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1.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 27(2): 78-81, 20210000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1357881

ABSTRACT

La cura avanzada de las heridas complejas se conoce desde 1994, por las guías internacionales para el manejo avanzado de las heridas. Las mismas han demostrado ser costo-efectivas contra la cura tradicional. Aun así, hoy en día, ¿se sigue curando de la manera tradicional las heridas o realmente se realiza la curación avanzada? Se logró determinar cuánto conocen sobre el tema y cuánto lo aplican, enfermeras y médicos de servicios quirúrgicos. Con una simple encuesta, el personal de diferentes servicios quirúrgicos contestó y se observó que un 83% sabe esta alternativa para curar una herida compleja, pero solo un 67% conoce realmente el método. También se vio que un 53% la aplica y el 47% no lo hace por falta de medios, insumos o desconocimiento del método.


The advanced treatment of complex wounds has been known since 1994 by international guidelines for the advanced management of wounds. They have proven to be cost-effective against the traditional cure. Yet, today, do wounds continue to be healed in the traditional way or is advanced healing actually done? We were able to determine how much they know about the subject and how much they apply it, nurses and surgical doctors. With a simple survey, the staff of different surgical services answered and it was observed that 83% know this alternative to heal a complex wound, but only 67% really know the method. It was also found that 53% applied it and 47% did not because of lack of means, inputs or ignorance of the method


Subject(s)
Humans , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Therapeutic Approaches/economics , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Professional Training
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 50-54, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) constituye la principal causa de mortalidad en mujeres; la preeclampsia (PE) y la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) están asociadas a incremento en el riesgo de ECV. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos generales (MG) sobre complicaciones obstétricas asociadas a ECV. Métodos: Se envió a los MG un cuestionario electrónico anónimo basado en casos, diseñado para evaluar el entendimiento de la influencia de la historia obstétrica en el riesgo cardiovascular a largo plazo y el conocimiento general sobre riesgo de ECV. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de 35 % (161/465). Los participantes reconocieron que la PE y la DMG son factores de riesgo para ECV (98 y 83 %, respectivamente) y reportaron las siguientes estrategias de tamizaje de ECV en mujeres con historial de PE y DMG: monitoreo de presión arterial (PE 100 %, DMG 46 %), cálculo de índice de masa corporal (PE 68 %, DMG 57 %), evaluación del perfil de lípidos (PE 71 %, DMG 57 %), hemoglobina glucosilada (PE 26 %, DMG 92 %) y glucosa en ayuno (PE 28 %, DMG 91 %). Conclusión: Las estrategias de tamizaje para identificar ECV en mujeres con antecedentes de PE y DMG reportadas por los MG fueron variables.


Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women; preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Objective: To evaluate general practitioners (GP) knowledge about complicated pregnancies and their association with CVD. Methods: An anonymous case-based electronic questionnaire designed to assess the level of understanding on the influence of a history of pregnancy complications on long-term cardiovascular risk and general knowledge about CVD risk was sent to GPs. Results: The response rate was 35 % (161/465). The participants recognized that PE and GDM are risk factors for CVD (98 and 83 %, respectively), and reported the following CVD screening strategies in women with a history of PE and GDM: blood pressure monitoring (PE 100 %, GDM 46 %), body mass index calculation (PE 68 %, GDM 57 %), lipid profile evaluation (PE 71 %, GDM 57 %), glycated hemoglobin (PE 26 %, GDM 92 %), and fasting glucose (PE 28 %, GDM 91 %). Conclusion: GP-reported screening strategies to identify CVD in women with a history of PE and GDM were variable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Clinical Competence , Diabetes, Gestational , General Practitioners , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure Determination , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Fasting/blood , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 10-18, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las experiencias adversas en la infancia (EAI) se han relacionado con la adquisición de conductas de riesgo y el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas y mentales, desde la adolescencia y en la vida adulta. Objetivo: Identificar el conocimiento y la frecuencia con la que médicos residentes de pediatría interrogan sobre las EAI. Métodos: Mediante una encuesta en línea enviada a todos los médicos residentes del año académico 2017-2018 de un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel, se recabaron variables demográficas, del conocimiento, uso, entrenamiento y barreras para interrogar sobre EAI. Resultados: 21 % de los residentes respondió la encuesta, la mayoría fue del sexo femenino (70 %), menos de 5 % de los participantes estaba familiarizado con las EAI, 31 % interrogaba sobre ellas a los padres e hijos y 71 % consideró que tiene alguna barrera para interrogarlas. Conclusiones: Los participantes de este estudio mostraron un conocimiento limitado sobre las EAI, lo que repercutió en la frecuencia con la que preguntaban al respecto a sus pacientes y padres; al menos la mitad tuvo la percepción que identificarlas está fuera del alcance del pediatra.


Abstract Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with the acquisition of risk behaviors and development of chronic and mental diseases since adolescence and in adult life. Objective: To identify the knowledge and the frequency pediatrics residents ask about ACEs with. Methods: Through an online survey sent to all resident physicians of the 2017-2018 academic year of a tertiary care children’s hospital, demographic variables, knowledge, use, training and barriers to interrogate and search for ACEs were collected. Results: 21% of residents answered the survey; the majority were women (70 %), less than 5 % of participants were familiar with ACEs, 31 % enquired about them in parents and their children, and 71 % considered having some barrier to interrogate about them. Conclusions: Participants in this study showed limited knowledge about ACEs, which had an impact on the frequency they enquired about them with in their patients and their parents; at least half had the perception that it is beyond the reach of the pediatrician to identify them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Pediatrics , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Clinical Competence , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Parents , Child Abuse, Sexual/diagnosis , Child of Impaired Parents , Domestic Violence , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse , Emotional Abuse , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mexico
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 556-562, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249967

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La relación médico-industria farmacéutica (IF) se ha identificado como un problema ético por favorecer conflictos de interés derivados de los beneficios que reciben los médicos y que pueden afectar su juicio clínico. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de participación de médicos en actividades financiadas por la IF, las actitudes de estos profesionales hacia los representantes de la IF, su conducta prescriptiva y la asociación de sus características y del trabajo con la participación en actividades financiadas por la IF. Método: Encuesta transversal a médicos internistas y cardiólogos. El cuestionario incluyó características de los médicos y centro de trabajo, participación en actividades financiadas por la IF, actitudes hacia los representantes y conducta de prescripción. Resultados: Se analizaron 455 cuestionarios, 78.5 % de los encuestados tuvo conocimiento de la relación médico-IF, la mayoría respondió reunirse con representantes de la IF, 30 % indicó haber recibido subsidios financieros y 10 % consideró que los obsequios afectan su prescripción. Tener conocimiento previo de la relación médico-IF se asoció con menor participación en actividades educativas financiadas por por la IF. Conclusión: Las prácticas y preferencias hacia la IF muestran la necesidad de diseñar estrategias para evitar la prescripción inapropiada.


Abstract Introduction: The physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship has been identified as an ethical problem, due to conflicts of interest motivated by the benefits that doctors receive and that can affect their clinical judgment. Objective: To identify the frequency of physicians participation in activities financed by the pharmaceutical industry (PI), their attitudes towards PI representatives (PIRs), their prescriptive behavior and the association between their characteristics and their workplace with their participation in activities financed by the PI. Method: Cross-sectional survey to internists and cardiologists. The questionnaire included characteristics of the doctors and their workplace, participation in activities financed by the PI, attitudes towards PIRs, and prescription behavior. Results: 455 questionnaires were analyzed; 78.5 % of surveyed subjects were aware of the physician-PI relationship, the majority acknowledged meeting with PIRs, 30 % indicated having received financial subsidies and 10 % considered that gifts affect their prescription. Having prior knowledge of the physician-PI relationship was associated with less participation in PI-financed educational activities. Conclusion: Practices and preferences towards the PI show the need to design strategies to avoid inappropriate prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/ethics , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Attitude of Health Personnel , Conflict of Interest , Drug Industry/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Workplace , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Gift Giving/ethics , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Cardiologists/ethics , Habits , Internal Medicine/ethics
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 549-555, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249966

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Aun con adecuado protocolo de desconexión de la ventilación mecánica (DVM), el procedimiento falla en 15 a 30 % de los casos. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre factores de riesgo independientes y fracaso posextubación en pacientes con DVM en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudio de cohorte, longitudinal, prospectivo, analítico, que incluyó pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica por más de 24 horas y que fueron extubados. Se obtuvieron reportes preextubación de hemoglobina, albúmina, fósforo, índice cintura-cadera y puntuación SOFA. Se definió como fracaso de extubación al reinicio de la ventilación mecánica en 48 horas o menos. Resultados: Se extubaron 123 pacientes, 74 hombres (60 %); la edad promedio fue de 50 ± 18 años. Ocurrió fracaso de extubación en 37 (30 %). Como factores de riesgo independentes se asoció hipoalbuminemia en 29 (23.8 %, RR = 1.43, IC 95 % = 1.11-1.85) e hipofosfatemia en 18 (14.6 %, RR = 2.98, IC 95 % = 1.66-5.35); se observaron dos o más factores de riesgo independientes en 22.7 % (RR = 1.51, IC 95 % = 1.14-2.00). Conclusiones: Identificar los factores de riesgo independentes antes de la DVM puede ayudar a reducir el fracaso de la extubación y la morbimortalidad asociada.


Abstract Introduction: Even with an adequate mechanical ventilation weaning (MVW) protocol, the procedure fails in 15 to 30 % of cases. Objective: To assess the association between independent risk factors (IRFs) and post-extubation failure in patients undergoing MVW in an intensive care unit. Method: Longitudinal, prospective, analytical cohort study in patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours and who were extubated. Pre-extubation reports of hemoglobin, albumin, phosphorus, waist-hip ratio and SOFA score were obtained. Extubation failure was defined as resumption of mechanical ventilation within 48 hours or less. Results: 123 patients were extubated, out of whom 74 were males (60 %); average age was 50 ± 18 years. Extubation failure occurred in 37 (30 %). Hypoalbuminemia was associated as an independent risk factor in 29 (23.8 %, RR = 1.43, 95 % CI = 1.11-1.85) and hypophosphatemia was in 18 (14.6 %, RR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.66-5.35); two or more IRFs were observed in 22.7 % (RR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.00). Conclusions: Identifying independent risk factors prior to MVW can help reduce the risk of extubation failure and associated morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Ventilator Weaning , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Phosphorus/blood , Time Factors , Serum Albumin/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Retreatment , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Waist-Hip Ratio , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200354, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136826

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 emerged in late 2019 and quickly became a serious public health problem worldwide. This study aim to describe the epidemiological course of cases and deaths due to COVID-19 and their impact on hospital bed occupancy rates in the first 45 days of the epidemic in the state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: The study used an ecological design with data gathered from multiple government and health care sources. Data were analyzed using Epi Info software. RESULTS: The first cases were confirmed on March 15, 2020. After 45 days, 37,268 cases reported in 85.9% of Ceará's municipalities, with 1,019 deaths. Laboratory test positivity reached 84.8% at the end of April, a period in which more than 700 daily tests were processed. The average age of cases was 67 (<1 - 101) years, most occurred in a hospital environment (91.9%), and 58% required hospitalization in an ICU bed. The average time between the onset of symptoms and death was 18 (1 - 56) days. Patients who died in the hospital had spent an average of six (0 - 40) days hospitalized. Across Ceará, the bed occupancy rate reached 71.3% in the wards and 80.5% in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The first 45 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in Ceará revealed a large number of cases and deaths, spreading initially among the population with a high socioeconomic status. Despite the efforts by the health services and social isolation measures the health system still collapsed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Data Analysis , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2447-2456, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101062

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar los sentimientos y expectativas que genera el COVID-19 en Argentina durante la primera etapa de la pandemia. Se aplicó una encuesta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud adaptada al contexto local. Se incluyeron preguntas abiertas para indagar sentimientos de las personas frente al COVID-19, y se realizó un análisis de contenido. Como resultados se advierte que la población encuestada siente incertidumbre, miedo y angustia, pero también emerge un sentimiento de responsabilidad y cuidado frente al COVID-19. Así mismo se destacan sentimientos positivos para la sociedad como una valoración de la interdependencia social. Los resultados arribados señalan que el impacto en la salud mental es desigual según el género, el nivel educativo alcanzado y el confort percibido en el hogar. El estudio permite concluir que las dimensiones emocionales y vinculares de las personas resultan aspectos centrales ante la pandemia del COVID-19 en Argentina. Es recomendable que estas dimensiones, así como y su impacto subjetivo y social diferencial entre los diversos grupos poblacionales, sean consideradas en la planificación de políticas para afrontar el COVID-19.


Abstract The scope of this work is to explore the feelings and expectations that COVID-19 has generated in Argentina during the first stage of the pandemic. A survey of the World Health Organization adapted to the local context was applied. Open-ended questions were included to study people's feelings about COVID-19, and content analysis was subsequently conducted. In terms of results, it is revealed that the population surveyed feels uncertainty, fear and anguish, albeit a feeling of responsibility and care in the face of COVID-19 also emerges. Moreover, positive feelings regarding society stand out as an achievement of social interdependence. The results obtained show that the impact on mental health differs in accordance with gender, educational level, and perceived comfort in the home. The study concludes that the emotional and bonding dimensions of people are central to confronting the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina. It is recommended that these dimensions, as well as their subjective and differential social impact among the different population groups, should be considered in the planning of policies to address the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emotions , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Anxiety/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Uncertainty , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Educational Status , Fear , Health Impact Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 186-191, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-968620

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar os pacientes com DRC em tratamento de hemodiálise (HD) de uma clínica do oeste catarinense, suas relações e variáveis sociodemográficas, e, a sua QV.Método: Estudo transversal descritivo, com 116 pacientes com DRC em HD. Para coleta dos dados usou-se questionário sociodemográfico e o instrumento Medical Outcomes Study 36 ­Item Short ­Form Health Survey (SF-36). Resultados: Houve prevalência da população com idade igual ou > 60 anos, caucasianos (74,77%), do sexo masculino (54,31%), destaca-se a presença de profissões relacionadas a classe média e baixa e quantidade de anos de estudo reduzidos. Em relação a comorbidades, prevaleceu a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica(38,79%). Quanto àQV, as limitações por aspectos físicos tiveram menores médias (29,09) e limitações em atividades sociais maior média (73,71). Conclusão: A QV negativa tem repercussões pessoais, familiares e sociais devido ao impacto da doença na rotina de atividades de vida diária dos doentes renais


Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) has been widely studied in the health area and chronic health conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) can interfere with functional capacity, independence and, consequently, QoL, by negative implication In the activities of daily living, emotional, social and cultural issues. Objective: To characterize patients with CKD in hemodialysis (HD) treatment of a clinic in the west of Santa Catarina, their relationships and socio demographic variables, and their QoL. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study with 116 patients with CKD in HD. To collect data on the questionnaire socio demographic and a intrument Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Item Short - Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used. Results: There was a prevalence of the population aged> 60 years old, Caucasian (74.77%), male (54.31%), of professions related to middle and low class and reduced number of years of study. In relation to comorbidities, Systemic Arterial Hypertension prevailed (38.79%). Regarding QoL, limitations due to physical aspects had lower averages (29.09) and limitations in social activities (73.71). Conclusion: Negative QoL have personal, familial, and social repercussions due to the impact of the disease on the routine life activities of kidney patients


Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con DRC en tratamiento de hemodiálisis (HD) de una clínica del oeste catarinense, sus relaciones y variables sociodemográficas, y su QV. Metodología: Estudio transversal descriptivo, con 116 pacientes con DRC en HD. Para la recolección de los datos se utilizó cuestionario sociodemográfico y el instrumento Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Item Short - Form Health Survey (SF36). Resultados: Hubo prevalencia de la población con edad igual o> 60 años, caucásicos (74,77%), del sexo masculino (54,31%), se destaca la presencia de profesiones relacionadas a la clase media ebaja y cantidad de años de estudio reducidos. En relación a las comorbilidades, prevaleció la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (38,79%). En cuanto a QV las limitaciones por aspectos físicos tuvieron menores promedios (29,09) y limitaciones en actividades sociales mayor media (73,71). Conclusión: La QV negativa tiene repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales debido al impacto de la enfermedad en la rutina de actividades de vida diaria de los enfermos renales


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data
9.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 92, jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043338

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the use of the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit in children from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort at 24 months. METHODS A total of 4,014 children were monitored. We used descriptive statistics and Poisson regression to analyze the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables, participation in daycare units, in the activities of the Pastoral da Criança and in the Primeira Infância Melhor program, low birth weight, hospitalization between 12 and 24 months, place of medical appointment, prevalence of medical appointment in the last 30 days, prescription of antibiotics, and administration of the first dose in the health care unit. RESULTS A total of 1,044 children had medical appointments in the last 30 days, of which 45% were prescribed antibiotics and only 10.5% were administered the first dose of this medication in the health care unit. Children with brown, yellow or indigenous skin color were administered 2.5 times more antibiotics than white children. Children whose mothers had 12 years or more of education were administered 83.0% fewer antibiotics than those whose mothers had up to 4 years of education. Among those who were hospitalized for 12 to 24 months, the use of antibiotics was almost four times higher than among those who were not. Among the children served by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), only 15.3% were administered the first dose of antibiotic in the health care unit. When compared with children served by private health care or health plan, administration of the first dose in the SUS was 76.0% higher. CONCLUSIONS Despite the efforts related to the Pastoral da Criança campaign "Antibiotic: first dose immediately," adherence to the provision of antibiotics in the health care unit is still low. Strategies are necessary and urgent so children have access to the first dose of antibiotics in the health care unit.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar o uso da primeira dose do antibiótico no local de atendimento nas crianças da Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015 aos 24 meses. MÉTODOS Foram acompanhadas 4.014 crianças. A associação entre variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, participação em creche, nas ações da Pastoral da Criança e no programa Primeira Infância Melhor, baixo peso ao nascer, internação entre 12 e 24 meses, local da consulta, prevalência de consulta nos últimos 30 dias, prescrição de antibióticos e recebimento da primeira dose no local de atendimento foi analisada por meio de estatística descritiva e regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS Tiveram consulta nos últimos 30 dias 1.044 crianças, das quais 45% receberam prescrição de antibiótico e apenas 10,5% receberam a primeira dose dessa medicação no local de atendimento. Crianças de cor da pele parda, amarela ou indígena tiveram um uso de antibiótico 2,5 vezes maior que o das brancas. Já as crianças cujas mães tinham 12 anos ou mais de escolaridade usaram 83,0% menos antibióticos que aquelas cujas mães tinham até quatro anos de estudo. Entre aquelas que foram internadas entre 12 e 24 meses, o uso de antibiótico foi quase quatro vezes maior do que entre as que não foram. Entre as crianças atendidas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), apenas 15,3% receberam a primeira dose do antibiótico no local de atendimento. Quando comparado com o de crianças atendidas por financiamento particular ou convênio, o recebimento da primeira dose no SUS chegou a ser 76,0% superior. CONCLUSÕES Apesar dos esforços relacionados à campanha da Pastoral da Criança "Antibiótico: primeira dose imediata", ainda é baixa a adesão ao fornecimento de antibióticos no local de atendimento. Estratégias são necessárias e urgentes para que as crianças tenham acesso à primeira dose de antibióticos no local de atendimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Young Adult , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Appointments and Schedules , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mothers , National Health Programs
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.3): e00181318, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019649

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este estudo avalia a atenção pré-natal de mulheres indígenas com idades entre 14-49 anos, com filhos menores de 60 meses no Brasil. O Primeiro Inquérito Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição dos Povos Indígenas avaliou 3.967 mulheres que atendiam a tais requisitos, sendo 41,3% da Região Norte; 21,2% do Centro-oeste; 22,2% do Nordeste; e 15% do Sul/Sudeste. O pré-natal foi ofertado a 3.437 (86,6%) delas. A Região Norte registrou a maior proporção de mulheres que não fizeram pré-natal. A cobertura alcançada foi de 90,4%, mas somente cerca de 30% iniciaram o pré-natal no 1º trimestre e apenas 60% das elegíveis foram vacinadas contra difteria e tétano. Somente 16% das gestantes indígenas realizaram 7 ou mais consultas de pré-natal. Ter acesso a pelo menos um cuidado clínico-obstétrico foi observado em cerca de 97% dos registros, exceto exame de mamas (63%). Foi baixa a solicitação de exames (glicemia 53,6%, urina 53%, hemograma 56,9%, citologia oncótica 12,9%, teste de sífilis 57,6%, sorologia para HIV 44,2%, hepatite B 53,6%, rubéola 21,4% e toxoplasmose 32,6%) e prescrição de sulfato ferroso (44,1%). No conjunto, a proporção de solicitações de exames laboratoriais preconizados não ultrapassou 53%. Os percentuais de realização das ações do pré-natal das indígenas são mais baixos que os encontrados para mulheres não indígenas no conjunto do território nacional, e até mesmo para as residentes em regiões de elevada vulnerabilidade social e baixa cobertura assistencial como a Amazônia Legal e o Nordeste. Os resultados reafirmam a persistência de desigualdades étnico-raciais que comprometem a saúde e o bem-estar de mães indígenas.


Abstract: This study assesses prenatal care for indigenous women 14-49 years of age with children under five years of age in Brazil. The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition assessed 3,967 women who met these criteria, of whom 41.3% in the North, 21.2% in the Central, 22.2% in the Northeast, and 15% in the South/Southeast. Prenatal care was offered to 3,437 (86.6%) of these women. The North of Brazil showed the highest proportion of indigenous women who did not receive prenatal care. Coverage was 90.4%, but only some 30% began prenatal care in the first trimester, and only 60% of the eligible women were vaccinated for diphtheria and tetanus. Only 16% of indigenous pregnant women had seven or more prenatal visits. Access to at least one clinical-obstetric consultation was found in 97% of the records, except for breast examination (63%). Laboratory test rates were low (blood glucose 53.6%, urinalysis 53%, complete blood count 56.9%, Pap smear 12.9%, syphilis test 57.6%, HIV serology 44.2%, hepatitis B 53.6%, rubella 21.4%, and toxoplasmosis 32.6%), as was prescription of ferrous sulfate (44.1%). As a whole, the proportion of orders for recommended laboratory tests was only 53%. The percentages of prenatal care procedures for indigenous women are lower than for non-indigenous Brazilian women as a whole, and are even lower than among women in regions with high social vulnerability and low healthcare coverage, like the Legal Amazonia and the Northeast. The results confirm the persistence of ethnic-racial inequalities that compromise the health and well-being of indigenous mothers.


Resumen: Este estudio evalúa la atención prenatal a mujeres indígenas con edades comprendidas entre los 14-49 años, con hijos menores de 60 meses en Brasil. La Primera Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de los Pueblos Indígenas evaluó a 3.967 mujeres que reunían tales requisitos, procediendo un 41,3% de la Región Norte; un 21,2% del Centro-oeste; un 22,2% del Nordeste; y un 15% del Sur/Sudeste. El servicio prenatal se le ofreció a 3.437 (86,6%) de ellas. La Región Norte registró la mayor proporción de mujeres que no realizaron el seguimiento prenatal. La cobertura alcanzada fue de un 90,4%, pero solamente cerca de un 30% comenzaron el seguimiento prenatal durante el primer trimestre y sólo un 60% de las elegibles fueron vacunadas contra la difteria y tétanos. Solamente un 16% de las gestantes indígenas realizaron 7 o más consultas de prenatal. Alrededor de un 97% de los registros se observó que tuvieron acceso a por lo menos un cuidado clínico-obstétrico, excepto el examen de mamas (63%). Fue baja la solicitud de exámenes (glucemia 53,6%, orina 53%, hemograma 56,9%, citología oncológica 12,9%, test de sífilis 57,6%, serología para VIH 44,2%, hepatitis B 53,6%, rubeola 21,4% y toxoplasmosis un 32,6%) y la prescripción de sulfato ferroso (44,1%). En conjunto, la proporción de solicitudes de exámenes de laboratorio previstos no sobrepasó el 53%. Los porcentajes de realización de acciones del seguimiento prenatal por parte de las indígenas son más bajos que los encontrados en mujeres no indígenas, en el conjunto del territorio nacional, y hasta incluso en comparación con las residentes en regiones de elevada vulnerabilidad social y baja cobertura asistencial como la Amazonia Legal y el Nordeste. Los resultados reafirman la persistencia de desigualdades étnico-raciales que comprometen la salud y el bienestar de las madres indígenas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Health Records, Personal , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180389, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1014134

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Avaliar a qualidade da Atenção Primária à Saúde segundo o nível de satisfação dos usuários idosos. MÉTODO Estudo exploratório, descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 381 idosos usuários dos serviços da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Para a coleta de dados, o Service Quality (SERVQUAL) foi adaptado ao contexto das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) e foi elaborado um questionário com 44 questões. Os dados foram tratados utilizando o SSPS® e analisados por meio de técnicas estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. RESULTADOS O SERVQUAL exibiu excelente confiabilidade e consistência interna das subescalas expectativas e percepções, com Alpha Cronbach 0,948 e 0,932, respectivamente. As dimensões avaliadas apresentaram Gaps negativos: aspectos tangíveis -0,65; confiabilidade -1,19; capacidade de resposta -0,56; garantia -0,91 e empatia -0.52. CONCLUSÃO Os Gaps negativos, em todas as dimensões, evidenciam lacunas na qualidade dos serviços e demonstram a baixa satisfação dos idosos usuários das UBS/ESF/APS.


Resumen OBJETIVO Evaluar la calidad de la Atención Primaria a la Salud según el nivel de satisfacción de los usuarios ancianos. MÉTODO Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, con abordaje cuantitativo, realizado con 381 ancianos usuarios de los servicios de Atención Primaria Salud. Para la recolección de los datos, el Service Quality (SERVQUAL) fue adaptado al contexto de las Unidades Básicas de Salud (UBS) Estrategia Salud de la Familia (ESF) y elaboró ​​un cuestionario con 44 preguntas. Los datos fueron tratados utilizando SSPS® y analizados a través de las técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. RESULTADOS El SERVQUAL exhibió excelente confiabilidad y consistencia interna de las sub-escalas expectativas y percepciones con Alpha de Cronbach 0,948 y 0,932, respectivamente. Las dimensiones evaluadas presentaron Gaps negativos: aspectos tangibles -0,65, confiabilidad -1,19, capacidad de respuesta -0,56, garantía -0,91 y empatía -0.52. CONCLUSIÓN Los Gaps negativos evidencian lagunas en la calidad de los servicios y demuestran la satisfacción baja de los ancianos usuarios de las UBS/ESF/APS.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the quality of Primary Health Care according to the level of satisfaction of elderly users. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, performed with 381 elderly users of Primary Health Care. For data collection, the Service Quality scale (SERVQUAL) was adapted to the context of the Primary Health Units (UBS) of Family Health Strategy (ESF) and a questionnaire with 44 questions was elaborated. Data was treated using SSPS® and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. RESULTS the SERVQUAL subscales "expectations" and "perceptions" exhibited excellent reliability and internal consistency, with Cronbach's Alpha 0.948 and 0.932, respectively. The evaluated dimensions presented negative Gaps results: tangible aspects -0.65, reliability -1.19, responsiveness -0.56, guarantee -0.91, and empathy -0.52. CONCLUSION negative Gaps in all dimensions show gaps in the quality of services and demonstrates the low satisfaction of the elderly users of UBS/ESF/APS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Primary Health Care/standards , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Patient Satisfaction , Health Services for the Aged , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(3): 272-280, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896442

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Surveys are a useful tool in primary care. However, low response rates can introduce selection bias, impairing both external and internal validity. The aim of this study was to assess the average response rate in surveys with Portuguese general practitioners (GPs). Method: We searched the Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo, SciELO, IndexRMP, RCAAP, Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Geral e Familiar, Acta Médica Portuguesa and the proceedings of conferences of general practice from incepton to December 2016. We included all postal, e-mail, telephone and personal surveys to primary care physicians without language restrictions. We did not assess risk of bias of included studies, since the main outcome was survey response rate. We performed planned subgroup analyses of the use of monetary incentives, the use of non-monetary incentives, survey delivery modes and prior contact with participants. Results: A total of 1,094 papers were identified and 37 studies were included in this review. The response rate in surveys done to Portuguese GPs was 56% (95CI 47-64%). There was substantial heterogeneity among included studies (I2=99%), but subgroup analysis did not explain this heterogeneity. Conclusion: Consistent with other published studies, the average response rate in surveys done with Portuguese GPs was 56%, with substantial variation among studies. Use of monetary incentives, one of the most effective strategies to increase response rates, was not present in any of the included studies.


Resumo Introdução: Questionários são úteis na investigação em cuidados de saúde primários. Contudo, baixas taxas de resposta podem introduzir um viés de seleção, prejudicando a validade externa e interna. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a taxa de resposta média a questionários aplicados a médicos de família (MF) portugueses. Método: Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo, SciELO, IndexRMP, RCAAP, Revista Portuguesa de Medicina Geral e Familiar, Acta Médica Portuguesa e resumos em conferências de medicina familiar do início até dezembro de 2016. Incluiram-se estudos realizados a médicos de família portugueses independentemente de sua tipologia, do tipo de entrega (correio, e-mail, pessoalmente e por telefone) e do idioma do artigo. Não foi avaliado o risco de viés dos artigos porque o principal resultado considerado foi a taxa de resposta. Foram efetuadas análises de subgrupos sobre a utilização de incentivos monetários, de incentivos não monetários, o modo de entrega e o contato prévio com os participantes. Resultados: Foram identificados 1.094 artigos e incluídos 37 estudos. O número de participantes em cada estudo variou entre 13 e 2.815 participantes. A taxa de resposta média foi de 56% (IC95% 47-64%). Identificou-se uma heterogeneidade substancial (I2=99%) não explicável pela análise de subgrupos. Conclusão: A taxa de resposta média a inquéritos realizados a MF portugueses foi de 56%, o que corresponde aos valores identificados em revisões internacionais, apesar da variação significativa entre os estudos englobados nesta revisão. O uso de incentivos monetários, uma das estratégias mais eficazes para aumentar as taxas de resposta, não foi identificado em qualquer dos estudos incluídos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Physicians, Primary Care/statistics & numerical data , Portugal , Reimbursement, Incentive/statistics & numerical data , Correspondence as Topic , Communication
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 141 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997386

ABSTRACT

A Cultura de Segurança (CS) conceitua-se como o produto de valores, atitudes, competências e padrões de comportamento individuais e de grupo, os quais determinam o compromisso da administração de uma organização segura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a CS do paciente em hospital universitário, por meio da aplicação do instrumento Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC), que possui 42 itens divididos em 12 dimensões. O HSOPSC foi entregue aos funcionários de todos os departamentos do hospital e de diferentes níveis de escolaridade, no período de dezembro de 2016 à maio de 2017. Os percentuais de respostas positivas, neutras e negativas foram calculados para identificar áreas fortes e frágeis para CS. Dos 430 questionários distribuídos, 368 (86%) foram considerados válidos. A porcentagem geral de respostas positivas foi de 50,3%. A dimensão "Ações e expectativas sobre seu supervisor/chefe e ações promotoras da segurança do paciente" obteve o maior percentual de respostas positivas (67,1%), entretanto, nenhuma dimensão atingiu o valor acima de 75% para ser considerada uma "área forte" para segurança do paciente. A principal fragilidade para CS foi observada na dimensão "Respostas não punitivas aos erros", com menor porcentagem de respostas positivas (22,9%) e menor mediana (41,7%). A maioria dos profissionais (70,6%) não realizou notificação de eventos nos últimos 12 meses, os funcionários do departamento médico ou de nível superior de escolaridade foram os que apresentaram a menor frequência dessas notificações. Apesar disso, 69,5% dos participantes consideraram a segurança do paciente dentro da unidade/área de trabalho como "excelente" ou "muito boa". Conclui-se que a CS da instituição foi considerada mediana, sendo identificados dimensões frágeis, tais como: respostas não punitivas aos erros e adequação de profissionais. Assim, deve-se investir, principalmente, na promoção e disseminação de uma CS justa e não punitiva em todas as áreas do hospital


The Safety Culture (SC) is conceptualized as the product of values, actions, skills and patterns of behavior of individuals and group, which determine the commitment of the management of a safe organization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the SC oh the patient in a university hospital, through the application of the instrument Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC), which has 42 items divided into 12 dimensions. The HSOPSC was delivered to employees in all hospital departments and at different educational levels from December 2016 to May 2017. The percentages of positive, neutral and negative responses were calculated to identify strong and fragile areas for SC. Of the 430 questionnaires distributed, 368 (86%) were considered valid. The overall percentage of positive responses was 50.3%. The dimension "Actions and expectations about your supervisor and actions that promote patient safety" obtained the highest percentage of positive responses (67.1%). However, no dimension reached a value above 75% so could be considered an "strong area" for patient safety. The main fragility for SC was observed in the dimension "Non-punitive responses to errors", with a lower percentage of positive responses (22.9%) and a lower median (41.7%). Most professionals (70.6%) did not report events in the last 12 months, the medical department or higher educational level employees presented the lowest frequency of these reports. Despite this, 69.5% of the participants considered patient safety within the unit/work area to be "excellent" or "very good". Our results showed that the SC of the institution was considered median, and fragile dimensions were identified, such as: non-punitive responses to errors and adequacy of professionals. Thus, it is necessary to invest mainly in promoting and disseminating a fair and non-punitive culture in all areas of the hospital


Subject(s)
Health Personnel/ethics , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/classification , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data
15.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (32): 40-51, ene.-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-891474

ABSTRACT

ResumenIntroducción. La gran cantidad de pacientes atendidos en las consultas externas hospitalarias y conocer la importancia de sus opiniones sobre la atención recibida en este servicio motiva el desarrollo del presente estudio, el cual busca conocer la opinión de un grupo de usuarios sobre las consultas externas de tres hospitales públicos de la ciudad de Madrid e identificar factores que influyen en la satisfacción global de estas personas.Método. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo transversal en el que se encuestó a 150 usuarios de consultas externas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado, previamente validado que constaba de 12 ítems, englobados en dos dimensiones con una escala tipo Likert de 1 a 10 en función del grado de satisfacción, de los cuales se obtuvo resultados sociodemográficos y de tipo descriptivo. Por otra parte, se realizó un análisis bivariante del que se detectó diferencias significativas en función del sexo, el nivel académico, la nacionalidad y la edad.Resultados. En el análisis descriptivo del cuestionario llama la atención que la calidad administrativa es valorada por debajo de 5 puntos, mientras que para la clínica, la valoración es de 6 puntos aproximadamente, de la que resulta una valoración del cuestionario total ligeramente superior a 5. El tiempo de espera en consultas fue el ítem que obtuvo la valoración media más baja de todo el cuestionario, con algo más de un 3,5 sobre 10, mientras que la más alta fue la obtenida para el ítem referido al trato por parte del personal de enfermería, con una nota de casi un 7.Conclusión.Se puede afirmar que en la muestra estudiada solo existen dos factores que se relacionan con el incremento de la satisfacción de los usuarios en las consultas externas: el sexo masculino y haber cursado estudios universitarios.


AbstractIntroduction. The large number of patients seen in outpatient hospital and know the importance of their views on the care provided in this service encourages the development of this study, which seeks to know the opinion of a group of users on outpatient three hospitals public of the city of Madrid and identify factors influencing the overall satisfaction of these people.Method. A cross-sectional descriptive study in which 150 users outpatient clinics were surveyed using a previously validated self-administered questionnaire consisting of 12 items, encompassed in two dimensions with a Likert 1 type scale to 10 depending on the degree held satisfaction, which socio-demographic and descriptive results obtained. Moreover, a bivariate analysis detected significant differences based on gender, academic level, nationality and age was performed.Results. In the descriptive analysis of the questionnaire draws attention to the administrative quality is valued below 5 points, while for the clinical assessment is 6 points approximately, which is an assessment of the total questionnaire slightly higher than 5. The query timeout was the item that received the lowest average rating of the entire questionnaire, with just over a 3.5 out of 10, while the highest was obtained for the item referred to treatment by the staff nursing, with a note of almost 7.Conclusion. It can be stated that in the sample there are only two factors that relate to the increase in user satisfaction in outpatient: the male and have attended university.


ResumoIntrodução. A grande quantidade de pacientes atendidos nas consultas externas hospitalárias e conhecer a importância de suas opiniões sobre o atendimento recebido neste serviço motiva o desenvolvimento do presente estudo, o qual busca conhecer a opinião de um grupo de usuários sobre as consultas externas de três hospitais públicos da cidade de Madrid e identificar fatores que influem na satisfação global destas pessoas.Método. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo transversal no qual se entrevistaram a 150 usuários de consultas externas mediante um questionário auto-administrado, previamente validado que constava de 12 ítens, englobados em duas dimensões com uma escala tipo Likert de 1 a 10 em função ao grau de satisfação, dos quais se obteve resultados sociodemográficos e de tipo descritivo. Por outra parte, se realizou uma análise bivariante na que se detectaram diferenças significativas em función do sexo, do nível acadêmico, da nacionalidade e da idade.Resultados. Na análise descritiva do questionário merece atenção que a qualidade administrativa é valorada abaixo de 5 pontos, enquanto que para a clínica, a valoração é de 6 pontos aproximadamente, da que resulta uma valoração do questionário total um pouco superior a 5. O tempo de espera em consultas foi o ítem que obteve a valoração média mais baixa de todo o questionário, com algo mais de 3,5 sobre 10, enquanto que a mais alta foi a obtida para o ítem referido ao atendimento por parte do pessoal de enfermagem, com uma nota de quase 7.Conclusão.Pode-se afirmar que na amostra estudada somente existem dois fatores que se relacionam com o incremento da satisfação dos usuários nas consultas externas: sexo masculino e haver cursado estudos universitários.


Subject(s)
Spain , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Nursing
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 24: e2685, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-960969

ABSTRACT

Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found.


Objetivo estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à utilização dos serviços de saúde por homens com idade entre 20 e 59 anos. Método estudo transversal de base populacional, tipo inquérito domiciliar, realizado junto a 421 homens adultos, selecionados mediante amostragem aleatória sistemática. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento estruturado e analisados conforme estatística descritiva e inferencial, com regressão logística múltipla. Resultados a prevalência de utilização dos serviços de saúde, nos três meses anteriores às entrevistas, foi de 42,8%, sendo maior entre homens desempregados, adeptos de alguma religião, que utilizaram mais frequentemente os serviços privados, foram hospitalizados nos últimos 12 meses e referiram apresentar alguma morbidade. Conclusão a prevalência de utilização dos serviços de saúde pelos homens adultos não difere de outros estudos e foi considerada alta e indica estar relacionada à necessidade de atenção curativa, a considerar pelos fatores associados encontrados.


Objetivo estimar la prevalencia e identificar factores asociados a la utilización de los servicios de salud por hombres con edad entre 20 y 59 años. Método estudio transversal de base poblacional, tipo encuesta domiciliar, realizada en 421 hombres adultos, seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio sistemático. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de instrumento estructurado y analizados de acuerdo con la estadística descriptiva e inferencial, con regresión logística múltiple. Resultados la prevalencia de utilización de los servicios de salud, en los tres meses anteriores a las entrevistas, fue de 42,8%, siendo mayor entre hombres desempleados, adeptos a alguna religión, que utilizaron con más frecuencia los servicios privados, fueron hospitalizados en los últimos 12 meses y refirieron tener alguna enfermedad. Conclusión considerando los factores asociados encontrados, la prevalencia de utilización de los servicios de salud por los hombres adultos no difiere de otros estudios y fue considerada alta e indica que está relacionada con la necesidad de recibir atención curativa,


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Religion , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data
17.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 31(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: lil-797700

ABSTRACT

Introducción: de las infecciones de transmisión sexual, el VIH/sida es, quizás, la más aterradora: no tiene cura. En Cuba se insiste en su prevención y hay una incesante labor en este sentido, mayor preocupación se tiene con los adolescentes a partir del estudio y conocimiento de la sexualidad que en ellos se produce como un fenómeno natural. Objetivo: identificar el nivel de conocimientos sobre VIH/sida en estudiantes de secundaria básica del municipio Santa Clara. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva, transversal. De un universo de 11 560 fueron seleccionados por muestreo estratificado 2 890 estudiantes, previo consentimiento informado. Las variables estudiadas fueron sexo, grado escolar y nivel de conocimientos. Para obtener la información se aplicó una encuesta, como medida de resumen se utilizó el porcentaje. Resultados: de la muestra, el 31 por ciento de los estudiantes cursaba séptimo grado, el 36,08 por ciento octavo y el 32,92 por ciento noveno, predominó el sexo femenino. Las vías de transmisión del VIH/sida más reconocida fue transfusiones sanguíneas y otros derivados de la sangre de una persona infectada (96,67 por ciento) y contacto sexual sin protección (96,47 por ciento), el 99,01 por ciento expresó como medida fundamental de prevención del riesgo evitar jeringuillas, transfusiones, leche materna contaminada con el virus, el 97,99 por ciento reconoció la escuela y los profesionales de la salud como vías más importantes de información, el 85,02 por ciento mostró un buen nivel de conocimientos. Conclusiones: en los estudiantes de la enseñanza media del municipio Santa Clara predominó un buen nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/sida. La escuela, los profesionales de la salud y la familia fueron identificados como principales proveedores de información(AU)


Introduction: among sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS is perhaps the most frightening: it has no cure. In this regard, prevention in Cuba is emphasized together with the permanent work. Adolescents represent a bigger concern, from the study and knowledge on sexuality produced in them like a natural phenomenon. Objective: to identify the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS in secondary school students from Santa Clara Municipality. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was performed. In a sample group of 11 560, 2890 students were chosen by stratified sampling, under informed consent. The variables studied were sex, grade and level of knowledge. To obtain the information, a survey was conducted; percentage was used as summary measure. Results: 31 percent of the sample studied in the seventh grade; 36.08 percent, in the eighth grade; and 32.92 percent, in the ninth grade. The female sex predominated. The most acknowledged ways of HIV/AIDS transmission were blood transfusions and other blood products from an infected individual (96.67 percent) and unprotected sexual intercourse (96.47 percent). 99.01 percent referred, as fundamental measures of risk prevention: avoid syringes, transfusions and HIV-contaminated breast milk. 97.99 percent acknowledged the school and the health professionals as the most important providers of information; 85.02 percent showed a good level of knowledge. Conclusions: a good level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS predominates in Santa Clara Municipality secondary students. The school, health professionals and the family were identified as main providers of information(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Professional-Family Relations/ethics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Cad. saúde pública ; 30(supl.1): S192-S207, 08/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720534

ABSTRACT

Estudo de coorte sobre a mortalidade neonatal na pesquisa Nascer no Brasil, com entrevista e avaliação de prontuários de 23.940 puérperas entre fevereiro de 2011 e outubro de 2012. Utilizou-se modelagem hierarquizada para análise dos potenciais fatores de risco para o óbito neonatal. A taxa de mortalidade foi 11,1 por mil; maior nas regiões Norte e Nordeste e nas classes sociais mais baixas. O baixo peso ao nascer, o risco gestacional e condições do recém-nascido foram os principais fatores associados ao óbito neonatal. A inadequação do pré-natal e da atenção ao parto indicaram qualidade não satisfatória da assistência. A peregrinação de gestantes para o parto e o nascimento de crianças com peso < 1.500g em hospital sem UTI neonatal demonstraram lacunas na organização da rede de saúde. Óbitos de recém-nascidos a termo por asfixia intraparto e por prematuridade tardia expressam a evitabilidade dos óbitos. A qualificação da atenção, em especial da assistência hospitalar ao parto se configura como foco prioritário para maiores avanços nas políticas públicas de redução das taxas e das desigualdades na mortalidade infantil no Brasil.


Se trata de un estudio de cohorte sobre la mortalidad neonatal en la investigación Nacer en Brasil, con entrevistas y revisión de los registros médicos de 23.940 mujeres durante el posparto, entre febrero de 2011 y octubre de 2012. Se utilizó el modelado jerárquico con el fin de analizar los factores de riesgo potenciales para la muerte neonatal. La tasa de mortalidad fue de 11,1/1.000; mayor en las regiones Norte y Nordeste y en las clases sociales más bajas. El bajo peso al nacer, el riesgo gestacional y la condición del recién nacido fueron los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal. Una asistencia prenatal y al parto inadecuados indican una calidad insuficiente de atención. La peregrinación de las mujeres embarazadas durante el parto y el nacimiento de niños con peso < 1.500g en un hospital sin unidad de cuidado intensivo neonatal demostró deficiencias en la organización de la red de salud. El motivo final de las muertes de los recién nacidos por asfixia intraparto y la prematuridad tardía expresan la posibilidad de que las muertes podrían haber sido evitadas. La cualificación en la atención, especialmente en la prestación de atención hospitalaria se configura como un foco prioritario para la política pública y el progreso en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil y las desigualdades.


This study examined neonatal deaths in the live-births cohort in the Birth in Brazil survey, which interviewed and examined medical records of 23,940 mothers from February 2011 to October 2012. Potential risk factors were analyzed using hierarchical modeling. Neonatal mortality rate was 11.1/1,000, the highest rates occurring in the North and Northeast regions and in lower social classes. Low birth weight, risks during pregnancy and conditions of the newborn were the main factors associated with neonatal death. Inadequate prenatal and childbirth care point to unsatisfactory quality of health care. Difficulty in gaining hospital admission for delivery, and children with birth weight < 1,500g born at hospitals without a neonatal intensive care unit, indicate gaps in health system organization. Deaths from intra-partum asphyxia in term babies and late prematurity express preventable neonatal mortality. Better quality health care, especially hospital care during labor and birth, poses the main public policy challenge to progress in reducing mortality and inequalities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality , Pregnancy Complications/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Maternal Mortality , Maternal Health Services/standards , Quality of Health Care , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 34(6): 393-400, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-702713

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre la realización de la citología del cuello uterino y el tipo de seguro de salud en las mujeres peruanas, y determinar el papel de las variables sociodemográficas y de salud sexual en esta relación. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal que utiliza la información de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES), Perú, 2005-2008, correspondiente a una selección de 12 272 mujeres de 30 a 49 años de edad. La variable dependiente fue la realización de alguna prueba de Papanicolaou (PAP) en los últimos 5 años. Las variables independientes principales fueron el tipo de seguro de salud, el nivel educativo, el nivel socioeconómico del hogar, la etnia y el área de residencia. La asociación multivariada fue estimada a través de la razón de prevalencias, utilizando la regresión Poisson con varianza robusta. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que 62,7% de las mujeres sexualmente activas se habían realizado algún PAP en los últimos 5 años. Este porcentaje de participación variaba según el tipo de seguro de salud, donde las mujeres con seguro público tenían 1,27 (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 1,24-1,31) y las que tenían seguro privado 1,52 (IC95%:1,46-1,58) veces mayor probabilidad de haberse realizado un PAP que aquellas sin seguro. Esta asociación era explicada predominantemente por las variables de posición socioeconómica. Asimismo las mujeres que tenían la participación más baja eran las analfabetas o con educación primaria, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, con antecedente de lengua indígena y que vivían en la zonas rurales-siendo esta brecha aún mayor cuando además carecían de seguro de salud, llegando a ser hasta la tercera parte en relación con los grupos sociales más favorecidos. CONCLUSIONES: Se hallaron desigualdades según el tipo de seguro de salud en la realización del PAP, siendo las mujeres sin seguro las que menos lo utilizaron, lo cual supone una barrera para el acceso al cribado de cáncer de cérvix en Perú.


OBJECTIVE: Describe the association between receipt of cervical cytology and type of health insurance in Peruvian women, and determine the role of sociodemographic and sexual health variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using information on a sample of 12 272 women aged 30 to 49 years from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES), Peru, 2005-2008. The dependent variable was receipt of at least one Pap smear in the last five years. The primary independent variables were type of health insurance, educational level, household socioeconomic level, ethnicity, and place of residence. Prevalence ratio, obtained from Poisson regression with robust variance, was used to measure multivariate association. RESULTS: Among sexually active women, 62.7% had received at least one Pap test in the last five years. Percentage of women tested varied by type of health insurance. Women with public or private insurance had a greater probability of having received a Pap smear-1.27 (95% CI, 1.24-1.31) and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.58) times greater, respectively-than uninsured women. This association was primarily explained by socioeconomic status variables. In addition, women who participated the least in screening were characterized by illiteracy or only a primary education, low socioeconomic level, speaking an indigenous language, and living in a rural area. When they also lacked health insurance, the gap widened, rising to as much as one third compared to more advantaged social groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities were found in receipt of Pap testing according to type of health insurance; women without insurance were least likely to be screened, implying existence of a barrier to cervical cancer screening in Peru.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Health Status Disparities , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Papanicolaou Test , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Educational Status , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/classification , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured , Peru , Prevalence , Papanicolaou Test/economics , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
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