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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3): 237-244, set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348220

ABSTRACT

Trata-se de um relato de experiência, que descreve, sob estratégia narrativo-argumentativa, as significâncias político-pedagógicas atreladas ao planejamento estratégico de ações de educação em saúde bucal vivenciadas em um ambiente escolar e experimentadas por acadêmicos estagiários de um curso de Odontologia. Após análise detalhada, algumas inferências se destacaram: o reconhecimento do ambiente escolar como território fértil para o desenvolvimento de ações promotoras de saúde; a efetividade do instrumento "TPC" (Teorizar-Praticar-Criticar) no direcionamento dos acadêmicos estagiários no planejamento estratégico de atividades de educação em saúde bucal; a importância de se disseminar, em espaços científicos, os aprendizados advindos de experimentações práticas de estágios.


This is a report on an experience that describes, under a narrative-argumentative strategy, the political-pedagogical significance linked to the strategic planning of oral health education actions experienced in a school environment and experienced by university trainees from a Dentistry course. After a detailed analysis, some inferences were observed: the recognition of the school environment as a fertile territory for the development of health-promoting actions; the effectiveness of the "TPC" (Theorize-Practice-Criticize) instrument in directing university trainees in the strategic planning of oral health education activities; the importance of disseminating, in scientific spaces, the learning from practical experimentation during internships.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Play and Playthings , Strategic Planning/standards , Health Education, Dental/methods , Oral Hygiene/education , Students, Dental , Training Support/methods , Health Policy, Planning and Management/organization & administration , Oral Health/education , Scientific and Technical Activities , Health Promotion/methods , Learning
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 145-153, maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252386

ABSTRACT

A adolescência é considerada um rito de passagem da fase infantil para a adulta. Nessa fase muitos hábitos e atitudes sofrerão variações na idade adulta, tornando-se mais difíceis de serem contornados. Para transformar essa realidade, faz-se necessário implementar estratégias educativas que por meio da supervisão de profissionais que facilitem os adolescentes a expressarem sentimentos, trocarem experiências, proporcionando atitudes de respeito e reflexão sobre os temas abordados. O artigo trata de um relato de experiência cujo objetivo é analisar as atividades de educação e promoção da saúde planejadas e implementadas por um grupo de residentes participantes da Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde da Família da UNEB em parceria com um GT de adolescentes na USF Professor Humberto Castro Lima, localizado no bairro de Pernambués, Salvador-Ba, no ano de 2018. As ações realizadas no grupo tiveram como objetivo, incentivar o autoconhecimento, protagonismo, desenvolvimento pessoal, social, coletivo e reflexão do processo saúde/doença. Como resultados destaca-se a contribuição do grupo para a promoção da saúde dos jovens, a construção do vínculo entre os adolescentes com a unidade, a contribuição para o protagonismo no processo ensino-aprendizagem e a sensibilização dos adolescentes para a adoção de práticas preventivas. Conclui-se que a implementação de práticas educativas de caráter participativo, reflexivo, dialógico, dinâmico e problematizador se tornou cada vez mais necessária. Pôde-se perceber a potencialidade dessa estratégia que transcende o modelo biomédico, visando à atenção integral do sujeito, bem como o atendimento às demandas e necessidades dos usuários através da escuta, da construção conjunta do conhecimento, de modo que esses possam ser participativos no processo de mudança de atitudes diante do cuidado com a saúde.(AU)


Adolescence is considered a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. In this phase, many habits and attitudes will suffer variations as going into adulthood, becoming more difficult to be circumvented. In order to transform this reality, educational strategies should be implemented so that, through the supervision of professionals, can help adolescents to express their feelings, exchange experiences, providing attitudes of respect and reflection on the topics addressed. This article is a report on an experiment which had the objective of analyzing the education and health promotion activities planned and implemented by a group of residents participating in the Multi-professional Residency in Family Health at UNEB in partnership with a Working Group of adolescents at USF Professor Humberto Castro Lima, located in the neighborhood of Pernambués, in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2018. . The actions carried out in the group aimed at fostering self-knowledge, leadership, personal, social, collective development, and reflections on the health/disease process. As a result, the authors highlight the contribution of the group to the promotion of young people's health, the construction of the bond between adolescents and the health unit, the contribution to becoming protagonists in the teaching-learning process, and the raising of the adolescents' awareness on the adoption of preventive practices. It can be concluded that the implementation of educational practices of a participatory, reflective, dialogical, dynamic, and problem-solving character is increasingly necessary. It was possible to perceive the potential of this strategy that transcends the biomedical model, aiming at the integral care of the subject, as well as meeting the demands and needs of users through listening, and the joint construction of knowledge so that they can participate in the process of changing attitudes towards health care.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Education/methods , Family Health Strategy , Health Promotion/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Adolescent , Qualitative Research
3.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(2): e3069, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289397

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La caries dental y la enfermedad periodontal son las enfermedades bucodentales más prevalentes, con una tendencia al aumento de las maloclusiones. Se considera la promoción de salud como un proceso educativo a través del cual la comunidad logra ejercer control de su salud. Objetivo: Identificar las necesidades educativas sobre salud bucodental en el grado prescolar, en Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara, durante el curso escolar 2017-2018. Método: Investigación descriptiva transversal en Sagua la Grande, durante el curso 2017-2018. La población quedó constituida por 326 niños, 24 docentes y 326 familias. La variable estudiada fue necesidades educativas sobre salud bucodental en el grado preescolar. Resultados: Se evidenció que no se realizan acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental. No existen proyectos ni un programa de capacitación sobre salud bucodental para los docentes que la sustente. No es concebida la salud bucal dentro del sistema de trabajo metodológico del sector. No se analizan contenidos de salud bucodental en consejos de dirección y preparaciones metodológicas Los docentes realizan escasas acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental. El nivel de conocimientos sobre salud bucodental fue evaluado de mal en los niños (74,23 por ciento), en docentes (41,67 por ciento) y familias (47,24 por ciento). Conclusiones: Se evidenció que no se realizan acciones educativas sobre salud bucodental y predominó el nivel de conocimientos sobre salud bucodental evaluado de mal en niños, docentes y familias(AU)


Introduction: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent oral conditions, with a tendency to an increase in malocclusions. Health promotion is considered to be an educational process by which the community gains control of their health. Objective: Identify the educational needs related to oral health in the preschool grade. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Sagua la Grande during the school year 2017-2018. The study population was 326 children, 24 teachers and 326 families. The variable analyzed was educational needs related to oral health in the preschool grade. Results: It was found that educational actions related to oral health are not performed, nor is there an oral health training program for teachers or projects supporting it. Oral health is not included in the system of methodological work for the sector. Oral health contents are not discussed in management meetings or methodological preparation sessions. Teachers conduct a scant number of oral health educational actions. Knowledge about oral health was evaluated as poor in 74.23 percent of the children, 41.67 percent of the teachers and 47.24 percent of the families. Conclusions: It was found that oral health educational actions are not performed and knowledge about oral health is poor among children, teachers and families(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Health Education, Dental/methods , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Malocclusion/etiology , Health Promotion/methods
4.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(2): e2025, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341481

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cooperación académica y científico-técnica en el área de las ciencias del comportamiento abarca temáticas como el bienestar psicosocial, la promoción de salud y la prevención de enfermedades crónicas. A partir de ello, entre los años 2016 y 2018, se desarrollaron intercambios sistemáticos entre psicólogos de varias instituciones académicas y de salud de Cuba y de la Universidad de Connecticut con el propósito de fomentar la cooperación en el área de la psicología de la salud. Objetivo: Describir las principales propuestas de investigaciones psicosociales generadas a partir de la colaboración científico-técnica entre profesionales cubanos e investigadores de la Universidad de Connecticut, entre 2016 y 2018. Métodos: Se desarrolló una investigación cualitativa, con un diseño etnográfico. Se eligieron informantes clave entre investigadores cubanos y estadounidenses y se usaron como técnicas la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad y el análisis de documentos. Resultados: Se gestaron varias propuestas de investigaciones que propiciaron el desarrollo de intervenciones psicosociales preventivas. Se promovió la realización de estudios basados en el reconocimiento de la significación de la determinación social de la salud en la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas. Se tuvieron en cuenta diez estudios dirigidos a la prevención y atención de los trastornos adictivos que fueron desarrollados durante los años 2017 - 2018. Conclusiones: A partir de los encuentros realizados se elaboraron propuestas que propiciaron la ejecución de intervenciones preventivas individuales y comunitarias exitosas. A partir de la colaboración científico-técnica internacional y de la aplicación de acciones que promuevan la información, la motivación y la formación de habilidades conductuales se potencia el desarrollo de comportamientos preventivos(AU)


Introduction: Academic and scientific-technical cooperation in the area of behavioral sciences covers topics such as psychosocial well-being, health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases. Based on this, between 2016 and 2018, systematic exchanges were developed between psychologists from several academic and health institutions from Cuba and the University of Connecticut, with the aim of promoting cooperation in the area of health psychology. Objective: To describe the main psychosocial research proposals generated, between 2016 and 2018, from the scientific-technical collaboration between Cuban professionals and researchers from the University of Connecticut. Methods: A qualitative research was developed, with an ethnographic design. Key informants were chosen from among Cuban and US researchers. The techniques used were participant observation, in-depth interview, and document analysis. Results: Several research proposals were developed that led to the development of preventive psychosocial interventions. Studies were promoted aimed at recognizing the significance of health social determination in the prevention of chronic diseases. Ten studies were taken into account, as they were aimed at the prevention and care of addictive disorders that were developed during the years 2017 - 2018. Conclusions: During the meetings held, proposals were made that led to the implementation of successful individual and community preventive interventions. From the international scientific-technical collaboration and the application of actions that promote information, motivation and the formation of behavioral skills, the development of preventive behaviors is promoted(AU)


Subject(s)
Behavioral Medicine/methods , Behavioral Sciences , Adaptation, Psychological , Psychosocial Intervention/education , Health Promotion/methods
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 53-55, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156147

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT With the rapid development of public health construction, the supply of public sports services and the demand of residents at this stage are gradually divergent. In order to solve the contradiction between the supply and demand of public sports services, this study, from the perspective of public health, combined with the current situation of demand for public sports services, used the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to build the supply-side optimization model of public sports services, and to verify it. The results show that the weight of the model optimization index from high to low is service level > resource conditions > public degree > service content > location and type of facilities; the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation result of the model is 85 points, which shows that the index of the optimization model has good applicability. The supply-side optimization model constructed in this study is evaluated by community residents and experts in related fields, so the evaluation results are closer to the residents' demand and have high practical value. The results of this study have reference significance for the supply-side reform of public sports services, and fundamentally ensure the close relationship between the supply-side reform measures and the actual demand of residents.


RESUMO Com o rápido desenvolvimento da construção da saúde pública, a oferta de serviços desportivos públicos e a procura por parte da população, nesta fase, são gradualmente divergentes. A fim de resolver a contradição entre a oferta e a demanda por serviços esportivos públicos, este estudo, sob a perspectiva da saúde pública, combinado com a atual situação da demanda por serviços esportivos públicos por parte da população, utilizou o processo hierárquico analítico difuso para construir o modelo de otimização da oferta de serviços esportivos públicos, e para verificar esse modelo. Os resultados mostram que o peso do índice de otimização do modelo de alto a baixo é o nível de serviço > condições de recursos > Grau público > conteúdo de serviço > localização e tipo de instalações. O resultado de avaliação abrangente difusa do modelo é 85 pontos, o que mostra que o índice do modelo de otimização tem boa aplicabilidade. O modelo de otimização da oferta construído neste estudo é avaliado por residentes da comunidade e especialistas em campos relacionados, de modo que os resultados da avaliação estão mais perto da demanda da população e têm alto valor prático. Os resultados deste estudo têm um significado de referência para a reforma da oferta dos serviços desportivos públicos e garantem fundamentalmente a estreita relação entre as medidas de reforma da oferta e a procura real por parte da população.


RESUMEN Con el rápido desarrollo de la implementación de la salud pública, la oferta de servicios deportivos públicos y la demanda de la población en esta etapa son gradualmente divergentes. Para resolver la contradicción entre la oferta y la demanda de servicios deportivos públicos, se realizó este estudio, desde la perspectiva de la salud pública, combinado con la situación actual de la demanda de servicios deportivos públicos. Para el mismo, se utilizó el proceso de jerarquía analítica difusa para construir el modelo de optimización de la oferta de los servicios deportivos públicos y verificarlo. Los resultados muestran que el peso del índice de optimización del modelo de mayor a menor es el nivel de servicio> las condiciones de los recursos> el grado público> el contenido del servicio> la ubicación y el tipo de instalaciones. El resultado de la evaluación integral difusa del modelo es de 85 puntos, lo que muestra que el índice del modelo de optimización tiene una buena aplicabilidad. El modelo de optimización del lado de la oferta construido en este estudio fue evaluado por habitantes de la comunidad y expertos en campos relacionados, por lo que los resultados de la evaluación están más cerca de la demanda de los residentes y tienen un alto valor práctico. Los resultados de este estudio tienen un significado de referencia para la reforma de la oferta de los servicios deportivos públicos y garantizan fundamentalmente la estrecha relación entre las medidas de reforma de la oferta y la demanda real de los habitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Sector , Modernization of the Public Sector , Sports and Recreational Facilities , Health Promotion/methods , China
6.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(1): e3360, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156422

ABSTRACT

La salud bucal y la felicidad requieren acción social. El buen estado de salud es uno de los principales determinantes de la felicidad, pues produce alegría y se expresa habitualmente a través de la sonrisa o risa que pudieran resultar inhibidas por afecciones bucales. La campaña "Unidos por la salud bucal", impulsada por la Federación Dental Internacional a nivel mundial, hace un llamado a decisores, profesionales y a la población para que asuman compromisos orientados a reducir la carga global de las enfermedades bucales. El establecimiento de compromisos y las acciones consecuentes pueden contribuir a mejoras en la salud bucal, aunque para ello es necesario establecer acciones sistemáticas. En el contexto cubano, es una fortaleza que la estrategia de la estomatología sea nacional y tenga un enfoque de salud pública, si bien se hace necesario reforzar el seguimiento y evaluación del impacto de las acciones, estimular la creatividad, la comunicación dialogada y revisar cuáles compromisos deben ser consolidados para contribuir a la salud bucal y, por consiguiente, a la felicidad(AU)


Oral health and happiness require social action. The good health is one of the main determinants of happiness, since it produces joy and is usually expressed through a smile or laughter that could be inhibited by oral conditions. The International Dental Federation's "United for Oral Health" Campaign in 2020 aims to make commitments for decision-makers, professionals and the population to reduce the global burden of oral diseases. Establishing commitments and consequent actions can contribute to improvements in oral health, making it necessary to establish systematic actions. In the Cuban context, it is a strength that the stomatology strategy is national and has a public health focus, although it is necessary to reinforce the monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the actions, stimulate creativity, dialogue communication, and review which commitments they must be consolidated to contribute to oral health and therefore to happiness."(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Health/trends , Happiness , Health Promotion/methods , Mouth Diseases/prevention & control , Smiling , Health Status
9.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e070, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288293

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: Diante da pandemia da Covid-19, os(as) estudantes de Medicina tornaram-se ainda mais fragilizados(as) e vulnerabilizados(as) pelo contexto de isolamento social, uma vez que tiveram suas rotinas alteradas. Assim, a Associação Atlética Acadêmica Marcel Resende Davi (AAAMRD), visando cumprir com a sua responsabilidade social de promoção da saúde, buscou incentivar a prática desportiva ao valorizar esse hábito em prol do bem-estar físico e mental dos(as) estudantes. Desse modo, este artigo objetiva relatar a experiência da atlética com a realização de um desafio esportivo virtual entre suas equipes. Relato de experiência: O desafio foi elaborado e executado remotamente para 112 atletas de 14 equipes esportivas. Nos grupos de WhatsApp®, particulares de cada time, os(as) atletas deveriam enviar mídias dos exercícios físicos realizados e contabilizá-los em uma lista. Ressalta-se que foram disponibilizados treinos nas redes sociais da atlética, em parceria com profissional capacitado, como forma de proporcionar treinos seguros. Ao final das 11 semanas de desafio, as três melhores equipes foram premiadas. Aplicou-se também um formulário de feedback para verificar a efetividade da ação. Discussão: A tecnologia, importante aliada na organização do desafio, permitiu que a promoção da saúde ocorresse remotamente, respeitando o distanciamento social. Ao estimular a constância de treinos, a atlética contribuiu para a manutenção de parte da rotina dos(as) graduandos(as), prejudicada pelo contexto pandêmico. Além disso, o espírito de coletividade e a interação entre os(as) atletas dentro dos grupos contribuíram para que esse distanciamento não fosse total, formando uma rede de apoio ao compartilharem também seus medos, inseguranças e saudades. Conclusão: Os resultados alcançados com o desafio e os feedbacks positivos confirmaram a efetividade da promoção da saúde proposta pela AAAMRD. Ademais, em conformidade com as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais e apesar do momento adverso, a instituição mostrou-se presente na formação pessoal e profissional dos(as) estudantes.


Abstract: Introduction: In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students have become even more fragile and vulnerable due to social isolation, since their routines have been altered. Thus, the Marcel Resende Davi Academic Athletic Association (AAAMRD), fulfilling its social responsibility to promote health, sought to encourage the practice of sports, highlighting the benefit of this habit for students' physical and mental well-being. This article aims to report the institution's experience of organising a virtual sports challenge among its teams. Experience report: The challenge was designed and executed remotely for 112 athletes from 14 sports teams. In Whatsapp® groups, private to each team, athletes were asked to send media of the physical exercises they performed and count them in a list. It is noteworthy that training was made available on the AAAMRD social networks, in partnership with a trained professional, as a way to provide safe training. At the end of the 11-week challenge, the top three teams were awarded. A feedback form was also applied to verify the effectiveness of the action. Discussion: Technology, an important ally in organizing the challenge, allowed health promotion to take place remotely, respecting social distance. By encouraging constant training, the AAAMRD helped maintain part of the undergraduate students' routine, hampered by the pandemic. Moreover, the collective spirit and interaction between athletes, within their respective groups, corroborated to reduce the distance between them, forming a support network in which they could also share their fears and insecurities. Conclusion: The results achieved through the challenge and the positive feedback confirmed the effectiveness of the health promotion proposed by AAAMRD. Furthermore, in accordance with the Brazilian National Guidelines for Undergraduate Medical Education and, despite the adverse moment, the institution remained present in the students' personal and professional development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Medical , Exercise/physiology , Vulnerable Populations , COVID-19 , Health Promotion/methods , Social Isolation , Social Responsibility , Sports/classification , Sports/statistics & numerical data , Social Networking
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e30, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252025

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study analyzes the conditions and possibilities of sustainability of the Salud al Paso program of the Metropolitan Health Secretariat of the Municipality of Quito, Ecuador, as an example for similar initiatives, in the context of the changes made by the new administration in May 2019. The analysis of the implementation of this initiative, focused on the prevention of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), was based on the program's user database, the information gathered on the perspectives of operational staff, knowledge of the program, and the opinion of local leaders and opinion leaders of the Quito Metropolitan District, as well as official information. Based on this data, the study identified factors that could have facilitated or hindered its sustainability and documented the rationale to suspend the on-demand activities included in the program and limit activities to the care of populations under municipal responsibility (day-care centers, schools and colleges, markets, elder care programs, and employees) and patients with identified cardiometabolic risk. The insufficient institutionalization of the program, conceived as a project with an insufficient vision of its sustainability in time, was mentioned as a possible obstacle by leaders and operational staff. The growing prevalence of NCDs requires initiatives for their prevention, which must be institutionalized to ensure their continuity and overcome eventual changes of government. In addition, future interventions similar to Salud al Paso should establish better sectoral coordination articulation, especially with the Ministry of Public Health and other service networks.


RESUMEN El presente estudio analiza las condiciones y posibilidades de permanencia del programa Salud al Paso de la Secretaría Metropolitana de Salud del Municipio de Quito, Ecuador, como ejemplo para iniciativas similares, en el contexto de los cambios efectuados por la nueva administración en mayo del 2019. El análisis de esta implementación enfocada en la prevención de enfermedades no transmisibles se centró en la base de datos de usuarios del programa, la información recabada desde las perspectivas del personal operativo, el conocimiento del programa y el posicionamiento de líderes locales y de opinión del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito, así como información oficial. Con base en estos datos, el estudio identificó factores que podrían haber facilitado u obstaculizado su permanencia y documentó la fundamentación de las nuevas autoridades para suspender las actividades de libre demanda propias del programa y limitar la atención a las poblaciones bajo responsabilidad municipal (guarderías, escuelas y colegios, mercados, programas de atención a la tercera edad y empleados) y de pacientes con riesgo cardiometabólico identificado. La institucionalización insuficiente del programa, concebido más como proyecto y con una también insuficiente visión de permanencia en el tiempo, fue mencionada como un posible obstáculo por líderes y personal operativo. La prevalencia creciente de enfermedades no transmisibles demanda iniciativas para su prevención, que deben institucionalizarse para asegurar su continuidad y superar eventuales cambios de gobierno. Además, intervenciones futuras semejantes a Salud al Paso deberán establecer una mejor articulación sectorial, en especial con el Ministerio de Salud Pública y otras redes de servicios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Preventive Health Services , Health Programs and Plans , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Disease Prevention , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Program Evaluation , Ecuador , Health Policy
11.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e2985, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144448

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La salud bucal requiere un análisis contextual y social en poblaciones consideradas vulnerables. Objetivo: Describir la situación de salud bucal en un grupo de escolares con limitación visual y su relación con determinantes sociales, familiares e individual. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo en 21 escolares con limitación visual y 15 adultos significativos. Se realizó una encuesta que indagó por datos sociodemográficos, hábitos y utilización de servicios de salud bucal. Mediante examen clínico se aplicaron los siguientes indicadores: índice de O'Leary, índice gingival de Löe y Silness, índice COP-D de Klein y Palmer, tradicional y modificado, e índice significante de caries (SiC). Análisis descriptivo de frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: Los datos se agruparon bajo tres contextos: social, familiar e individual. En el contexto social se encontró que un 40 por ciento (n = 6) de los encuestados pertenecían al régimen subsidiado, además el 53,3 por ciento (n = 8) manifestó tener dificultades para acceder a los servicios de odontología. En cuanto al espacio familiar se detectó que el 53 por ciento (n = 8) de la población pertenece al estrato socioeconómico bajo y solo el 60 por ciento (n = 9) de los participantes en el estudio habían concluido la secundaria. Finalmente, el individual, el 100 por ciento de los escolares presentaban control de placa deficiente (73,3 por ciento ± 23,7). El índice significante de caries tradicional fue de 4,3 (± 2,4) y el modificado de 6,7 (± 1,7). Se encontró un índice gingival moderado en el 100 por ciento de los escolares con un promedio de 23,5 (± 24,5). Conclusiones: Las principales barreras se identifican en la posición social (ocupación, ingresos, educación), lo que repercute en la situación de salud bucal. Es necesario abordar este tipo de población desde un enfoque participativo, continuo e integral que empodere a sus cuidadores y transforme sus prácticas a través de la promoción de la salud(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Oral health requires a contextual and social analysis in populations considered vulnerable. Objective: Establish the oral health status of a group of visually impaired schoolchildren and its relationship to social, family and individual determinants. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted of 21 visually impaired schoolchildren and 15 significant adults. A survey was applied to collect sociodemographic information and data about habits and use of oral health care services. Clinical examination was based on the following indicators: O'Leary's index, Löe and Silness's gingivitis index, Klein and Palmer's COP-D index, both traditional and modified, and significant caries index (SiC). Descriptive analysis was performed of absolute and relative frequencies. Results: The data were distributed into three categories: social, family and individual. Social analysis found that 40 percent (n = 6) of the respondents were in the subsidized sector, whereas 53.3 percent (n = 8) reported difficulties to access dental care services. With respect to the family environment, it was found that 53 percent (n = 8) of the study population were from a low socioeconomic stratum and only 60 percent (n = 9) of the participants in the study had completed secondary education. Individual analysis revealed that 100 percent of the schoolchildren showed evidence of poor plaque control (73.3 percent ± 23.7). The traditional significant caries index was 4.3 (± 2.4), whereas the modified significant caries index was 6.7 (± 1.7). A moderate gingivitis index was found in 100 percent of the schoolchildren with an average 23.5 (± 24.5). Conclusions: The main hurdles identified had to do with the social status (occupation, income, education), all of which has an impact on the oral health status. It is necessary to address this type of population with a participative, continuous, integral approach which empowers care givers and transforms their practices via health promotion(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Oral Health , Health Surveys/methods , Visually Impaired Persons , Dental Caries/therapy , Health Promotion/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Dental Care/methods
13.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(5): e201, sep.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139456

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Evaluar las condiciones de habitabilidad de las viviendas y su incidencia sobre la salud en el sector de Mochuelo Bajo, en Bogotá (Colombia), en el marco del proyecto Hábitat Saludable, que es liderado por el Centro de estudios en Vivienda, Hábitat e Innovación Social (CENVIS). Métodos Se elaboró una herramienta de toma de información en campo sobre condiciones socioeconómicas y saludables de la unidad habitacional de familias adscritas al proyecto. Posteriormente, se realizó un análisis cuantitativo de la información recolectada para responder al objetivo de la investigación. Resultados Al aplicar la herramienta, se encontró: a) inadecuado abastecimiento, almacenamiento y manejo del agua potable, b) mala disposición de excretas humanas y desechos sólidos domiciliarios, c) mal manejo en el aprovechamiento del agua lluvia, d) inadecuada convivencia con animales domésticos y de consumo, e) contaminación del aire al interior y; f) sistemas autoconstrucción con materiales no seguros y sin asesoría técnica, además de construcción en terrenos inestables. Conclusiones En el sector de Mochuelo Bajo, existen falencias generalizables relacionadas con un inadecuado abastecimiento, almacenamiento y manejo del agua potable, una mala disposición de excretas humanas y de desechos sólidos domiciliarios. También respecto al manejo del agua lluvia, y la convivencia con animales tanto domésticos como de consumo.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the habitability conditions of dwellings and their impact on human health in Mochuelo Bajo, sector in Bogota Colombia, within the framework of the Healthy Habitat project led by the Housing, Habitat and Social Innovation Center (CENVIS). Methods A tool was developed for field data collection about socioeconomic and healthy conditions of housing units and families assigned to the project. After which, a quantitative analysis was performed in order to answer to the stablished objective. Results It was found through the tool application: a) inadequate supply, storage and management of drinking water, b) poor disposal of human excreta and solid household waste, c) poor management of rainwater use, d) inadequate coexistence with domestic and consumption animals, e) interior air pollution and f) self-construction systems with unsafe materials and without technical advice. Conclusions In the Mochuelo Bajo sector there were found generalized shortcomings related to an inadequate supplying and usage of potable water, a wrong disposition of human excreta and of solid household waste. At the same time, there are shortcomings in terms of rainwater and coexistence with animals, both domestic and for consumption.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ecosystem , Construction Materials , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Promotion/methods , Colombia
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 605-613, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138678

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir la oferta programática en primera infancia destinada a favorecer el desarrollo infantil integral en Chile. MÉTODO: Se realizó una revisión exploratoria siguiendo el marco método lógico del Joanna Briggs Institute. La búsqueda fue realizada por un investigador y los criterios de inclusión fueron: programas gubernamentales destinados al desarrollo integral en menores de 5 años en Chile. Los datos fueron organizados y sintetizados para describir características del programa y de la o las prestaciones que entrega. RESULTADOS: La búsqueda identificó 2060 documentos y 72 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se describen 59 programas vigentes que abarcan la primera infancia, es tando principalmente a cargo de los Ministerio de Justicia, Educación, Salud y Desarrollo Social. Los programas están destinados en su mayoría a la promoción e intervención, se encuentran focalizados en población vulnerable, son intersectoriales y utilizan diversas estrategias para su implementación. CONCLUSIÓN: La oferta programática en Chile para la primera infancia presenta características sugeridas como efectivas para favorecer el desarrollo infantil.


OBJECTIVE: To describe the program offering designed to promote comprehensive early childhood de velopment in Chile. METHOD: A scoping review was carried out following the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodological framework. A researcher conducted the review considering as inclusion criteria go vernment programs aimed at the comprehensive development of children under 5 years of age in Chile. The data were organized and synthesized to describe the characteristics of the program and the service(s) it provides. RESULTS: The search identified 2.060 documents and 72 met the inclusion crite ria. 59 current programs are covering early childhood, which are mainly managed by the Ministries of Justice, Education, Health, and Social Development. Most of the programs are aimed at promotion and intervention, focusing on vulnerable populations, are cross-sectoral, and use different strategies for their implementation. CONCLUSION: The program offering in Chile for early childhood has charac teristics suggested as effective to promote child development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Preventive Health Services/methods , Preventive Health Services/organization & administration , Preventive Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Child Development , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare , Child Health , Government Programs/methods , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Health Promotion/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation , Chile , Early Intervention, Educational/methods , Early Intervention, Educational/organization & administration , Early Intervention, Educational/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations
16.
Rev. salud pública ; 22(4): e302, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139453

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones de tipo estructural o multicomponente dirigidas al incremento del uso del preservativo en adolescentes y jóvenes, identificar las estrategias que conforman las intervenciones evaluadas y reconocer los modelos teóricos que sustentan dichas intervenciones. Metodología Diseño: revisión sistemática de la literatura. Fuente de datos: se consultaron las bases de datos MEDLINE vía OVID, Embase y CENTRAL para buscar estudios sobre intervenciones dirigidas al incremento del uso del preservativo en adolescentes y jóvenes. Selección de estudios: se seleccionaron un total de 7 investigaciones primarias donde se evaluaba el efecto de una intervención estructural o multicomponente para incrementar el uso del preservativo en adolescentes y jóvenes. La calidad de los estudios fue evaluada usando la herramienta para valoración de riesgo de sesgos de Cochrane. Resultados Cinco investigaciones mostraron cambios en los porcentajes del uso del preservativo con valores entre 53 % y el 68 %. Las intervenciones planteadas orientaban sus acciones más a nivel individual con estrategias como: educación sobre salud sexual, consejería en salud reproductiva, conocimientos acerca del preservativo, conocimientos acerca de las ITS/VIH. A nivel organizacional y del entorno iban dirigidas a la provisión de preservativos. Los modelos teóricos planteados en los estudios están centrados en la conducta humana, comportamiento del individuo y el aprendizaje social. Discusión Las intervenciones de tipo estructural que tienen como fin el incremento del uso del preservativo en adolescentes y jóvenes parecen mostrar cambios significativos a nivel individual, pero se desconocen los posibles cambios generados a nivel de la organización y del entorno.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of structural or multicomponent interventions aimed at increasing the use of condoms in adolescents and young adults, identifying the strategies that form the interventions evaluated, and recognizing the theoretical models that support these interventions. Methodology Design: Systematic review of literature. Data source: MEDLINE databases were consulted via OVID, Embase, and CENTRAL in order to search for studies on interventions aimed at increasing the use of condoms in adolescents and young adults. Selection of studies: A total of 7 primary investigations were selected, in which the effect of a structured or multicomponent intervention to increase the use of condoms in adolescents and young adults was evaluated. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane bias risk assessment. Results Five investigations show changes in the percentages of condom use with values between 53% and 68%. The interventions targeted guided their actions more at individual level with strategies such as sexual health education, reproductive health counseling, knowledge about the condom, knowledge about STIs / HIV, than at organizational and environ-mental levels, which were aimed at the provision of condoms. The theoretical models proposed in the studies are focused on human behavior, individual behavior, and social learning. Conclusion Structural interventions that aim to increase the use of condoms in adolescents and young adults seem to show significant changes at individual level, but possible changes generated at both organization and environment levels are unknown.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Condoms/trends , Evaluation of the Efficacy-Effectiveness of Interventions , Health Promotion/methods
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 353-362, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126172

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La prevención es la solución definitiva al grave problema epidemiológico nutricional de la niñez en nuestro país y el mundo, que es la obesidad. Objetivo: Describir los resultados de un programa de prevención de la obesidad en lactantes y preescolares, a diez años de su inicio. Sujetos y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, cuasi experimental, de la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, en niños y niñas asistentes a las salas-cuna y jardines infantiles de la Universidad Católica de Chile, desde la implementación en 2009 de un programa de promoción precoz de hábitos de vida saludable en alimentación y actividad física (HaViSa-UC), hasta 2019. Se obtuvo aprobación ética y se analizaron los registros anuales de las evaluaciones antropométricas (referencia OMS 2006), de cada mes de marzo, en los centros de tres campus universitarios, utilizando el programa Minitab 17. Las acciones implementadas por el HaViSa-UC fueron: evaluación del estado nutricional y comunicación con los padres, entrega de una alimentación saludable, promoción de un hábito activo de vida y educa ción para favorecer hábitos saludables de vida. Resultados: El promedio anual fue de 319 asistentes, 14% menores de dos años y 49,5% niñas. En marzo 2009 se detectó 32,6% de sobrepeso y 8,6% de obesidad, cifras que disminuyeron y se estabilizaron, alcanzando en marzo de 2019 a 23,8% y 4,7% respectivamente. Los eutróficos aumentaron desde 56,9% a 67,4%, sin aumentar el bajo peso. En el mismo período, zP/T bajó desde 0,84 ± 0,94 a 0,55 ± 0,87 (p = 0,00), y zT/E aumentó desde -0,36 ± 0,87 a -0,32 ± 0,90 (p > 0,05). Conclusión: Desde la implementación del programa HaViSa, en esta muestra de lactantes y preescolares la frecuencia de obesidad bajó en 45,4% y el sobrepeso en 27%, con estabilidad al cabo de diez años.


Abstract: Introduction: Prevention is the definitive solution to the serious nutritional epidemiological pro blem of children in our country and the world, obesity. Objective: To describe the results of an obesi ty prevention program for infants and preschoolers, ten years after its implementation. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective, and quasi-experimental study of the overweight and obesity prevalence, in children attending three nursery and preschool centers located at the Universidad Católica de Chile, since the implementation of a multidimensional program for early promotion of healthy lifestyle habits (HaViSa-UC) between 2009 and 2019. This study obtained ethical approval. Annual records of anthropometric assessment (WHO 2006) were analyzed using Minitab 17 software. The actions applied by the HaViSa-UC program were the assessment of nutritional status and communication with parents, delivery of healthy food, promotion of an active lifestyle, and education to encourage such healthy habits. Results: The annual mean was 319 subjects, 14% younger than two years old, and 49.5% were girls. In March 2009 (baseline), 32.6% had overweight and 8.6% obesity; both figures decreased reaching 23.8% and 4.7% respectively, in March 2019. Normal weight increased from 56.9 to 67.4% and malnutrition presented no increase. In the same period, zW/H dropped from 0.84 ± 0.94 to 0.55 ± 0.87 (p: 0.00), and zH/A increased from -0.36 ± 0.87 to -0.32 ± 0.90 (p > 0.05). Con clusion: Since the implementation of the HaViSa-UC Program, the frequency of obesity decreased by 45.4% and overweight by 27.2% in this sample of infants and preschoolers, remaining stable after 10 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Healthy Lifestyle
18.
Guatemala; MSPAS, ROEDUSA/SIAS; 20 de may 2020. 10 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1152281

ABSTRACT

El documento es una detallada guía, pensada para ser implementada por el personal de salud asignado al/los albergues donde inicialmente se retuvieron a personas retornadas al país, con el fin de evitar el rápido contagio a sus comunidades. Para ello, se les formó e informó sobre lo que es el COVID-19: síntomas, nivel de contagio, formas en las que el virus se transmite y todo lo necesario para que, una vez regresen a sus hogares, estén conscientes de la importancia de guardar la cuarentena y de implementar los conocimientos adquiridos en beneficio de la salud de sus familiar y comunidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Health Education , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Patient Isolation/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Monitoring , Health Promotion/methods
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1339-1348, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089531

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os cuidados primários de saúde, pela proximidade, pela acessibilidade, pelo conhecimento da família e da comunidade, pela intervenção na prevenção e pela continuidade de cuidados, têm um papel importante e decisivo no aconselhamento e na promoção da atividade física nas várias etapas da vida. Portugal é dos países europeus onde se verificam níveis mais baixos de atividade física e níveis altos de sedentarismo, razão pela qual a Direcção-Geral da Saúde definiu a atividade física como programa de saúde prioritário e desenvolveu a Estratégia Nacional de Promoção da Atividade Física. Este artigo pretende descrever as iniciativas implementadas em relação à promoção da atividade física. Neste sentido, tem-se verificado um aumento do interesse por este assunto por parte dos médicos de família para o incorporar na sua prática clínica. Tem havido um aumento da formação específica disponível, desenvolveram-se recursos informáticos de apoio à consulta e um incremento do número de iniciativas locais envolvendo os profissionais de saúde, além do investimento em termos de investigação e monitorização relacionadas com estas iniciativas. Paralelamente, tem-se assistido a uma evolução favorável à prática de atividade física a nível dos espaços urbanos bem como políticas autárquicas.


Abstract Primary health care, due to its proximity and easy access, knowledge of the family and their community, and through preventive measures and continuity of care, has an important and decisive role to play in counselling and promotion of physical activity throughout the various stages of life. Portugal has the lowest levels of physical activity in Europe and high levels of sedentary lifestyle, which led the Directorate General of Health to establish Physical Activity as a priority health programme, and develop the National Strategy for Promotion of Physical Activity. This article aims to describe initiatives that have been implemented that promote physical activity. More family physicians have become interested in promoting physical activity in their clinical practice. Specific training has become more widely available, computer based tools have been developed as clinical practice aids (for evaluation of levels of physical activity and counselling) and local initiatives involving health professionals have increased, as well as more investment in terms of investigation and monitoring of all of the above. At the same time change is happening among urban spaces and local policies that favour physical activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Exercise , Program Development , Sedentary Behavior , Health Promotion/methods , Portugal , Primary Health Care , Time Factors
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