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1.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1147525

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar as Representações Sociais sobre o processo saúde-doença no Espiritismo. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa. Utilizados na pesquisa conceitos das Representações Sociais de acordo com Serge Moscovici. A coleta dos dados ocorreu através de entrevista semi-estruturada e aplicação da técnica livre associação de palavras e observação Livre. Resultados: O espiritismo crê que conquistamos a saúde quando estamos harmonizados conosco e com as leis divinas. Qualquer descumprimento dessas leis divinas gera um desequilíbrio no ser humano. Conclusão: A Enfermagem necessita reconhecer essas Representações Sociais, visto que elas irão esclarecer aos profissionais as experiências de pacientes religiosos, o modo como assimilam seu estado patológico e isto é um desafio para articulação de estratégias de aproximação


Objective: To identify as Social Representatives about the health-disease process in Spiritism. Method: Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Users in the magazine concepts of the Social Representations according to Serge Moscovici. The data collection was performed through a semistructured interview and the application of free set of free words and observations. Results: Spiritualism believes that it has gained health when we are harmonized with the divine laws. Any breach of divine law creates an imbalance in the human being. Conclusion: The Disease Associated with Social Representations, with the aim of being more exposed to professionals such as patient experiences, the way they assimilate their pathological condition and is a challenge for the articulation of strategies of approximation


Objetivo: identificar como Representantes Sociales sobre el proceso saludenfermedad en el Espiritismo. Método: estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo. Usuarios en la revista conceptos de las Representaciones Sociales de acuerdo con Serge Moscovici. La recolección de los datos fue realizada por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y la aplicación del conjunto libre de palabras y observaciones libres. Resultados: el espiritismo cree que ha conquistado la salud cuando estamos armonizados con las leyes divinas. Cualquier incumplimiento de leyes divinas genera un desequilibrio en el ser humano. Conclusión: la Enfermedad asociada a las Representaciones Sociales, con el objetivo de estar más expuestas a los profesionales como las experiencias de enfermos, el modo como asimilan su estado patológico y es un desafío para la articulación de estrategias de aproximación


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Religion , Spiritualism , Health-Disease Process , Social Perception , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Holistic Nursing , Qualitative Research
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45261, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146354

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento e o enfrentamento do diabetes junto a pessoas com diabetes em diálise. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) e o Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Resultados: participaram 71 pacientes, com idade média de 61,81±14,93 anos. A retinopatia diabética foi a complicação prevalente (81,69%); hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi a comorbidade (83,09%). A glicemia em jejum apresentou mediana de 152 (124-228,5) mg/dl e a hemoglobina glicada de 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg/dl. O DKN-A apresentou escore médio de 7,84±2,55 pontos; seu item com maior número de acertos foi a conduta em caso de hipoglicemia; enquanto o com menor número de acertos foi em relação à cetonúria e substituições alimentares. O instrumento ATT-19 obteve média de 50,26±11,7 pontos. Conclusão: pessoas com diabetes, em diálise, apresentam conhecimento deficiente em relação ao diabetes, assim como baixo enfrentamento da doença.


Objective: to identify knowledge of, and coping with, diabetes mellitus among diabetics undergoing dialysis. Method: in this cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes, the instruments used were the Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) and Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Results: mean age of the 71 participants was 61.81 ± 14.93 years. The most prevalent complication was diabetic retinopathy (81.69%), and the most prevalent comorbidity was systemic arterial hypertension (83.09%). Median fasting glycemia and glycated hemoglobin were 152 (124-228.5) mg/dl and 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg/dl, respectively. Average DKN-A score was 7.84 ± 2.55; the highest success rate was on how to respond to hypoglycemia; the lowest was about ketones in urine and substitute foods. Mean ATT-19 score was 50.26 ± 11.7. Conclusion: the diabetics in dialysis showed deficient knowledge of diabetes and had negative attitudes to the disease.


Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento y el afrontamiento de la diabetes mellitus entre los diabéticos en diálisis. Método: en este estudio transversal de pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) y Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Resultados: la edad media de los 71 participantes fue de 61,81 ± 14,93 años. La complicación más prevalente fue la retinopatía diabética (81,69%) y la comorbilidad más prevalente fue la hipertensión arterial sistémica (83,09%). La mediana de la glucemia en ayunas y la hemoglobina glucosilada fueron 152 (124- 228,5) mg / dl y 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg / dl, respectivamente. La puntuación promedio de DKN-A fue de 7,84 ± 2,55; la tasa de éxito más alta fue sobre cómo responder a la hipoglucemia; el más bajo fue sobre las cetonas en la orina y los alimentos sustitutos. La puntuación media de ATT-19 fue 50,26 ± 11,7. Conclusión: los diabéticos en diálisis mostraban un conocimiento deficiente de la diabetes y actitudes negativas hacia la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Peritoneal Dialysis/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/psychology , Self Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Peritoneal Dialysis/nursing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/nursing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/nursing
3.
Appl. cancer res ; 40(8): [1-13], Oct. 13, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129225

ABSTRACT

Background: Cervical cancer is a prominently diagnosed form of cancer in several resource-constrained settings particularly within the sub-Saharan African region. Globally, Africa region has the highest incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer. The high prevalence has been attributed to several factors including lack of awareness of the disease. The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence and factors associated with awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Republic of Benin and Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We used population-based cross-sectional data from Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) and Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) respectively. BDHS 2017­18 and ZDHS - 2015 are the 5th and 6th rounds of the surveys respectively. About 15,928 and 9955 women aged 15­49 years were included in this study respectively. The awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Benin and Zimbabwe was measured dichotomously; yes (if a woman heard of cervical cancer) vs. no (if a woman has not heard of cervical cancer). All significant variables from the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Results: While majority (79.2%) of women from Zimbabwe have heard about cervical cancer, only about one-tenth (10.2%) of their Beninese counterparts have heard about the disease. Advanced maternal age, having formal education, use of internet, having professional/technical/managerial occupation significantly increased the odds of awareness of cervical cancer after adjusting for other confounders. However, in Benin, women who resided in the rural area and those of Islamic belief had 20% (AOR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.64, 0.99) and 35% (AOR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.86) reduction in the odds of awareness of cervical cancer respectively, when compared with women from urban residence and Christianity. Results from the predictive marginal effects showed that, assuming the distribution of all factors remained the same among women, but every woman is an urban dweller, we would expect 11.0 and 81.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer; If everywoman had higher education, we would expect 20.0 and 90% level of awareness of cervical cancer and if instead the distribution of other maternal factors were as observed and other covariates remained the same among women, but all women were in the richest household wealth quintile, we would expect about 11.0 and 83.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer, among women of reproductive age from Benin and Zimbabwe respectively. Conclusion: The study has revealed that socio-demographical factors including geographical location and selected economic factors explained the inequality in distribution of women's awareness on cervical cancer in both countries. Designing an effective population-based health education and promotion intervention programs on cervical cancer will be a great way forward to improving women's awareness level on cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Africa South of the Sahara , Health Education
4.
Rev. ADM ; 77(5): 257-260, sept.-oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147129

ABSTRACT

El odontólogo tiene especiales obligaciones y responsabilidades que se encuentran claramente descritas en nuestra legislación. Por desgracia, es una realidad que la odontología legal es un área que comúnmente no se incluye en el plan de estudios de la licenciatura en odontología, lo que produce, como consecuencia, que los odontólogos desconozcan en gran parte sus derechos y obligaciones ante el Estado y frente a sus pacientes. El objetivo del presente artículo es indagar sobre los tópicos más relevantes de odontología legal mediante una revisión de la literatura y de conformidad con las legislaciones vigentes en la República Mexicana (AU)


The dentist has specific obligations and responsobilities that are clearly described in our legislation, and unfortunately it is a reality, that legal odontology is an area that is not commonly included in the curriculum of the dental degree, which results in dentists largely unaware of their rights and obligations against the State and against their patients. The aim of this article is to investigate the most relevant topics of legal odontology through a review of the literature and in accordance with the laws in force in the Mexican Republic (AU)


Subject(s)
Forensic Dentistry , Legislation, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Liability, Legal , Dental Offices/legislation & jurisprudence , Mexico
5.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(2): e019-e019, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1119297

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Debido a sus vías de transmisión y las características particulares de la enfermedad por coronavirus, la profesión odontológica es considerada como una labor de un alto riesgo. Este estudio tiene por objetivo determinar el nivel de conocimiento sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) de odontólogos de Lima y Callao. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo y de corte transversal. En él se evaluó a la población de los odontólogos colegiados en la provincia de Lima y la provincia constitucional del Callao, y se obtuvo una muestra de 1047 profesionales, a los cuales se les aplicó un cuestionario virtual validado previamente por juicio de expertos y que constó de 15 preguntas para medir la variable de estudio, además de 5 ítems adicionales para recolectar información general de los participantes como edad, sexo, región de labores, experiencia profesional y principal labor clínica. Resultados: En las dimensiones de conocimiento sobre el origen, síntomas y diagnostico; riesgo y transmisión de la enfermedad; y medidas de control, la mayoría de los odontólogos tienen un nivel intermedio. Conclusiones: Los odontólogos que presentan un nivel alto de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad se caracterizan por ser de sexo masculino, laborar en los distritos de Lima central, tener más de 11 años como profesionales y realizar como principal labor clínica la periodoncia/implantología. (AU)


Aim: Due to its transmission routes and the characteristics of coronavirus disease, odontology is considered a high-risk profession. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge about Coronavirus disease 2019 among dentists in Lima and Callao, Peru. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out. Licensed dentists from the provinces of Lima and Callao were evaluated using a virtual questionnaire, previously validated by experts, including 15 questions to measure the study variable in addition to 5 additional items to collect general information such as age, sex, region of work, professional experience and the main clinical work. Results: A total of 1047 dentists were included in the study. In the dimensions of knowledge, most dentists were found to have an intermediate level regarding the origin, symptoms, and diagnosis of COVID-19 and in relation to disease risk and transmission; and control measures. Conclusions: Dentists who have a high level of knowledge about COVID-19 are characterized by being male, working in the districts of central Lima, having more than 11 years of professional experience, and performing periodontics / implantology as their main clinical work. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dental Care , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
6.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 9(2): 104-107, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1121169

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la relación del nivel de conocimientos y prácticas de las madres con la prevención de anemia ferropénica en niños menores de 5 años. Materiales y métodos: Estudio Observacional, analítico, prospectivo y transversal, obtenido a través de encuestas a 113 madres. Resultados: Relación conocimientos y prácticas con la prevención de la anemia: correlación = 0,22, T obtenida =2,38 p=0,018. Edad materna y nivel de practica: correlación = -0,241 T= -2,62 p=0,10. Conclusiones: Existe relación entre el nivel de conocimientos y prácticas de las madres en la prevención de anemia. La edad materna tiene relación significativa inversa con el nivel de prácticas inadecuadas. (AU)


Objective: To determine the relationship of the level of knowledge and practices of mothers with the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in children under 5 years. Materials and methods: Observational, analytical, prospective and cross-sectional study, obtained through surveys of 113 mothers. Results: Knowledge and practice relationship with the prevention of anemia: correlation = 0.22, T obtained = 2.38 p = 0.018. Maternal age and level of practice: correlation = -0.241 T = -2.62 p = 0.10. Conclusions: There is a relationship between the level of knowledge and practices of mothers in the prevention of anemia. Maternal age has a significant inverse relationship with the level of inappropriate practices. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child, Preschool , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 831-837, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124862

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness, knowledge level and attitudes of the community in I˙zmir/ Turkey about cadaver donation in medical education. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Randomly chosen 245 participants answered twenty items in the questionnaire providing information about their demographics (5 items), awareness and knowledge (10 items), and attitudes (5 items) about body donation. The questionnaire was applied face-to-face. Descriptive statistics presented. Student T test and One-Way ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. 123 (50.2 %) participants were male and 159 (64.9 %) were between 30 to 59 years old. 185 (75.5 %) respondents knew what the word "cadaver" means. When asked where they would apply if they decided to donate their body, 104 (42.4 %) of the participants gave the answer "state hospital". The mean score of awareness and knowledge about importance of cadaver and body donation (AWKL-Score) was 0.41±0.24 (min:0.00, max:0.90). AWKL-Score was statistically higher in the youngest (18-29 y) and oldest (>60 y) compared to the other age groups (F:4.115; p:0.007). AWKL-Score increased as the level of education increased. The highest AWKL-Score was at post-graduate level (Level 7,8) (F:22.997; p<0.001). The AWKL-Score was higher in public employees and students compared to other occupational groups (F:5.930; p<0,001). The answers to the questionnaire were important indicators of how much society needs to be informed regarding body donation.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el nivel de conciencia, conocimiento y las actitudes de la comunidad en Izmir / Turquía sobre la donación de cadáveres en la educación médica. Se realizó un estudio transversal de 245 participantes elegidos al azar, que respondieron veinte ítems en el cuestionario proporcionando información sobre su demografía (5 ítems), conciencia y conocimiento (10 ítems) y actitudes (5 ítems) sobre la donación de cuerpos. El cuestionario fue administrado directamente en persona; la prueba T de Student y la prueba ANOVA de una vía se utilizaron para el análisis estadístico. De los participantes 123 (50,2 %) eran hombres y 159 (64,9 %) tenían entre 30 y 59 años. 185 (75,5 %) encuestados sabían lo que significa la palabra "cadáver". Cuando se les preguntó dónde se registrarían, en caso de decidir donar su cuerpo, 104 (42,4 %) de los participantes respondieron "hospital estatal". La puntuación media de conciencia y conocimiento sobre la importancia del cadáver y la donación de cuerpos (puntuación AWKL) fue de 0,41 ± 0,24 (mínimo: 0,00, máximo: 0,90). Estadísticamente el puntaje AWKL fue más alto en los más jóvenes (18-29 años) y mayores (> 60 años) en comparación con los otros grupos etarios (F: 4,115; p: 0.007). AWKL-Score aumentó a medida que aumentó el nivel de educación. El puntaje AWKL más alto fue en el nivel de posgrado (Nivel 7,8) (F: 22,997; p <0,001). El puntaje AWKL fue mayor en empleados públicos y estudiantes en comparación con otros grupos ocupacionales (F: 5,930; p <0,001). Las respuestas al cuestionario fueron indicadores importantes de cuánto necesita la sociedad estar informada sobre la donación de cuerpos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors/psychology , Cadaver , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Anatomy/education , Turkey , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Conscience , Education, Medical
9.
Rev. ADM ; 77(3): 129-136, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128060

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia a la que nos enfrentamos globalmente ha impactado de manera importante a la práctica odontológica, ya que, debido al uso de aerosoles, es una profesión de alto riesgo de transmisión de COVID-19. Objetivos: Describir los conocimientos generales sobre el SARS-CoV-2, recomendaciones y medidas de protección en una muestra de odontólogos mexicanos. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal utilizando un instrumento de evaluación que se distribuyó en línea a instituciones públicas, privadas y asociaciones dentales mexicanas. Los resultados fueron analizados por medio de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La encuesta fue respondida por 1,286 odontólogos, el 73.1% reportó haberse capacitado recientemente acerca del SARS-CoV-2. En su mayoría conocen sobre grupos de riesgo, transmisión, características clínicas, y recomendaciones generales. La mayoría se encuentran atendiendo exclusivamente urgencias y demuestran conocimiento acerca de los equipos de protección personal y del protocolo de atención durante la pandemia. Conclusiones: Los odontólogos mexicanos cuentan con los conocimientos sobre las generalidades del SARS-CoV-2, así como sobre los protocolos de atención y equipos de protección personal para la atención de pacientes durante la pandemia por COVID-19 (AU)


Introduction: The current pandemic that we are facing globally has had a significant impact on dental practice, due to the use of aerosols it is a profession with high risk of CoViD 19 transmission. Objective: To describe the general knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, as well as on the recommendations and personal protective equipment in a sample of Mexican dentists. Material and methods: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out through an evaluation instrument distributed on-line during 20 consecutive days to several dental professionals of private and public institutions and Mexican dental associations. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: 1,286 Mexican dental professionals completed the survey, 73.1% indicated having received training about SARS-CoV-2 and they mostly know about the individuals at higher risk, transmission, clinical features and general recommendations. Most of the dentists are exclusively attending urgencies as pulpal pain, abscess and dental traumatisms. Knowledge regarding the use of personal protective equipment was demonstrated, as well as the protocol of care during the pandemic. Conclusions: Mexican dentists have the knowledge on the generalities of SARS-CoV-2, on care protocols and protective measures for patient care during the CoViD-19 pandemic (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Coronavirus Infections , Dentists , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Schools, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Infection Control, Dental , Dental Offices , Personal Protective Equipment , Mexico
10.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e938, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126751

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El lavado de manos deficiente, sigue siendo un problema hospitalario. Cumplir con las recomendaciones internacionales ofrece seguridad en el cuidado. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas en la técnica del lavado de manos en personal de salud en un hospital pediátrico de La Habana. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo a 145 trabajadores (31,7 por ciento médicos, 35,2 por ciento enfermeros, 22,8 por ciento médicos residentes y 10,3 por ciento estudiantes). De 13 servicios el cuerpo de guardia, sala de respiratorio, cirugía, neurocirugía y quemados, fueron los que más participación tuvieron. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: 1. Observación directa de la técnica del lavado de manos. 2. Observación de la calidad del lavado de manos mediante lámpara fluorescente. 3. Medida del conocimiento acerca del lavado de manos y actitud mediante encuesta. Resultados: En la primera etapa, el 51,7 por ciento calificó de inadecuado, en la segunda etapa el 64,8 por ciento también tuvo una evaluación inadecuada y en las encuestas, el conocimiento alcanzó solo 52,4 por ciento, considerado inapropiado. La actitud ante esta actividad fue calificada de inadecuado en el 53,1 por ciento, con un mejor porcentaje en el personal de enfermería. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el lavado de manos es deficiente, por lo que debe diseñarse un programa de capacitación en todos los niveles, sea pregrado, posgrado o formación continua, donde exista responsabilidad individual de cada profesional sanitario, y se insista en ello(AU)


Introduction: Deficient handwashing is still a problem in hospitals. The compliance of the international recommendations on this matter provides security in the care. Objective: To identify the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices in the technique of handwashing in a pediatric hospital in Havana. Methodology: Descriptive study applied to 145 workers (31.7 percent doctors, 35.2 percent nurses, 22.8 percent residents, and 10.3 percent students) of 13 services. Emergencies, Respiratory, Surgery, Neurosurgery and Caumatology were the services with more participation. The study was conducted in three stages: 1. Direct observation of the technique of handwashing. 2. Quality observation of the handwashing using fluorescent lamp. 3. Extent of knowledge on handwashing and attitudes through survey. Results: In the first stage, the 51.7 percent the handwashing was assessed as inappropriate, in the second stage the 64.8 percent was also evaluated as inadequate, and in the surveys, the 52.4 percent had an incorrect knowledge; the attitude towards this activity was described as inappropriate in the 53.1 percent , with a better percentage in the nursing staff. Conclusions: The knowledge, attitudes and practices on handwashing were poor, so it must be designed a training program at all levels, whether undergraduate, graduate or continuing training, where individual responsibility of each healthcare professional exists, and should be highlithed(AU)


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hand Hygiene/methods , Education, Medical/ethics
11.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 160-166, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090669

ABSTRACT

El maltrato, abuso y la negligencia a los niños constituyen un fenómeno social que desafortunadamente está extendido por todo el mundo sin barreras étnicas, geográficas ni de contexto social. En Chile, hasta el año 2012 el 71 % de los niños sufría algún tipo de maltrato al interior de su familia. Las lesiones cráneo-faciales y de cuello ocurren en más de la mitad de los casos. El Odontólogo tiene la obligación legal, moral y ética como ciudadano y profesional de la salud de notificar a las autoridades competentes los casos sospechosos de maltrato. Objetivo: Evaluar cuál es el conocimiento del cirujano dentista sobre maltrato infantil y cuál ha sido su actitud frente a la detección y reporte del maltrato infantil. Búsqueda bibliográfica en PUBMED utilizando palabras clave: "child abuse" and "dentistry". Se encontraron 132 artículos, de los cuales fueron 15 atingentes con texto completo. Estudios realizados en varios países informaron de las dificultades de los odontólogos en el diagnóstico, la documentación y la denuncia de casos con sospecha de abuso a las autoridades, además de la necesidad de mayor formación en el tema. Dada la importancia del tema, el papel del odontólogo al trabajar directamente con niños y adolescentes, y el aumento en el reporte de casos sospechosos de violencia, se sugiere fuertemente realizar una vigilancia respecto a conocimiento y actitudes entre los odontólogos en Chile.


Abuse and neglect of children constitutes a social phenomenon that unfortunately is spread throughout the world without ethnic, geographical or social context barriers. In Chile, until 2012, 71 % of children suffered some type of abuse within their family. Skull-facial and neck injuries occur in more than half of the cases. The Dentist has a legal, moral and ethical obligation as a citizen and health professional to notify the authorities of suspected cases of abuse. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the dental surgeons´ knowledge regarding child abuse and their attitude towards the detection and reporting of child abuse. Bibliographic search in PUBMED using keywords: "child abuse" and "dentistry". In the study, 132 articles were found, of which 15 were full text. Studies in several countries reported the difficulties of dentists in the diagnosis, documentation and reporting of cases of suspected abuse to the authorities, in addition to the need for further training in the subject. Given the importance of this issue, the role of the dentist working directly with children and adolescents, and the increase in the reporting of suspected cases of violence, it is strongly suggested to monitor the knowledge and attitudes among dentists in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dentists , Attitude of Health Personnel , Mandatory Reporting , Dentistry
12.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 91-100, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114602

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the influence of clinical and demographical information in the understanding of cataract surgery informed consent, identifying less understandable areas. To assess informed consent document concept. METHODS: Multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information and to evaluate the understanding of cataract surgery and informed consent. An ordinary regression model was adjusted to express the effect of clinical and demographic variables to the questionnaire score. RESULTS: The study comprised 180 patients. Sex (female, p=0.404), non-ophthalmologist source of information (p=0.397), previous surgical history (p=0.571), not having a companion (p=0.396) nor the days since the signing of informed consent form (p=0.535) had no influence in the understanding of cataract surgery informed consent. Age (r=-0.083, p<0.001) and educational level (secondary studies r=1.845, p<0.001; tertiary studies r=4.289, p<0.001) showed statistical significance with greater strength of association educational level (OR secondary studies = 6.33, OR tertiary studies = 72.86) than age had (OR = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Patient's knowledge about cataract informed consent is influenced by age and educational level. The purpose and the risks, consequences of not performing surgery and postoperative indications are the least understood topics. Informed consent is seen as a forced legal obligation.


OBJETIVOS: estimar la influencia de la información clínica y demográfica en la comprensión del consentimiento informado de la cirugía de cataratas, identificando áreas menos comprensibles. Evaluar el concepto de "documento de consentimiento informad". MÉTODOS: el cuestionario de opción múltiple se diseñó para reunir información y evaluar la comprensión de la cirugía de cataratas y el consentimiento informado. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión ordinario para expresar el efecto de las variables clínicas y demográficas en la puntuación del cuestionario. RESULTADOS: El estudio abarcó 180 pacientes. Sexo (femenino, p = 0.404); fuente de información no oftalmológica (p = 0.397); historial quirúrgico previo (p = 0.571); no tener acompañante (p = 0.396), y los días desde la firma del formulario de consentimiento informado (p = 0,535), que no tuvo influencia en la comprensión del consentimiento informado en la cirugía de cataratas. La edad (r = -0.083, p <0.001) y el nivel educativo (estudios secundarios r = 1.845, p <0.001; estudios terciarios r = 4.289, p <0.001) mostraron significación estadística con una mayor fuerza del nivel educativo de asociación (OR estudios secundarios = 6.33, OR estudios terciarios = 72.86) que la edad (OR = 0.92). CONCLUSIÓN: El conocimiento del paciente sobre el consentimiento informado en cirugía de cataratas está influenciado por la edad y el nivel educativo. Los temas menos entendidos son el propósito y los riesgos, las consecuencias de no realizar la cirugía y las indicaciones postoperatorias. El consentimiento informado se considera una obligación legal forzada.


OBJETIVO: Estimar a influência de informações clínicas e demográficas na compreensão do consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata, identificando áreas menos compreensíveis. Avaliar o conceito do documento de consentimento informado. MÉTODOS: Um questionário de múltipla escolha foi desenvolvido para coletar informações e avaliar a compreensão sobre cirurgia de catarata e de consentimento informado. Um modelo de regressão ordinária foi ajustado para expressar o efeito das variáveis clínicas e demográficas no escore do questionário. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 180 pacientes. Sexo (feminino, p=0,404), fonte de informações não oftalmológica (p=0,397), história cirúrgica prévia (p=0,571), não ter um/a companheiro/a (p=0,396) nem os dias desde a assinatura do formulário de consentimento informado (p=0,535) tiveram influência na compreensão do consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata. Idade (r=-0,083, p<0,001) e nível educacional (estudos secundários r=1,845, p<0,001; estudos terciários r=4,289, p<0,001) mostraram significância estatística, com maior força de associação para o nível educacional (OR estudos secundários = 6,33, OR estudos terciários = 72,86) que para a idade (OR = 0,92). CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento do paciente sobre o consentimento informado para cirurgia de catarata é influenciado pela idade e nível educacional. O objetivo e os riscos, consequências, de não fazer a cirurgia e as indicações pós-operatórias são os tópicos menos compreensíveis. O consentimento informado é visto como uma obrigação legal compulsória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cataract Extraction/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cataract Extraction/ethics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Age Factors , Paternalism , Personal Autonomy , Educational Status , Informed Consent/psychology , Informed Consent/ethics , Jurisprudence
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 89-: I-94, II, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1099856

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La fiebre en pediatría es motivo de consulta frecuente. El objetivo fue evaluar los conocimientos, actitudes y temores de los padres ante la fiebre de sus hijos.Material y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, transversal. En 2018, se realizó una encuesta a padres de niños de entre 6 meses y 5 años que asistieron al Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.Se analizó la asociación entre las variables sociodemográficas y los conocimientos, actitudes y temores frente al cuadro febril.Resultados. Se realizaron 201 encuestas. El 56,7 % de los padres consideró que la fiebre era mala para la salud. El 37 % definió fiebre entre 37 °C y 37,5 °C, y el 59 %, 38-38,5 ºC. La media de temperatura considerada grave fue 39,2 °C (desvío estándar 0,69). El 93 % de los cuidadores utilizaba medidas físicas; el 97 % administraba antitérmicos y el 14,5 % los alternaba. Los temores a las consecuencias fueron, en el 82 %, convulsiones; en el 41 %, deshidratación; en el 18 %, daño cerebral y, en el 12 %, muerte. El 86,5 % despertaba a sus hijos para administrarles antitérmico. En el estrato de mayor instrucción materna, fue menor el temor a la fiebre (odds ratio0,5; intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 0,28-0,91).Conclusiones. Un tercio de los encuestados consideró fiebre valores bajos de temperatura. El temor a la fiebre fue elevado y el nivel de instrucción materna podría mitigarlo.


Introduction. In pediatrics, fever is a common reason for consultation. The objective was to assess parental knowledge, behaviors, and fears in the management of fever in their children.Materials and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. In 2018, a survey was administered to the parents of children aged 6 months to 5 years who attended Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The association between sociodemographic outcome measures and knowledge, behaviors, and fears in cases of fever was analyzed.Results. A total of 201 surveys were completed: 56.7 % of parents considered that fever was bad for health; 37 % defined fever between 37 °C and 37.5 °C, and 59 %, between 38 °C and 38.5 °C. The mean temperature considered severe was 39.2 °C (standard deviation: 0.69). Physical methods were used by 93 % of caregivers; 97 % administered antipyretic agents, and 14.5 % used alternating agents. Fears of consequences included seizures in 82 %, dehydration in 41 %, brain damage in 18 %, and death in 12 %. Also, 86.5 % woke up their children to give them an antipyretic agent. Among the higher maternal education level, fear of fever was lower (odds ratio: 0.5; 95 % confidence interval: 0.28-0.91).Conclusions. One-third of survey respondents considered low body temperature values as fever. Fear of fever was high, and the level of maternal education may mitigate it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Disease Management , Fever/therapy , Parents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Fever/diagnosis
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 125-: I-129, I, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100167

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Investigadores canadienses desarrollaron un cuestionario autoadministrado para indagar sobre la intención de los participantes de actividades de desarrollo profesional continuo (DPC) de transferir los conocimientos adquiridos en ámbitos áulicos a la práctica clínica. Su uso podría facilitar los procesos de mejora de la calidad en dichas actividades de DPC.Objetivo. Realizar la traducción y adaptación transcultural y validación del cuestionario REACTION (A theoRy-basEd instrument to assess the impACT of continuing profesional development activities on profesional behavIOr chaNge) para su uso en la Argentina, a partir de la versión original en inglés.Población y métodos. Se realizó la traducción y adaptación transcultural de los 12 ítems del instrumento, con un proceso de cinco pasos. La validez de constructo se exploró mediante el análisis factorial exploratorio, y la confiabilidad, a través del coeficiente de Cronbach y el coeficiente G.Resultados. La versión final del cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra de 133 médicos asistentes a 9 actividades presenciales de DPC de un hospital universitario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (edad promedio: 38 años; el 23,3 %, hombres; el 76 %, médicos de familia). El análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó 3 factores (influencia social, confianza en las capacidades propias y criterio ético). El coeficiente de Cronbach fue 0,82 y el coeficiente G fue 0,72.Conclusiones. Se realizó la adaptación y validación de la versión argentina del instrumento REACTION para evaluar el impacto del DPC enfocado en el entrenamiento de habilidades clínicas en la intención de los médicos de implementarlo en su práctica.


Introduction. Canadian researchers developed a self-administered questionnaire to ask participants of continuing professional development (CPD) activities about their intention to translate the knowledge acquired in the classroom into clinical practice. The questionnaire may facilitate quality improvement processes in such CPD activities.Objective. To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the original English REACTION questionnaire (A theoRy-basEd instrument to assess the impACT of continuing professional development activities on professional behavIOr chaNge) for its use in Argentina.Population and methods. The 12 questionnaire items were translated and cross-culturally adapted using a five-step process. The construct validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis, whereas reliability, with Cronbach's coefficient and the G coefficient.Results. The final questionnaire version was administered to a sample of 133 physicians who attended 9 CPD activities at a teaching hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (average age: 38 years; 23.3 %, men; 76 %, family physicians). The exploratory factor analysis showed 3 factors (social influence, confidence in one's abilities, and ethical judgment). Cronbach's coefficient was 0.82 and the G coefficient, 0.72.Conclusions. The Argentine version of the REACTION questionnaire was adapted and validated to assess the impact of CPD centered on clinical skills training on physicians' intention to implement it in their practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Physicians/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Education, Medical, Continuing , Translating , Attitude of Health Personnel , Data Collection , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Adaptation
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e126-e134, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100203

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Se ha descrito que la menstruación se percibe como un evento natural pero molesto, con un impacto negativo en la vida diaria de la mujer. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la percepción de la menstruación en adolescentes y los factores que podían influir sobre esta.Material y métodos. Estudio transversal observacional comparativo en adolescentes posmenárquicas con y sin enfermedades crónicas, en 2 hospitales pediátricos y 2 escuelas de nivel primario y secundario. Se recabaron los datos de edad, escolaridad, tipo de población, fecha de menarca y presencia de dismenorrea. Se aplicó un cuestionario previamente validado para evaluar la percepción sobre la menstruación.Resultados. Se incluyó un total de 346 adolescentes. Se encontró que la percepción más frecuente hacia la menstruación fue la negativa en un 65,6 % (n = 227), positiva en el 16 % (n = 55), sigilosa en el 13 % (n = 45) e indeterminada en el 5,4 % (n = 19). La presencia de enfermedad crónica demostró ser un factor protector de la percepción negativa de la menstruación (odds ratio 0,4 [intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 0,20-0,78], p = 0,007).Conclusiones. Más de la mitad de las adolescentes presentaron una actitud negativa hacia la menstruación, pero la presencia de una enfermedad crónica la mejoró


Introduction. It has been described that menstruation is perceived as a natural but cumbersome event, with a negative impact on women's daily life. The objective of this study was to identify the perception of menstruation among female adolescents and the factors that may affect it.Material and methods. Observational, cross-sectional, comparative study in postmenarcheal adolescents with and without chronic conditions in two children's hospitals and two primary and secondary schools. Age, education level, type of population, date of menarche, and presence of dysmenorrhea were recorded. A previously validated questionnaire was administered to assess the perception of menstruation. Results. A total of 346 female adolescents were included. The most common perception of menstruation was negative in 65.6 % (n = 227), positive in 16 % (n = 55), discreet in 13 % (n = 45), and indefinite in 5.4 % (n = 19). The presence of a chronic condition demonstrated to be a protective factor against a negative perception of menstruation (odds ratio: 0.4 [95 % confidence interval: 0.20-0.78], p = 0.007).Conclusions. More than half of female adolescents had a negative attitude toward menstruation, but the presence of a chronic condition improved it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Perception , Chronic Disease , Menstruation/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Mexico
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 478-481, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127088

ABSTRACT

Background Education is the mainstay of medical management of chronic non communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Aim To assess the effects of a multimedia diabetes education intervention and nutritional therapy on lifestyle changes and metabolic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods We studied 219 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 56 ± 8 years (28% males). They received education through a multimedia site about control indicators, complications, nutrition and physical exercise, among others. They also received a personalized nutritional therapy. They were followed-up for one year. At baseline and the end of follow up they were weighed, and their waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was withdrawn to measure glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Lifestyles were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire called IMEVID. Results The median duration of diabetes was six years. During the follow up, patients had a significant reduction in body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and improvements in glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL and LDL cholesterol. Seven and 13% of patients reported favorable lifestyles at baseline and the end of follow up, respectively (p < 0.01). Compared with their counterparts with unfavorable lifestyles, patients with a favorable lifestyle had a significantly lower weight and glycosylated hemoglobin at the end of follow up. Conclusions The educational intervention along with nutritional therapy improved metabolic control and lifestyles in this group of diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Multimedia , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Life Style
20.
Int. j interdiscip. dent. (Print) ; 13(1): 6-8, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114884

ABSTRACT

Los niños menores de 3 años son llevados a la consulta médica de forma rutinaria. Sin embargo, la consulta odontológica es muy infrecuente a esta edad. Por otro lado, los elementos que median en la decisión de consultar o no al dentista en esta etapa son hasta el momento poco conocidos. El objetivo de este estudio cualitativo fue identificar imaginarios, creencias y actitudes que podrían intervenir en la decisión de realizar una consulta odontopediátrica en pacientes menores de 3 años. Se aplicaron 10 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a mujeres profesionales, madres de niños entre 8 y 36 meses. Luego, se realizaron 4 entrevistas grupales en profundidad a 13 mujeres que no habían participado en la entrevista inicial. A pesar del alto nivel educativo de las madres se detectó un importante desconocimiento en temas de salud oral. Las madres sub-dimensionan el potencial de la consulta odontopediátrica en esta etapa. En segundo lugar, las madres consideran que una consulta odontopediátrica en este período es abrumadora considerando las altas demandas de esta etapa de la maternidad. Es importante mejorar los conocimientos de salud oral en este grupo de la población y modificar estrategias de prevención y promoción de la salud en preescolares.


Parents of children under 3 years old frequently take their children to medical check-ups. However, dental check-ups are infrequent at this age. The reasons behind this behavior are not well known. The present qualitative study aimed to identify social imaginary, attitudes and beliefs that may influence the decision to consult a pediatric dentist in parents of children under 3 years old. Semi-structured interviews were applied to 10 working mothers that had children between 8 and 36 months. These interviews allowed the identification of the most significant issues to be explored in this study. Afterwards, a total of 13 mothers who did not participate in the initial interviews were divided in 4 groups and in-depth group interviews were performed. Mothers involved in this study had a high educational level. However, their knowledge concerning oral health issues was very poor. Moreover, a frequent finding in this study was the notion that a dental consultation at this stage is considered to be overwhelming by these women because of their very demanding duties . It is important to increase the knowledge regarding oral health topics in this group and to modify policies about oral health at this stage of a child's life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health , Dental Care/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Pediatrics , Toothbrushing , Interviews as Topic , Decision Making , Qualitative Research , Educational Status , Mother-Child Relations
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