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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e23954, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368180

ABSTRACT

Introdução:Os Centros Dentários Especializados devem apoiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde dentro de uma complexidade média. Objetivo:Construirindicadores de desempenho com base em um modelo lógico que ilustra os recursos, atividades, produtos e resultados exigidos por um Centro Odontológico Especializado para cumprir sua missão. Metodologia:Para validá-los, professores, gerentes médios e gerentes (n = 6) atribuíram uma pontuação (0-9) a cada atributo (validade, sensibilidade, especificidade, relevância, simplicidade,custo-benefício, oportunidade) dos indicadores, antes e depois da discussão em grupo. Resultados:Dos 82 indicadores iniciais, 63 foram considerados importantes por consenso (mediana ≥7; distância interquartil ≤2) relacionados à motivação para o trabalho;absenteísmo às consultas; atmosfera organizacional; segurança do paciente; gestão participativa; recursos financeiros; produtividade; educação em saúde e interação Centro Dentário Especializado/Cuidados Primários formaram a matriz final que prevê subsidiar avaliações de desempenho, principalmente baseadas em processos de trabalho. Conclusões:A matriz final de indicadores é coerente com as discussões, onde foi essencial propor indicadores, focalizando os processos de trabalho desenvolvidos e a integração aatenção primária à saúde e os centros dentários especializados em favor da rede de saúde. Assim, procura constituir uma ferramenta de auto-avaliação que verifica como os processos de trabalho nos centros dentários especializados se alinham com os valores organizacionais da atenção primária a saúde (AU).


Introducción:Los Centros dentales especializadosdeben respaldar la Atención primaria de salud dentro de una complejidad mediana. Objetivo: Construir indicadores de rendimiento basados en un modelo lógico que ilustre los recursos, las actividades, los productos y los resultados que necesita un Centro Dental Especializado para cumplir su misión. Metodología:Para validarlos, profesores, mandos intermedios y gerentes (n = 6) asignaron un puntaje (0-9) a cada atributo (validez, sensibilidad, especificidad, relevancia, simplicidad, costo-efectividad, oportunidad) de los indicadores, antes y después discusión de grupo. Resultados: De82 indicadores iniciales, 63 se consideraron importantes por consenso (mediana ≥7, distancia intercuartílica ≤2) relacionados con la motivación para el trabajo; ausentismo a las consultas; ambiente organizacional; seguridad del paciente; administracion Participativa; recursos financieros; productividad; educación e interacción con la salud. El Centro Dental Especializado / Atención Primaria formó la matriz final que contempla subsidiar las evaluaciones de desempeño, principalmente basadas en procesos de trabajo. Conclusiones: La matriz de indicadores final es coherente con los debates, en los que era esencial proponer indicadores, centrándose en los procesos de trabajo desarrollados y en la integración de la atención primaria y los centros dentales especializados en favor de la red sanitaria. Así, pretende constituir una herramienta de autoevaluación que verifique cómo los procesos de trabajo en los centros odontológicos especializados se alinean con los valores organizativos de la atención primaria (AU).


Introduction:Specialized Dental Centers should support Primary Health Care within medium complexity. Objective:Build performance indicators based on a logic model that illustrates the resources, activities, products, and results required by a Specialized Dental Center to fulfill its mission. Methodology:To validate them, teachers, middle managers and managers (n = 6) assigned a score (0-9) to each attribute (validity, sensitivity, specificity, relevance, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, opportunity) of the indicators, before and after group discussion. Results:From 82 initial indicators, 63 were considered important by consensus (median ≥7; interquartile distance ≤2) related to motivation for work; absenteeism to the consultations; organizational atmosphere; patient safety; participative management; financial resources; productivity; health education and interaction Specialized Dental Center/Primary Care formed the final matrix that envisages to subsidize performance evaluations, mainly based on work processes. Conclusions:The final indicator matrix is consistent with the discussions, where it was essential to propose indicators, focusing on the work processes developed and the integration of primary health care and specialized dental centers in favor of the health network. Thus, it seeks to constitute a self-assessment tool that verifies how the work processes in the specialized dental centers align with the organizational values of primary health care (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Secondary Care , Oral Health , Health Care Surveys/methods , Management Indicators , Organization and Administration , Health Evaluation , Brazil , Health Education , Absenteeism
2.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e192427, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380226

ABSTRACT

Using an online questionnaire, this study evaluated the profile of a Brazilian population's food handling practices in the home environment. The questionnaire, containing questions about domestic behavior in terms of hygiene and food handling, was built and available through social media sites. Information about the participants' profiles, their food pre-preparation, food preparation, and food post-preparation practices, and the occurrence of foodborne diseases (FBDs) was included in the questionnaire. A total of 701 responses were obtained. The interviewees included 78.31% female participants and 21.68% male participants, with an average age of 31.2 years. Nearly all (94.3%) had a complete or incomplete higher education. In the pre-preparation stage, the participants evaluated the shelf life (97.28%) and storage temperature (44.79%) of the products while purchasing them. Regarding food handling practices, only a few participants washed the food packages before storing them (31.95%) or removed hand jewelry or other adornments when washing food (61.48%). Most participants washed their hands (91.58%) and washed vegetables (99.28%). But a group of interviewees reported washing raw meat (27.81%) before preparing it. Cutting surfaces such as plastic (50.36%) and glass (49.36%) tops were the most prevalent in the study. Most respondents did not know how long they had been using their cutting boards (67.62%) and mentioned using the same surface to handle both raw and ready-to-eat products (84.17%). As for the preparation, most interviewees declared they did not check the food temperature during preparation (86.31%), ignoring the ideal cooking temperature (88.26%). Regarding the occurrence of FBDs, 79.17% of the interviewees reported having suspicious clinical signs associated with contaminated foods and 65.59% did not seek medical help. Thus, the participants demonstrated ignorance about adequate practices for food safety in the home environment, highlighting the need to conduct health education programs within the Brazilian population.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil das práticas de manipulação de alimentos no ambiente domiciliar no Brasil utilizando um questionário online. Um questionário contendo perguntas sobre comportamento doméstico em nível de higiene e manipulação de alimentos foi construído e disponibilizado por redes sociais. O questionário continha informações sobre o perfil dos participantes, suas práticas de pré-preparo, preparo e pós-preparo de alimentos e a ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos (DTA). Obteve-se 701 respostas, os entrevistados foram 78,31% do sexo feminino e 21,68% do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 31,2 anos. A maioria (94,3%) possuia ensino superior completo ou incompleto. Na etapa de pré-preparo, os participantes avaliam o prazo de validade (97,28%) e a temperatura de armazenamento (44,79%) dos produtos no momento da compra. Em relação às práticas de manipulação dos alimentos, apenas alguns participantes lavavam as embalagens dos alimentos antes de armazená-los (31,95%) ou retiravam adornos ao lavar os alimentos (61,48%). A maioria dos participantes lavam as mãos (91,58%) e os vegetais (99,28%); entretanto, um grupo de entrevistados relatou lavar carne crua (27,81%) antes de prepará-la. Superfícies de corte como tábuas de plástico (50,36%) e de vidro (49,36%) foram os mais prevalentes no estudo. A maioria dos entrevistados não sabe há quanto tempo usa as tábuas de corte (67,62%) e utilizam a mesma superfície para manusear produtos crus e prontos para o consumo (84,17%). Quanto ao preparo, a maioria dos entrevistados declarou não verificar a temperatura dos alimentos durante o preparo (86,31%), ignorando a temperatura ideal de cozimento (88,26%). Em relação à ocorrência de DVA, 79,17% dos entrevistados relataram que já apresentaram sinais clínicos suspeitos associados a alimentos contaminados e 65,59% não procuraram atendimento médico. Nesse sentido, os participantes demonstraram desconhecimento sobre as práticas adequadas para a segurança dos alimentos no ambiente domiciliar, evidenciando a necessidade de realização de programas de educação em saúde com a população brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Health Care Surveys/instrumentation , Food Handling/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Food Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Good Manipulation Practices , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control
3.
Ethiop. j. health dev. (Online) ; 36(2): 1-10, 2022-06-07. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380424

ABSTRACT

Environmental concerns are increasing in and around us due to improper discharge of personal protective gear or equipment (PPEs) during the current pandemic with SARS-CoV-2.The residents of Salalah, under the Dhofar governorate of Oman,were hastening to take every possible measure to safeguard their health against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this scenario, improper discard of facemasks in the environment entails a significant problem forpublic health and aquatic environments. Objective:This study aimsto assess how the SARS-CoV-2 virus disrupted the household waste management chainin the Sultanate of Oman. In addition, descriptivesurvey has also identified people's perception about the existing household waste management system. Methods:Total 200 respondents were personally selected under the purposive sampling category. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. The mean, standard deviation, and distribution shapewere calculated based on the retrieved data. The variables and frequencies were tabulated for categorical variables. Results show negative impacts on the environment, wildlife, and public health. It was also observed that there was a significant difference when grouped according to residence location since the obtainedalso observed a significant difference when grouped according to residence location since thep-value of 0.007 was less than 0.05 alpha level. This means that the responses differ significantly. It shows from the test conducted that participantsfrom the village experienced and observed a negative impact on the discarded face masks comparedto those in the city.Conclusion and recommendation: This study illustrates the real impact of the COVID-19 facemasks on the environment, wildlife, and public health. In addition, the new management of the user's facemasks for eliminating or reducing the risks to human health and the environmenthas been suggested. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2022; 36(2):000-000]


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Microplastics , COVID-19 , Health Care Surveys , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 27(2): 78-81, 20210000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1357881

ABSTRACT

La cura avanzada de las heridas complejas se conoce desde 1994, por las guías internacionales para el manejo avanzado de las heridas. Las mismas han demostrado ser costo-efectivas contra la cura tradicional. Aun así, hoy en día, ¿se sigue curando de la manera tradicional las heridas o realmente se realiza la curación avanzada? Se logró determinar cuánto conocen sobre el tema y cuánto lo aplican, enfermeras y médicos de servicios quirúrgicos. Con una simple encuesta, el personal de diferentes servicios quirúrgicos contestó y se observó que un 83% sabe esta alternativa para curar una herida compleja, pero solo un 67% conoce realmente el método. También se vio que un 53% la aplica y el 47% no lo hace por falta de medios, insumos o desconocimiento del método.


The advanced treatment of complex wounds has been known since 1994 by international guidelines for the advanced management of wounds. They have proven to be cost-effective against the traditional cure. Yet, today, do wounds continue to be healed in the traditional way or is advanced healing actually done? We were able to determine how much they know about the subject and how much they apply it, nurses and surgical doctors. With a simple survey, the staff of different surgical services answered and it was observed that 83% know this alternative to heal a complex wound, but only 67% really know the method. It was also found that 53% applied it and 47% did not because of lack of means, inputs or ignorance of the method


Subject(s)
Humans , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Therapeutic Approaches/economics , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Professional Training
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(6): 442-451, June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341144

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To determine the adequacy of compliance with antenatal care (ANC) by pregnant women in Peru and to identify the associated factors. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study of data from the 2019 Peruvian Demographic and Family Health Survey (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar, ENDES, in Spanish) was conducted. The dependent variable was adequate compliance with ANC (provided by skilled health care professionals; first ANC visit during the first trimester of pregnancy; six or more ANC visits during pregnancy; ANC visits with appropriate content) by women aged 15 to 49 years in their last delivery within the five years prior to the survey. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a log-binomial regression model. Results A total of 18,386 women were analyzed, 35.0% of whom adequately complied with ANC. The lowest proportion of compliance was found with the content of ANC (42.6%). Sociodemographic factors and those related to pregnancy, such as being in the age groups of 20 to 34 years and 35 to 49 years, havingsecondaryor higher education, belonging to a wealth quintile of the population other than the poorest, being from the Amazon region, not being of native ethnicity, having a second or third pregnancy, and having a desired pregnancy, increased the probability of presenting adequate compliance with ANC. Conclusion Only 3 out of 10women in Peru showed adequate compliancewith ANC. Compliance with the content of ANC must be improved, and strategies must be developed to increase the proportion of adequate compliance with ANC.


Resumo Objetivo Determinar a adequação do cumprimento dos cuidados pré-natais (CPN) por mulheres grávidas no Peru e identificar os fatores associados. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo analítico transversal dos dados da Pesquisa Demográfica e de Saúde da Família Peruana de 2019 (Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar, ENDES, em espanhol). A variável dependente foi conformidade adequada coma CPN (fornecida por profissionais de saúde qualificados; primeira visita CPN durante o primeiro trimestre de gravidez; seis ou mais visitas CPN durante a gravidez; visitas CPN com conteúdo apropriado) por mulheres de 15 a 49 anos em seu último parto nos cinco anos anteriores à pesquisa. Os índices de prevalência bruta e ajustada e seus intervalos de confiança de 95% foram calculados usando um modelo de regressão log-binomial. Resultados Foi analisado um total de 18.386 mulheres, das quais 35,0% cumpriram adequadamente o CPN. A menor proporção de conformidade foi encontrada com o conteúdo de ANC (42,6%). Fatores sociodemográficos e aqueles relacionados à gravidez, como estar na faixa etária de 20 a 34 anos e 35 a 49 anos, ter educação secundária ou superior, pertencer a um quintil de riqueza da população que não a mais pobre, ser da região da selva, não ser de etnia nativa, ter um segundo ou terceiro gravidez, e tendo uma gravidez desejada, aumentou a probabilidade de apresentar conformidade adequada com CPN. Conclusão Apenas 3 em cada 10 mulheres no Peru mostraram conformidade adequada com o CPN. O cumprimento do conteúdo do CPN deve ser melhorado, e estratégias devem ser desenvolvidas para aumentar a proporção de cumprimento adequado com o CPN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Parity , Peru/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Maternal Age , Health Care Surveys , Educational Status , Facilities and Services Utilization , Income , Middle Aged
6.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 50-54, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) constituye la principal causa de mortalidad en mujeres; la preeclampsia (PE) y la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) están asociadas a incremento en el riesgo de ECV. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos generales (MG) sobre complicaciones obstétricas asociadas a ECV. Métodos: Se envió a los MG un cuestionario electrónico anónimo basado en casos, diseñado para evaluar el entendimiento de la influencia de la historia obstétrica en el riesgo cardiovascular a largo plazo y el conocimiento general sobre riesgo de ECV. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de 35 % (161/465). Los participantes reconocieron que la PE y la DMG son factores de riesgo para ECV (98 y 83 %, respectivamente) y reportaron las siguientes estrategias de tamizaje de ECV en mujeres con historial de PE y DMG: monitoreo de presión arterial (PE 100 %, DMG 46 %), cálculo de índice de masa corporal (PE 68 %, DMG 57 %), evaluación del perfil de lípidos (PE 71 %, DMG 57 %), hemoglobina glucosilada (PE 26 %, DMG 92 %) y glucosa en ayuno (PE 28 %, DMG 91 %). Conclusión: Las estrategias de tamizaje para identificar ECV en mujeres con antecedentes de PE y DMG reportadas por los MG fueron variables.


Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women; preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Objective: To evaluate general practitioners (GP) knowledge about complicated pregnancies and their association with CVD. Methods: An anonymous case-based electronic questionnaire designed to assess the level of understanding on the influence of a history of pregnancy complications on long-term cardiovascular risk and general knowledge about CVD risk was sent to GPs. Results: The response rate was 35 % (161/465). The participants recognized that PE and GDM are risk factors for CVD (98 and 83 %, respectively), and reported the following CVD screening strategies in women with a history of PE and GDM: blood pressure monitoring (PE 100 %, GDM 46 %), body mass index calculation (PE 68 %, GDM 57 %), lipid profile evaluation (PE 71 %, GDM 57 %), glycated hemoglobin (PE 26 %, GDM 92 %), and fasting glucose (PE 28 %, GDM 91 %). Conclusion: GP-reported screening strategies to identify CVD in women with a history of PE and GDM were variable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Clinical Competence , Diabetes, Gestational , General Practitioners , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure Determination , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Fasting/blood , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 10-18, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las experiencias adversas en la infancia (EAI) se han relacionado con la adquisición de conductas de riesgo y el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas y mentales, desde la adolescencia y en la vida adulta. Objetivo: Identificar el conocimiento y la frecuencia con la que médicos residentes de pediatría interrogan sobre las EAI. Métodos: Mediante una encuesta en línea enviada a todos los médicos residentes del año académico 2017-2018 de un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel, se recabaron variables demográficas, del conocimiento, uso, entrenamiento y barreras para interrogar sobre EAI. Resultados: 21 % de los residentes respondió la encuesta, la mayoría fue del sexo femenino (70 %), menos de 5 % de los participantes estaba familiarizado con las EAI, 31 % interrogaba sobre ellas a los padres e hijos y 71 % consideró que tiene alguna barrera para interrogarlas. Conclusiones: Los participantes de este estudio mostraron un conocimiento limitado sobre las EAI, lo que repercutió en la frecuencia con la que preguntaban al respecto a sus pacientes y padres; al menos la mitad tuvo la percepción que identificarlas está fuera del alcance del pediatra.


Abstract Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with the acquisition of risk behaviors and development of chronic and mental diseases since adolescence and in adult life. Objective: To identify the knowledge and the frequency pediatrics residents ask about ACEs with. Methods: Through an online survey sent to all resident physicians of the 2017-2018 academic year of a tertiary care children’s hospital, demographic variables, knowledge, use, training and barriers to interrogate and search for ACEs were collected. Results: 21% of residents answered the survey; the majority were women (70 %), less than 5 % of participants were familiar with ACEs, 31 % enquired about them in parents and their children, and 71 % considered having some barrier to interrogate about them. Conclusions: Participants in this study showed limited knowledge about ACEs, which had an impact on the frequency they enquired about them with in their patients and their parents; at least half had the perception that it is beyond the reach of the pediatrician to identify them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pediatrics , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Clinical Competence , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Child Abuse, Sexual/diagnosis , Child of Impaired Parents , Domestic Violence , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse , Emotional Abuse , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mexico
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 68-74, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289049

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar se as modificações na atenção médica em razão da aplicação dos protocolos para COVID-19 afetaram os desfechos clínicos de pacientes sem a doença durante a pandemia. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional de coorte retrospectiva conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínica e cirúrgica com 38 leitos, localizada em hospital privado de alta complexidade na cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, e envolveu os pacientes com insuficiência respiratória admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva no período compreendido entre março e abril de 2020 em comparação com o mesmo período no ano de 2019. Compararam-se as intervenções e os desfechos dos pacientes sem COVID-19 tratados durante a pandemia em 2020 e os pacientes admitidos em 2019. As principais variáveis avaliadas foram os cuidados respiratórios na unidade de terapia intensiva, o número de exames de tomografia computadorizada do tórax e lavados broncoalveolares, complicações na unidade de terapia intensiva e condições quando da alta hospitalar. Resultados: Observou-se, em 2020, uma redução significante do uso de cânula nasal de alto fluxo: 14 (42%), em 2019, em comparação com 1 (3%), em 2020. Além disso, em 2020, observou-se aumento significante no número de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva a partir do pronto-socorro, de 23 (69%) em comparação com 11 (31%) em 2019. Contudo, o número de pacientes com ventilação mecânica 5 dias após a admissão foi semelhante em ambos os anos: 24 (69%), em 2019, e 26 (79%) em 2020. Conclusão: Os protocolos para unidades de terapia intensiva com base em recomendações internacionais para a pandemia de COVID-19 modificaram o manejo de pacientes sem COVID-19. Observamos redução do uso da cânula nasal de alto fluxo e aumento no número de intubações traqueais no pronto-socorro. Entretanto, não se identificaram alterações na percentagem de pacientes intubados na unidade de terapia intensiva, número de dias sob ventilação mecânica ou número de dias na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Abstract Objective: To analyze whether changes in medical care due to the application of COVID-19 protocols affected clinical outcomes in patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study carried out in a thirty-eight-bed surgical and medical intensive care unit of a high complexity private hospital. Patients with respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit during March and April 2020 and the same months in 2019 were selected. We compared interventions and outcomes of patients without COVID-19 during the pandemic with patients admitted in 2019. The main variables analyzed were intensive care unit respiratory management, number of chest tomography scans and bronchoalveolar lavages, intensive care unit complications, and status at hospital discharge. Results: In 2020, a significant reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula was observed: 14 (42%) in 2019 compared to 1 (3%) in 2020. Additionally, in 2020, a significant increase was observed in the number of patients under mechanical ventilation admitted to the intensive care unit from the emergency department, 23 (69%) compared to 11 (31%) in 2019. Nevertheless, the number of patients with mechanical ventilation after 5 days of admission was similar in both years: 24 (69%) in 2019 and 26 (79%) in 2020. Conclusion: Intensive care unit protocols based on international recommendations for the COVID-19 pandemic have produced a change in non-COVID-19 patient management. We observed a reduction in the use of a high-flow nasal cannula and an increased number of tracheal intubations in the emergency department. However, no changes in the percentage of intubated patients in the intensive care unit, the number of mechanical ventilation days or the length of stay in intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Critical Illness/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210004, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144139

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar os fatores associados ao acesso precário aos serviços de saúde pela população brasileira de 19 anos ou mais. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal, com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013, obtidos de uma amostragem complexa. O desfecho acesso precário foi definido como não ter conseguido atendimento na última vez que procurou e não ter tentado novo atendimento por falta de acessibilidade. Foi analisada a prevalência do acesso precário e sua associação com fatores socioeconômicos e de saúde, por meio do cálculo da razão de prevalências (RP) com intervalos de confiança de 95%. Aplicou-se, ainda, o modelo multivariado pela regressão de Poisson, com teste de Wald para estimação robusta. Resultados: Das 60.202 respostas válidas, 12.435 indivíduos enquadraram-se nos critérios do acesso precário. A prevalência do acesso precário foi de 18,1% (IC95% 16,8 - 19,4) e associou-se com os seguintes fatores: ter cor da pele preta/parda (RP = 1,2; IC95% 1,0 - 1,4); residir na região Norte (RP = 1,5; 1,3 - 1,9) e Nordeste (RP = 1,4; 1,2 - 1,6) em relação à região Sudeste; viver na zona rural (RP = 1,2; 1,1 - 1,4); ser fumante (RP = 1,2; 1,0 - 1,4); ter autoavaliação de saúde ruim/muito ruim (RP = 1,3; 1,1 - 1,6); não ter plano de saúde privado (RP = 2,3; 1,7 - 2,9). Conclusão: O acesso aos serviços de saúde ainda é precário para uma parcela considerável da população brasileira, com destaque para a população mais vulnerável.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze factors associated with poor access to health services among the Brazilian population aged 19 years or older. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey, obtained from a complex sample. The poor access outcome was defined as not having received care the last time the participant sought a health service and not seeking care again for lack of accessibility. We analyzed the prevalence of poor access and its association with socioeconomic and health factors by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals. We also used Poisson's multivariate regression model with the Wald test for robust estimation. Results: Out of the 60,202 valid responses, 12,435 individuals met the criteria for poor access. Poor access had a prevalence of 18.1% (95%CI 16.8 - 19.4) and was associated with the following factors: being black/multiracial (PR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.0 - 1.4); living in the North (PR = 1.5; 1.3 - 1.9) and Northeast (PR = 1.4; 1.2 - 1.6) regions compared to the Southeast region; living in a rural area (PR = 1.2; 1.1 - 1.4); being a smoker (PR = 1.2; 1.0 - 1.4); having poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3; 1.1 - 1.6); not having private health insurance (PR = 2.3; 1.7 - 2.9). Conclusion: Access to health services is still precarious for a considerable part of the Brazilian population, especially the most vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Prevalence , Health Status Disparities , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys
10.
Salud colect ; 17: e3338, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252146

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El artículo presenta un análisis basado en diversas fuentes de una encuesta nacional realizada con el equipo de Consultorios en la Calle en Brasil sobre la población en situación de calle y la pandemia de Covid-19. A través de ciertos principios ético-políticos y apuestas metodológicas, dirigimos nuestra mirada al discurso sobre quién vive y trabaja en las calles durante la pandemia, entrecruzando el discurso y la experiencia. De esta manera, buscamos desvelar las relaciones de poder, desde la perspectiva de la gubernamentalidad y la biopolítica, que permiten mostrar los modos de gobierno encarnados en la calle -principalmente a partir de las medidas de aislamiento y distanciamiento social- para tensionar el surgimiento de la noción de población en situación de calle, en este escenario pandémico. Por último, discutimos nociones de precariedad que circunscriben la vida en la calle como condición compartida, en busca de pistas sobre formas de resistencia y el derecho a aparecer.


ABSTRACT Drawing on multiple sources, this article presents an analysis of a national survey implemented by Street Clinic teams in Brazil on the homeless population and the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the lens of certain ethical-political principles and methodological decisions, we focus our analysis on discourses about who lives and works on the streets during the pandemic, connecting discourse with experience. From the perspective of governmentality and biopolitics, we seek to shed light on power relations that reveal modes of government embodied at the street level - mainly related to isolation measures and social distancing - to create tensions surrounding the emergence of the notion of the homeless population in the midst of the pandemic. We conclude with a discussion of the precariousness that circumscribes life on the streets as a shared condition, and search for ways to comprehend forms of resistance and the right to exist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Government Regulation , Vulnerable Populations , Safety-net Providers/legislation & jurisprudence , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Social Justice , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Safety-net Providers/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology
11.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(3): e204, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1366998

ABSTRACT

Al comienzo de la pandemia COVID-19 se implementaron pautas clínicas restrictivas de la asistencia que incluyeron los Servicios de Electrofisiología (SEF). Objetivo: analizar la actividad asistencial y conocer la situación de los SEF en Latinoamérica a dos meses de iniciadas las restricciones. Método: estudio observacional descriptivo-analítico y transversal, utilizando una encuesta a médicos electrofisiólogos en marzo/2020. Se comparó la actividad clínica e invasiva que se realizaba antes y durante la pandemia. Resultados: se incluyeron 147 encuestas, de 74 ciudades y 18 países de Latinoamérica. Los actos clínicos semanales se redujeron de 75 (45/127) a 20 (10/40) (p<0,001), bajaron 71%. Los procedimientos invasivos mensuales se redujeron de 26 (13/39) a 4 (2/9) (p<0,001), bajaron 77%. El 49% encuestado trabajaban en ≥3 centros asistenciales y 89% compartía laboratorio con un servicio de hemodinamia. La ocupación de camas en los hospitales era baja 37%, intermedia 28% y alta 35%. El 30% refirió algún médico de su equipo fue puesto en cuarentena por infección/contacto. El 53% refirió no se hacía ninguna prueba de tamizaje a los pacientes previa a los procedimientos y 77% al personal. La mayoría percibía dificultades como importantes o muy importantes, pero 63% estaba considerando la reapertura al funcionamiento normal. Conclusiones: hubo una reducción importante de la actividad clínica e invasiva. La mayoría no tenía alta ocupación de camas. Los encuestados trabajaban en varios centros y en salas de hemodinamia. Aún no se habían implementado totalmente las medidas de prevención. Existía la percepción de que en poco tiempo se retomaría la normalidad


At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive clinical guidelines were implemented, including Electrophysiology Services (EFS). Objectives: analyze the healthcare activity and to know the situation of the EFS in Latin America two months after the restrictions began. Method: descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional observational study, using a survey of electrophysiologists in March / 2020. The clinical and invasive activity carried out before and during the pandemic was compared. Results: 147 surveys were included, from 74 cities in 18 Latin American countries. Weekly clinical events were reduced from 75 (45/127) to 20 (10/40) (p <0.001), they fell 71%. Monthly invasive procedures were reduced from 26 (13/39) to 4 (2/9) (p <0.001), down 77%. Forty-nine percent surveyed worked in ≥3 healthcare centers and 89% shared a laboratory with a hemodynamic service. Hospital bed occupancy was low 37%, intermediate 28% and high 35%. Thirty percent referred a doctor from their team was quarantined for infection / contact. Fifty-three percent reported that no screening test was done on the patients prior to the procedures and 77% on the staff. Most perceived difficulties as important or very important, but 63% were considering reopening to normal functioning. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in clinical and invasive activity. Most did not have high bed occupancy. Respondents worked in various centers and in hemodynamic rooms. Prevention measures had not yet been fully implemented yet. There was a perception that in a short time normality would return.


No início da pandemia de COVID-19 foram implementadas diretrizes clínicas, incluindo os Serviços de Eletrofisiologia (SEF). Objetivo: analisar a atividade assistencial e conhecer a situação do SEF na América Latina dois meses após o início das restrições. Método: estudo descritivo-analítico e observacional transversal, por meio de questionário com eletrofisiologistas em março / 2020. Foi comparada a atividade clínica e invasiva realizada antes e durante a pandemia. Resultados: foram incluídos 147 inquéritos, de 74 cidades e 18 países latino-americanos. O número de procedimentos semanais foi reduzido de 75 (45/127) para 20 (10/40) (p <0,001), com redução de 71%. Os procedimentos invasivos mensais foram reduzidos de 26 (13/39) para 4 (2/9) (p <0,001), com redução de 77%. Dos eletrofisiologistas que responderam ao questionário, 49% trabalhavam em 3 ou mais centros, e 89% compartilhavam o laboratório com serviço de hemodinâmica. A ocupação de leitos hospitalares foi baixa em 37%, intermediária em 28% e alta em 35%. Dos que responderam al questionário, 30% relataram que um médico de sua equipe foi colocado em quarentena por infecção ou contato. Foi relatado que, dentre os que responderam, 53% não realizava teste de triagem nos pacientes antes dos procedimentos, e em 77% na equipe. A maioria percebeu as dificuldades como importantes ou muito importantes, mas 63% consideravam a reabertura ao funcionamento. Conclusões: houve redução significativa da atividade clínica e invasiva. A maioria não tinha grande ocupação de leitos. Os entrevistados trabalhavam em vários centros e em salas de hemodinâmica. As medidas de prevenção ainda não haviam sido totalmente implementadas, porém havia a percepção de que em pouco tempo a normalidade voltaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Electrophysiology/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Observational Study , COVID-19/prevention & control , Latin America
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess clinical dental status in military firefighters of Rio de Janeiro State and compare data with Brazilian National and Regional oral health surveys. Material and Methods: A sample of 926 military firefighters was examined using the visible biofilm index, the DMFT index and the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Clinical exams were performed by 15 trained dentists. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction were used. Results: Higher biofilm accumulation was associated with increased age. The mean DMFT index for the whole sample of this study was 12.74 (±7.03), and the 'filled' component was the most prevalent (69.9%), whereas the 'decayed' and 'missing' components were, respectively, 8.4% and 21.7%. There was a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases with increasing age, ranging from 57.1% in firefighters of 34 years or less to 70.5% in the ones between 35 and 44 years old and 75.4% in participants at age 45 years or older. Clinical dental status of the military firefighters who belonged to the age group 35-44 was better than the one observed for the Brazilian population at the same age range. However, pathological conditions that can be solved with health promotion strategies associated with dental procedures of low complexity still persist. Conclusion: These results suggest that the availability of dental health care services itself does not represent the most effective approach to the oral health problems found in the studied population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Oral Health , Health Care Surveys/methods , Firefighters , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis/diagnosis , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Health Services , Dental Plaque , Dentists
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 556-562, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La relación médico-industria farmacéutica (IF) se ha identificado como un problema ético por favorecer conflictos de interés derivados de los beneficios que reciben los médicos y que pueden afectar su juicio clínico. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de participación de médicos en actividades financiadas por la IF, las actitudes de estos profesionales hacia los representantes de la IF, su conducta prescriptiva y la asociación de sus características y del trabajo con la participación en actividades financiadas por la IF. Método: Encuesta transversal a médicos internistas y cardiólogos. El cuestionario incluyó características de los médicos y centro de trabajo, participación en actividades financiadas por la IF, actitudes hacia los representantes y conducta de prescripción. Resultados: Se analizaron 455 cuestionarios, 78.5 % de los encuestados tuvo conocimiento de la relación médico-IF, la mayoría respondió reunirse con representantes de la IF, 30 % indicó haber recibido subsidios financieros y 10 % consideró que los obsequios afectan su prescripción. Tener conocimiento previo de la relación médico-IF se asoció con menor participación en actividades educativas financiadas por por la IF. Conclusión: Las prácticas y preferencias hacia la IF muestran la necesidad de diseñar estrategias para evitar la prescripción inapropiada.


Abstract Introduction: The physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship has been identified as an ethical problem, due to conflicts of interest motivated by the benefits that doctors receive and that can affect their clinical judgment. Objective: To identify the frequency of physicians participation in activities financed by the pharmaceutical industry (PI), their attitudes towards PI representatives (PIRs), their prescriptive behavior and the association between their characteristics and their workplace with their participation in activities financed by the PI. Method: Cross-sectional survey to internists and cardiologists. The questionnaire included characteristics of the doctors and their workplace, participation in activities financed by the PI, attitudes towards PIRs, and prescription behavior. Results: 455 questionnaires were analyzed; 78.5 % of surveyed subjects were aware of the physician-PI relationship, the majority acknowledged meeting with PIRs, 30 % indicated having received financial subsidies and 10 % considered that gifts affect their prescription. Having prior knowledge of the physician-PI relationship was associated with less participation in PI-financed educational activities. Conclusion: Practices and preferences towards the PI show the need to design strategies to avoid inappropriate prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/ethics , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Attitude of Health Personnel , Conflict of Interest , Drug Industry/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Workplace , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Gift Giving/ethics , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Cardiologists/ethics , Habits , Internal Medicine/ethics
14.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 549-555, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249966

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Aun con adecuado protocolo de desconexión de la ventilación mecánica (DVM), el procedimiento falla en 15 a 30 % de los casos. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre factores de riesgo independientes y fracaso posextubación en pacientes con DVM en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudio de cohorte, longitudinal, prospectivo, analítico, que incluyó pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica por más de 24 horas y que fueron extubados. Se obtuvieron reportes preextubación de hemoglobina, albúmina, fósforo, índice cintura-cadera y puntuación SOFA. Se definió como fracaso de extubación al reinicio de la ventilación mecánica en 48 horas o menos. Resultados: Se extubaron 123 pacientes, 74 hombres (60 %); la edad promedio fue de 50 ± 18 años. Ocurrió fracaso de extubación en 37 (30 %). Como factores de riesgo independentes se asoció hipoalbuminemia en 29 (23.8 %, RR = 1.43, IC 95 % = 1.11-1.85) e hipofosfatemia en 18 (14.6 %, RR = 2.98, IC 95 % = 1.66-5.35); se observaron dos o más factores de riesgo independientes en 22.7 % (RR = 1.51, IC 95 % = 1.14-2.00). Conclusiones: Identificar los factores de riesgo independentes antes de la DVM puede ayudar a reducir el fracaso de la extubación y la morbimortalidad asociada.


Abstract Introduction: Even with an adequate mechanical ventilation weaning (MVW) protocol, the procedure fails in 15 to 30 % of cases. Objective: To assess the association between independent risk factors (IRFs) and post-extubation failure in patients undergoing MVW in an intensive care unit. Method: Longitudinal, prospective, analytical cohort study in patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours and who were extubated. Pre-extubation reports of hemoglobin, albumin, phosphorus, waist-hip ratio and SOFA score were obtained. Extubation failure was defined as resumption of mechanical ventilation within 48 hours or less. Results: 123 patients were extubated, out of whom 74 were males (60 %); average age was 50 ± 18 years. Extubation failure occurred in 37 (30 %). Hypoalbuminemia was associated as an independent risk factor in 29 (23.8 %, RR = 1.43, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.85) and hypophosphatemia was in 18 (14.6 %, RR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.66-5.35); two or more IRFs were observed in 22.7 % (RR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.00). Conclusions: Identifying independent risk factors prior to MVW can help reduce the risk of extubation failure and associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Ventilator Weaning , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Phosphorus/blood , Time Factors , Serum Albumin/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Retreatment , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Waist-Hip Ratio , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(5): 359-367, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139721

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Older adults frequently experience nonspecific clinical features. However, there is limited evidence on how often admission diagnoses for hospitalized older patients are incorrect, potentially leading to treatment delays. OBJECTIVES: To determine the consistency between hospital admission and discharge diagnoses, and identify factors associated with diagnostic discrepancies in older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cohort study in the United States. We included adults aged ≥ 18 years who were admitted from emergency departments (EDs) to hospitals, identified using the 2005-2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Survey, a nationally representative survey. METHODS: Three admission diagnoses and the principal discharge diagnosis were captured and classified as discrepant if they involved considerably different conditions within the same organ system, or different organ systems altogether. RESULTS: Each year, 12 million adults were hospitalized following ED visits in the United States; 45% were aged ≥ 65 years. These patients' mean age was 79 years and 58% were women. Diagnostic discrepancies between admission and discharge were more common among adults ≥ 65 years (12.5 versus 8.3%; P < 0.001). Certain admission diagnoses had particularly high rates of diagnostic discrepancies: 26-27% of patients presenting with mental disorders or with endocrine and metabolic diseases had substantial diagnostic discrepancies between admission and discharge. Substantial diagnostic discrepancy was independently associated with longer hospitalization and higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: One out of eight older adults hospitalized from EDs was discharged with a principal diagnosis differing considerably from the admission diagnosis. Given that missed or delayed diagnoses are a critical safety problem, clinicians should be vigilant and frequently cogitate alternative diagnostic possibilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Patient Admission , Patient Discharge , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , United States , Cohort Studies , Health Care Surveys
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(5): 368-376, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139717

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Prenatal toxoplasmosis remains a neglected disease worldwide and few government programs focusing on its prevention are available. Success in these programs has been extensively reported in the literature, yet the strategies used for their implementation, as a model for such actions in different communities, have not been described. OBJECTIVE: To describe the aspects of prenatal care strategies in 13 municipalities within the regional healthcare unit of Araçatuba, in the northwestern region of the state of São Paulo in 2017, focusing on congenital toxoplasmosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study on prenatal healthcare within the Brazilian National Health System, in 13 participating municipalities. METHODS: Data on serological tests, referral clinics, notifications, healthcare strategies, health education and drugs for infected children were requested through a questionnaire that was sent via e-mail to people responsible for healthcare services in these municipalities. RESULTS: Major differences relating to diagnoses, reference outpatient clinics, notifications, health education and healthcare and drugs for infected children were reported among the prenatal strategies of these 13 municipal healthcare services. CONCLUSION: The lack of standardized prenatal strategy in the study area may compromise the prevention of infection. However, our identification of each aspect of prenatal care corroborates the need to implement a healthcare surveillance program relating to congenital toxoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/organization & administration , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/prevention & control , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 339-346, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126170

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas (CC), la malformación congénita más frecuente, han experimentado un aumento de sobrevida y crecimiento exponencial de la población de adolescentes y adultos portado res de CC. Para el éxito a largo plazo urgen intervenciones que optimicen la transición de cuidados de salud desde los servicios pediátricos a los de adulto. Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento y manejo de la enfermedad, autoeficacia y calidad de vida en adolescentes y jóvenes con CC en periodo de transfe rencia en dos hospitales en Santiago de Chile. Pacientes y Método: Estudio no experimental, descrip tivo, de corte transversal. Se aplicó: a) Encuesta de datos sociodemográficos, conocimiento y manejo de su enfermedad y uso de servicios de salud; b) Escala Con-Qol de Calidad de Vida Relacionada con Salud (CVRS) en pacientes con CC y c) Escala de Autoeficacia Generalizada (EAG). Resultados: Se obtuvo una muestra de 51 pacientes, 53% hombres, edad promedio de 17 ± 2,49 años. El 22% de las CC fue de complejidad simple, 29% moderada y 49% alta. Presentaron alta autoeficacia y buenos niveles de calidad de vida, sin embargo, mostraron escaso conocimiento y manejo de su enfermedad cardiaca. Conclusiones: Destaca la poca preparación para lograr una transición exitosa a servicios de adultos y jóvenes portadores de CC, siendo fundamental implementar programas de transición centrados en educación, autocuidado y automanejo de la enfermedad.


Abstract: Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHD), the most frequent congenital malformations, have shown an in creased survival and exponential growth of the adolescent and adult population living with CHD. Interventions that optimize the transition of patients from pediatric to adult health care services are essential for ensuring positive long-term outcomes. Objective: To describe the knowledge and management of this disease, self-efficacy, and quality of life of young people with CHD during the transition period in two hospitals in Santiago, Chile. Patients and Method: Non-experimental, des criptive, cross-sectional study. Patients completed: a) a survey of socio-demographic data, knowledge and management of their condition, and use of health services; b) the Health-Related Quality of Life (Con-HRQoL) Scale in patients with CHD; and c) the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale. Re sults: We obtained a sample of 51 patients, 53% of them were men, and the mean age was 17 ± 2.49 years. The complexity of the CHD was mild in 22%, moderate in 29%, and high in 49%. Although patients reported high self-efficacy and good levels of quality of life, there was a lack of knowledge and self-management of their heart disease. Conclusions: The study showed that adolescents and young people with CHD are not prepared to achieve a successful transition to adult health care services, and there is a need for the implementation of transition programs focused on education, self-care, and self-management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Self Efficacy , Transition to Adult Care , Heart Defects, Congenital/psychology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Linear Models , Chile , Patient Education as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status Indicators , Health Care Surveys , Facilities and Services Utilization
18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 268-276, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138484

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar um inquérito nacional com profissionais de terapia intensiva para determinar as práticas de promoção do sono em unidades de terapia intensiva para adultos no Brasil, e descrever suas percepções sobre a importância do sono para os pacientes. Métodos: Um questionário eletrônico foi distribuído pela rede de cooperação em pesquisa clínica da Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira aos médicos e enfermeiros registrados na associação e pela Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network. O questionário avaliou o perfil dos respondedores, de suas unidades de terapia intensiva, se estavam presentes protocolos de promoção do sono, quais as medidas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas usualmente empregadas na unidade e a percepção dos profissionais em relação ao sono nos pacientes críticos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 118 questionários. A Região Sudeste foi a mais representada (50 questionários; 42,4%). A maioria apresentava perfil clínico-cirúrgico (93 questionários; 78,8%) e 26 possuíam política de visita contínua (22,0%). Apenas 18 unidades de terapia intensiva (15,3%) referiram apresentar protocolos de promoção do sono. A medida mais citada para promoção de sono foi a redução da luminosidade no período noturno (95 questionários; 80,5%), sendo mais executada em unidades de terapia intensiva privadas. Quase a totalidade dos respondedores (99%) acreditou que o sono com qualidade ruim tinha impacto negativo na recuperação do paciente. Conclusão: Nas respostas deste inquérito brasileiro, poucas unidades apresentaram um programa de promoção de sono na unidade de terapia intensiva, embora a quase totalidade dos participantes reconhecesse a importância do sono na recuperação do paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a national survey of intensive care professionals to identify the practices for promoting sleep in adult intensive care units in Brazil and describe the professionals' perceptions of the importance of sleep for patients. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed by the clinical research cooperation network of the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira and by the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network to physicians and nurses registered with the association. The questionnaire evaluated the profile of the respondents, the profile of their intensive care units, whether protocols for promoting sleep were present, the pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures typically employed in the unit, and the professionals' perceptions regarding sleep in critically ill patients. Results: A total of 118 questionnaires were evaluated. The Southeast region of the country was the most represented (50 questionnaires, 42.4%). The majority of units had a clinical-surgical profile (93 questionnaires; 78.8%), and 26 had a continuous visitation policy (22.0%). Only 18 intensive care units (15.3%) reported having protocols for promoting sleep. The most cited measure for sleep promotion was reducing light during the night (95 questionnaires; 80.5%), which was more often performed in private intensive care units. Almost all of the responders (99%) believed that poor-quality sleep has a negative impact on patient recovery. Conclusion: The responses to this Brazilian survey revealed that few intensive care units had a program for promoting sleep, although almost all participants recognized the importance of sleep in patient recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep/physiology , Critical Illness , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Care Surveys , Nurses/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 81-91, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138475

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar las prácticas habituales de uso y titulación del modo presión soporte (PC-CSV - pressure control continuous spontaneous ventilation) en pacientes bajo ventilación mecánica y analizar las formas de reconocimiento de sobreasistencia y subasistencia. Secundariamente, comparar las respuestas según profesión en relación al diagnóstico de sobreasistencia y subasistencia. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta online utilizando la herramienta Survey Monkey. Se incluyeron a médicos, enfermeros y kinesiólogos de Argentina que tuvieran acceso al uso de PC-CSV en su práctica habitual. Resultados: Se recolectaron 509 encuestas desde octubre a diciembre 2018. El 74,1% de ellas correspondió a kinesiólogos. Un 77,6% refirió utilizar PC-CSV para iniciar la fase de soporte parcial. Un 43,8% selecciona el valor de presión de soporte inspiratorio basándose en volumen corriente. El principal objetivo de la selección de PEEP fue disminuir el trabajo respiratorio. El volumen corriente alto fue la variable primordial de detección de sobreasistencia, mientras que el uso de músculos accesorios fue la más elegida para subasistencia. Se observaron diferencias entre médicos y kinesiólogos en relación a las formas de detección de sobreasistencia. Conclusión: El modo más utilizado para la fase de soporte parcial es PC-CSV. La variable más elegida para titular la presión de soporte inspiratorio es volumen corriente y el principal objetivo de la PEEP es disminuir el trabajo respiratorio. La sobreasistencia es detectada prioritariamente por un volumen corriente elevado, mientras que la subasistencia mediante el uso de músculos accesorios. Se halló diferencias entre profesiones en relación a los criterios de detección de sobreasistencia.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify common practices related to the use and titration of pressure-support ventilation (PC-CSV - pressure control-continuous spontaneous ventilation) in patients under mechanical ventilation and to analyze diagnostic criteria for over-assistance and under-assistance. The secondary objective was to compare the responses provided by physician, physiotherapists and nurses related to diagnostic criteria for over-assistance and under-assistance. Methods: An online survey was conducted using the Survey Monkey tool. Physicians, nurses and physiotherapists from Argentina with access to PC-CSV in their usual clinical practice were included. Results: A total of 509 surveys were collected from October to December 2018. Of these, 74.1% were completed by physiotherapists. A total of 77.6% reported using PC-CSV to initiate the partial ventilatory support phase, and 43.8% of respondents select inspiratory pressure support level based on tidal volume. The main objective for selecting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level was to decrease the work of breathing. High tidal volume was the primary variable for detecting over-assistance, while the use of accessory respiratory muscles was the most commonly chosen for under-assistance. Discrepancies were observed between physicians and physiotherapists in relation to the diagnostic criteria for over-assistance. Conclusion: The most commonly used mode to initiate the partial ventilatory support phase was PC-CSV. The most frequently selected variable to guide the titration of inspiratory pressure support level was tidal volume, and the main objective of PEEP was to decrease the work of breathing. Over-assistance was detected primarily by high tidal volume, while under-assistance by accessory respiratory muscles activation. Discrepancies were observed among professions in relation to the diagnostic criteria for over-assistance, but not for under-assistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Argentina , Tidal Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Health Care Surveys , Internet
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135512

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-behavioural risk factors for dental caries among children at selected LGAs in Lagos State. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 592 school children in four Local Government Areas of Lagos, Nigeria. The presence of caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 16.0% with mean dmft for age 6 being 1.3 ± 1.57 while the mean DMFT for age 12 was 0.15 ± 0.67. The mean Sic for age 6 was 1.5 ± 0.53 while the mean SiC for age 12 was 1.09 ± 0.29. The mean SiC values was significantly higher in the primary and permanent dentition among those who had never visited the dentist, female students, those who don't use fluoridated toothpaste and those who eat sweets and candy several times a day. After logistic regression analysis, those with no previous dental visit (OR=3.05; CI: 1.72-4.67) and females (OR=1.55; CI: 1.16-1.62) still had significantly higher SiC Values. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries was low in the study population. Being female, non-use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and not visiting the dentist were significant predictors of dental caries among children attending private schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Health Surveys/methods , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Toothpastes/chemistry , Logistic Models , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Health Care Surveys , Dentists , Fluorides
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