during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, and analytic study was conducted in 132 patients older than 60 years of age who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the Julio Trigo López Clinical and Surgical Hospital during the period between January 2014 to June 2016. Results: Subjects aged 60 to 69 years, the female sex, and the physical state ASA II predominated in the study. 75% of these patients did not suffer hemodynamic changes. 25 percent of predominant hemodynamic variabilities were present especially in the group aged 70 to 79 years. The difference in hemodynamic variability between the age groups was highly significant. Arterial hypertension (51,5 percent and tachycardia (27,3 percent) were the most frequent variations. The determining factors in the changes were dependent on the surgical procedure: higher intra-abdominal pressure after pneumoperitoneum (22 percent) and Trendelenburg higher than 10 degrees (93.9 percent). Conclusions: The determining factors in hemodynamics were dependent on the surgical act. There were significant variations among the different age groups, suggesting a certain influence of the age factor, but the greatest longevity didn't constitute a decisive aspect. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a valuable therapeutic alternative for elderly patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Head-Down Tilt/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) at the end of the operation to decrease laparoscopy-induced abdominal or shoulder pain after gynecological oncologic surgery. METHODS: In total, 113 women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for malignant or premalignant gynecological lesions were assigned randomly to two groups: the PRM group (the patient was placed in the Trendelenburg position (30°) and the PRM, consisting of two manual pulmonary inflations to a maximum pressure of 40 cmH2O) (n=54) and the control group (n=52). Postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain was assessed 12, 24, and 48 hours later using a visual analog scale (0–10). In addition, the incidence of post-discharge nausea and vomiting was recorded until 48 hours after discharge. RESULTS: Postoperative shoulder pain at 12 and 24 hours was significantly less severe in the PRM group (2.2±0.5 and 2.0±0.4) than in the control group (4.0±0.5 and 3.9±0.4; both p < 0.001). The PRM significantly reduced the severity of upper abdominal pain at 12 and 24 h compared with the control group (3.1±0.4 and 2.9±0.4 vs. 5.9±0.5 and 4.9±0.5; both p < 0.001). The analgesic requirement during the postoperative period was similar in the two groups (control group, 78.8%; PRM group, 75.9%; p=0.719). CONCLUSION: The PRM effectively and safely reduced postoperative shoulder and upper abdominal pain levels in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological oncologic surgery. Trial registry at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01940042.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Incidence , Laparoscopy , Nausea , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Shoulder , Shoulder Pain , Visual Analog Scale , Vomiting
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1139-1144, set.-out. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-877301

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do pneumoperitônio e da posição de Trendelenburg sobre o fluxo de saída do ventrículo esquerdo em gatos anestesiados. Quatorze gatos foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos, ambos submetidos ao pneumoperitônio com 10mmHg de dióxido de carbono (CO2). No grupo controle (GC n=7), os animais foram submetidos apenas ao pneumoperitônio e, no grupo Trendelenburg (GTREN n=7), os animais foram colocados em cefalodeclive 20° após o pneumoperitônio. A indução anestésica foi realizada com isoflurano, utilizando-se caixa de indução. Posteriormente, os animais foram mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com o mesmo fármaco. Foram avaliados a velocidade do fluxo de saída do ventrículo esquerdo (VFSVE), os gradientes máximo (GmáxSVE) e médio (GmédSVE) de pressão e a integral velocidade-tempo (IVT). Os parâmetros foram mensurados nos momentos T0 (basal), antes da insuflação; T5 (cinco), T15 (quinze) e T30 (trinta) minutos após a insuflação. Os resultados mostraram um aumento da VFSVE no GC, em T15 e T30 (P=0,024), e um aumento do GmáxSVE no GC, em T30 (P=0,045). As variáveis não se alteraram significativamente em nenhum momento no GTREN. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a posição de Trendelenburg favoreceu o sistema cardiovascular, preservando os índices de fluxo sanguíneo na saída do ventrículo esquerdo.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position on the left ventricular outflow in anesthetized cats. Fourteen cats were randomly divided into two groups, both submitted to pneumoperitoneum of 10 mmHg with carbon dioxide (CO2), and in the control group (GC n = 7) the animals were subjected only to pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg group (n = 7 GTREN) the animals were placed in cefalodeclive 20° after pneumoperitoneum. Anesthesia of the animals was performed with isoflurane using induction box, keeping the animals under inhalation anesthesia with the same drug. We evaluated the speed of the left ventricular outflow (VFSVE), the maximum pressure gradient (GmáxSVE), mean pressure gradient (GmédSVE) and velocity-time integrals (IVT). The parameters were measured in time, T0 (baseline), before the insufflation; T5 (five); T15 (fifteen) and T30 (thirty) minutes after inflation. The results showed an increase in VFSVE in GC, T15 and T30 (p = 0,024) and an increase in GmáxSVE in GC in T30 (p = 0,045). The variables did not change significantly at any time in GTREN. Thus, it is concluded that the Trendelenburg position favored the cardiovascular system, preserving blood flow rates in the left ventricular outflow.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Head-Down Tilt , Heart Ventricles , Isoflurane/therapeutic use , Pneumoperitoneum/veterinary , Anesthesia, Local/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed/veterinary
8.
Journal of Dentistry-Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. 2017; 18 (3): 181-186
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188516

ABSTRACT

Statement of the Problem: The most important risk factor for inferior alveolar nerve [IAN] damage is the proximity of the mandibular root apices to the alveolar canal. Failure to position the patient's head at standardized orientation during cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans might adversely affect the relative position of the alveolar canal and mandibular root apices with subsequent treatment failure


Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the orientations of the skull during the scanning procedure on the accuracy of CBCT images in determining the positional relationship of the mandibular tooth apices to the alveolar canal


Materials and Method: CBCT scans of 7 human dry skulls were obtained by using NewTom VGi CBCT in standard, tilt, flexion, extension and rotation positions of the head. The shortest radiographic distance between the mandibular tooth apices and the IAN canal of 20 points were measured on cross sectional images of CBCT in all position scans. A sample t-test was used to compare the measurements at different head position with the standard position values


Results: Significant differences were found in the measurements of normal and tilt orientations. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the measurements in standard position and other deviated positions. The mean errors in all head positions were less than 0.5mm


Conclusion: Alteration of patient head positioning during CBCT scanning does not affect the relative position of the IAN and the apices of posterior teeth


Subject(s)
Humans , Mandibular Nerve , Tooth Apex , Alveolar Process , Head Movements , Head-Down Tilt , Patient Positioning
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 323-327, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303153

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Few studies have focused on peripheral nerve conduction during exposure to microgravity. The -6° head-down tilt (HDT) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and after prolonged exposure to HDT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six rhesus monkeys (3-4 years old) were tilted backward 6° from the horizontal. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and fibular motor nerves. Analysis of variance with a randomized block design was conducted to compare the differences in the NCS before and 7, 21, and 42 days after the -6° HDT.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (4.38 ± 2.83 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 4.85, P = 0.013 and 3.30 ± 2.70 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). The distal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 7, 21, and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (7.28 ± 1.27 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 4.03, P = 0.039; 5.05 ± 2.01 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 6.25, P = 0.04; and 3.95 ± 2.79 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 7.35, P = 0.01; respectively). The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the tibial nerve was significantly decreased at 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (6.14 ± 1.94 vs. 11.87 ± 3.19 mV, F = 5.02, P = 0.039).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity.</p>


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Physiology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Neural Conduction , Physiology , Weightlessness Simulation
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(1): 69-77, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The unique positioning of the patient at steep Trendelenburg with prolonged and increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during robotic radical prostatectomy may increase the risk of splanchnic ischemia. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of IAP and steep Trendelenburg position on the level of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and to test if serum IMA levels might be used as a surrogate marker for possible covert ischemia during robotic radical prostatectomies. Patients and Methods Fifty ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective robotic radical prostatectomy were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria The patients were excluded from the study when an arterial cannulation could not be accomplished, if the case had to be converted to open surgery or if the calculated intraoperative bleeding exceeded 300ml. All the patients were placed in steep (45 degrees) Trendelenburg position following trocar placement. Throughout the operation the IAP was maintained between 11-14mmHg. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) were continuously monitored before the induction and throughout the surgery. Blood gases, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST) were recorded. Additionally, IMA levels were measured before, during and after surgery. Results (1) MAP, CO, lactate and hemoglobin (Hb) did not significantly change in any period of surgery (p>0.05); (2) sodium (p<0.01), potassium (p<0.05) and urea (p<0.05) levels decreased at postoperative period, and no significant changes at creatinine, AST, ALT levels were observed in these patients; (3) At the end of surgery (180 min) pCO2, pO2, HCO3 and BE did not change compared to after induction values (p>0.05) but mild acidosis was present in these patients (p<0.01 vs. after induction); (4) IMA levels were found to be comparable before induction (0.34±0.04), after induction (0.31±0.06) ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/methods , Pressure , Prostatectomy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial/adverse effects , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Reference Values , Splanchnic Circulation , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Serum Albumin , Cardiac Output , Biomarkers/blood , Analysis of Variance , Laparoscopy/methods , Head-Down Tilt , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Arterial Pressure , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Serum Albumin, Human , Hemodynamics , Ischemia/etiology , Middle Aged
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177910

ABSTRACT

Perioperative stroke can lead to mortality or serious disability and usually occurs in patients undergoing cardiac, vascular, or neurologic surgery; it is rare in gynecological surgery. We report the case of a patient who suffered life-threatening cerebral infarction after elective laparoscopic hysterectomy. During the surgery, the patient was placed in the Trendelenburg position. On postoperative day one, the patient was diagnosed with right hemisphere cerebral infarction; brain computed tomographic angiography showed proximal right internal carotid artery occlusion. Decompressive craniectomy was performed to resolve brain swelling, but the patient died 10 days later.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Hysterectomy , Mortality , Stroke
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224845

ABSTRACT

Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) during surgery is a risk factor for postoperative ophthalmological complications. We assessed the efficacy of systemically infused dexmedetomidine in preventing the increase in IOP caused by a steep Trendelenburg position, and evaluated the influence of underlying hypertension on IOP during surgery. Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery in a steep Trendelenburg position were included. Patients in the dexmedetomidine group received a 1.0 µg/kg IV loading dose of dexmedetomidine before anesthesia, followed by an infusion of 0.5 µg/kg/hr throughout the operation. Patients in the saline group were infused with the same volume of normal saline. IOP and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) were measured 16 times pre- and intraoperatively. In the saline group, IOP increased in the steep Trendelenburg position, and was 11.3 mmHg higher at the end of the time at the position compared with the baseline value (before anesthetic induction). This increase in IOP was attenuated in the dexmedetomidine group, for which IOP was only 4.2 mmHg higher (P < 0.001 vs. the saline group). The steep Trendelenburg position was associated with a decrease in OPP; the degree of decrease was comparable for both groups. In intragroup comparisons between patients with underlying hypertension and normotensive patients, the values of IOP at every time point were comparable. Dexmedetomidine infusion attenuated the increase in IOP during laparoscopic surgery in a steep Trendelenburg position, without further decreasing the OPP. Systemic hypertension did not seem to be associated with any additional increase in IOP during surgery. (Registration at the Clinical Research Information Service of Korea National Institute of Health ID: KCT0001482)


Subject(s)
Aged , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Eye Diseases/surgery , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects , Intraoperative Complications/drug therapy , Laparoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tonometry, Ocular , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic gastrectomy requires a reverse-Trendelenburg position and prolonged pneumoperitoneum and it could cause significant changes in cerebral homeostasis and lead to cognitive dysfunction. We compared changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), early postoperative cognitive function and hemodynamic variables in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy with those patients that underwent conventional open gastrectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and the patients were distributed to receive either laparoscopic gastrectomy (laparoscopy group, n = 30) or open conventional gastrectomy (open group, n = 30). rSO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension, hemodynamic variables and arterial blood gas analysis were monitored during the operation. The enrolled patients underwent the mini-mental state examination 1 day before and 5 days after surgery for evaluation of early postoperative cognitive function. RESULTS: Compared to baseline value, rSO2 and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension increased significantly in the laparoscopy group after pneumoperitoneum, whereas no change was observed in the open group. No patient experienced cerebral oxygen desaturation or postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Changes in mean arterial pressure over time were significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both laparoscopic and open gastrectomy did not induce cerebral desaturation or early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients under desflurane anesthesia. However, rSO2 values during surgery favoured laparoscopic surgery, which was possibly related to increased cerebral blood flow due to increased carbon dioxide tension and the effect of a reverse Trendelenburg position.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Gastrectomy , Head-Down Tilt , Hemodynamics , Homeostasis , Humans , Laparoscopy , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This randomized, controlled study was designed to compare the effects of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) with a 15 cmH₂O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the systemic oxygenation and lung compliance of patients with healthy lungs following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing a RALP with an intraoperative 15 cmH₂O PEEP were randomly allocated to an RM or a Control group. The patients in the RM group received a single RM through the application of a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cmH₂O for 40 s 15 min after being placed in the Trendelenburg position. The arterial oxygen tension (PaO₂, primary endpoint) and the pulmonary dynamic and static compliances (secondary endpoints) were measured 10 min after the anesthetic induction (T1), 10 min after establishment of the pneumoperitoneum (T2), 10 min after establishment of the Trendelenburg position (T3), 10 min after the RM (T4), 60 min after the RM (T5), and 10 min after deflation of the pneumoperitoneum in the supine position (T6). RESULTS: The intergroup comparisons of the PaO₂ showed significantly higher values in the RM group than in the Control group at T4 and T5 (193 ± 35 mmHg vs. 219 ± 33 mmHg, P = 0.015, 188 ± 41 mmHg vs. 214 ± 42 mmHg, P = 0.005, respectively). However, the PaO₂ at T6 was similar in the two groups (211 ± 39 mmHg vs. 224 ± 41 mmHg, P = 0.442). Moreover, there were no statistical differences between the groups in the dynamic and static compliances of the lungs at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: The arterial oxygenation of the patients with a healthy lung function who had undergone a RALP with intraoperative 15 cmH₂O PEEP was improved by a single RM. However, this benefit did not last long, and it did not lead to an amelioration of the lung mechanics.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Lung , Lung Compliance , Mechanics , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prostatectomy , Supine Position
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52558

ABSTRACT

Pseudo-Meigs syndrome is accompanied with pleural effusion, ascites and a benign or malignant tumor of ovary, tubes, uterus, round ligament or colon. We reported a case of hypoxia in an ovarian cancer patient with moderate ascites after head-down tilt position for central venous catheterization under general anesthesia. Massive pleural effusion was detected on portable chest X-ray, which was not observed in a preoperative radiologic test. The patient had no respiratory symptoms and breath sound was normal in both lungs prior to surgery. The pleural effusion was resolved by a chest tube insertion.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Hypoxia , Ascites , Catheterization, Central Venous , Central Venous Catheters , Chest Tubes , Colon , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Lung , Ovarian Neoplasms , Ovary , Pleural Effusion , Round Ligament of Uterus , Thorax , Uterus
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(4): 661-668, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763062

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:To assess whether retinal and central nervous system (CNS) comorbidities are risk factors for complications following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP).Materials and Methods:A retrospective review of our RALP database identified 1868 patients who underwent RALP by a single surgeon between December 10, 2003-March 14, 2014. We hypothesized that patients with preexisting retinal or CNS comorbidities were at a greater risk of suffering retinal and CNS complications following RALP. Perioperative complications and risk of recurrence were graded using the Clavien and D'Amico systems, respectively.Results:40 (2.1%) patients had retinal or CNS-related comorbidities, of which 15 had a history of retinal surgery and 24 had a history of cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm and/or neurosurgery. One additional patient had a history of both retinal and CNS events.Patients with retinal or CNS comorbidities were significantly older, had elevated PSA levels and CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index) scores than the control group. Blood loss, length of stay, surgical duration, BMI, diagnostic Gleason score and T-stage were not statistically different between groups.No retinal or CNS complications occurred in either group. The distribution of patients between D'Amico risk categories was not statistically different between the groups. There was also no difference in the incidence of total complications between the groups.Conclusions:RALP-associated retinal and CNS complications are rare. While our RALP database is large, the cohort of patients with retinal or CNS-related comorbidities was relatively small. Our dataset suggests retinal and CNS pathology presents no greater risk of suffering from perioperative complications following RALP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Stroke/etiology , Comorbidity , Central Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Incidence , Operative Time , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/epidemiology , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/etiology , Perioperative Period , Prostatectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/epidemiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355298

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position on cerebral blood backflow during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in elderly patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty elderly patients (65-80 years) and 50 middle-aged patients (45-64 years) undergoing elective robot-assisted prostatectomy were enrolled in this study. For all the patients, jugular bulb and arterial blood gas was monitored and recorded before pneumoperitoneum (0), 10 min after pneumoperitoneum was achieved (T₁), 10 min (T₂) and 60 min (3) after Trendelenberg position, and 10 min in supine position after termination of pneumoperitoneum (4).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those at 0, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and BIS value at 1, 2, 3 and 4 all showed no significant variations (P>0.05), but rSO2, SjvO2, and JBP increased significantly in both groups (P<0.01). Compared with those in the middle-aged group, rSO₂, SjvO₂, and JBP increased significantly and Da-jO₂decreased at 2, 3 in the elderly group (P<0.01), but jugular vein blood glucose or lactic acid content showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position cause more obvious cerebral blood backflow in elderly patients than in middle-aged patients but do not affect cerebral metabolism of oxygen.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain , Carbon Dioxide , Head-Down Tilt , Heart Rate , Humans , Jugular Veins , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial , Prostate , General Surgery , Prostatectomy , Methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Methods
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minimal invasive gynecologic surgery usually requires pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning, which results in adverse effects on respiratory and hemodynamic parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) introduced sequentially in patients who underwent gynecological laparoscopy on respiratory mechanics, cardiovascular responses, and gas exchange. METHODS: Forty patients who were scheduled for gynecologic laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Baseline ventilation of their lungs was performed with VCV with a tidal volume (TV) of 8 ml/kg ideal body weight (IBW). Forty minutes after pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning, the ventilation mode was changed to PCV, and airway pressure was set to provide a TV of 8 ml/kg IBW without exceeding 35 cmH2O. Respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters were recorded at 10 minutes after induction, 30 minutes after CO2 pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning, 30 minutes after PCV, and 30 minutes after desufflation and supine position. RESULTS: After pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning, there were significant increases in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, central venous pressure, peak airway pressure (PAP), mean airway pressure (Pmean), whereas lung compliance and PaO2 significantly decreased. The decrease in PAP and increases of Pmean, lung compliance and PaO2 were observed during PCV compared with VCV (P < 0.05). There were no differences in hemodynamic parameters between VCV and PCV. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that PCV may be an effective method of ventilation during gynecologic laparoscopy in terms of improved oxygenation and minimizing adverse respiratory mechanics.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Central Venous Pressure , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Head-Down Tilt , Hemodynamics , Humans , Ideal Body Weight , Laparoscopy , Lung , Lung Compliance , Oxygen , Pneumoperitoneum , Respiratory Mechanics , Supine Position , Tidal Volume , Ventilation
19.
Singapore medical journal ; : 468-471, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244778

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>We compared the effects of various surgical positions, with and without the Valsalva manoeuvre, on the diameter of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We recruited 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I patients aged 2-12 years. The patients' heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO2 pressure were monitored. Induction of anaesthesia was done using 1% propofol 10 mg/mL and fentanyl 2 µg/kg, while maintenance was achieved with 2% sevoflurane in a mixture of 50/50 oxygen and air (administered via a laryngeal mask airway). The RIJV diameter was measured using ultrasonography when the patient was in the supine position. Thereafter, it was measured when the patient was in the supine position + Valsalva, followed by the Trendelenburg, Trendelenburg + Valsalva, reverse Trendelenburg, and reverse Trendelenburg + Valsalva positions. A 15° depression or elevation was applied for the Trendelenburg position, and an airway pressure of 20 cmH2O was applied in the Valsalva manoeuvre. During ultrasonography, the patient's head was tilted 20° to the left.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>When compared to the mean RIJV diameter in the supine position, the mean RIJV diameter was significantly greater in all positions (p < 0.001) except for the reverse Trendelenburg position. The greatest increase in diameter was observed in the Trendelenburg position with the Valsalva manoeuvre (p < 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In paediatric patients, the application of the Trendelenburg position with the Valsalva manoeuvre gave the greatest increase in RIJV diameter. The reverse Trendelenburg position had no significant effect on RIJV diameter.</p>


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Jugular Veins , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Methyl Ethers , Therapeutic Uses , Propofol , Therapeutic Uses , Supine Position , Ultrasonography , Valsalva Maneuver
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the physiologic changes during laparoscopic surgery, which is known to be associated with positional changes. Changes of ICP can be measured directly by invasive method, but ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is known to be a rapidly applicable technique for evaluating ICP. The aim of this study is to investigate the change of ONSD according to the positional change during laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: Female patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Fifty-seven patients were assigned according to the position during surgery (Group T: gynecological surgery, Trendelenburg position, n = 27 vs. Group RT: laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Reverse trendelenburg position, n = 30). After induction of anesthesia, ONSD, PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. Parameters were measured at 6 time points during surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the demographic data of patients, procedure time, and anesthesia. After pneumoperitoneum and positional change, ONSD, ETCO2, and MAP increased in both groups until 15 min and returned to the baseline. However, no significant differences in changes of ONSD, PaCO2, ETCO2, and MAP were observed between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: ONSD during laparoscopic surgery with pneumoperitoneum increased slightly until 15 minutes, but there were no significant differences according to the position. Increases in ICP during laparoscopic surgery with short period of pneumoperitoneum would be small in disregard of position in patients without intracranial pathology.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Arterial Pressure , Carbon Dioxide , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Laparoscopy , Optic Nerve , Pathology , Pneumoperitoneum , Ultrasonography
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