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1.
Salud bienestar colect ; 5(1): 5-17, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352342

ABSTRACT

El propósito de este estudio consistió en revisar el modelo del Balanced Scorecard y analizar su aplicabilidad como instrumento de gestión en los centros de salud. El tipo de investigación fue de tipo documental, con un diseño no experimental. Para alcanzar el objetivo, se revisaron los postulados teóricos de Kaplan y Norton, así como algunas implementaciones prácticas centradas en este paradigma que fueron desarrolladas en Norteamérica, Europa y Sur América. Los resultados demuestran el alto valor agregado que ofrece el Balanced Scorecard como instrumento de gestión en centros de salud.


The purpose of this study was to review the Balanced Scorecard model and analyze its applicability as a management instrument in health centers. The type of research was documentary, with a non-experimental design. To achieve the objective, the theoretical postulates of Kaplan and Norton were reviewed, as well as some practical implementations focused on this paradigm that were developed in North America, Europe and South America. The results demonstrate the high added value that the Balanced Scorecard offers as a management instrument in health centers.


Subject(s)
Organizations/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Organizational Objectives , Health Centers , Organizations/economics , Benchmarking/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Health Resources/organization & administration
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877711

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread globally, infecting and killing millions of people worldwide. The use of operating rooms (ORs) and the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) for intensive care is part of surge response planning. We aim to describe and discuss some of the practical considerations involved in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. Firstly, considerations for setting up a level III intensive care unit (ICU) include that of space, staff, supplies and standards. Secondly, oxygen supply of the entire hospital is a major determinant of the number of ventilators it can support, including those on non-invasive forms of oxygen therapy. Thirdly, air flows due to positive pressure systems within the OR complex need to be addressed. In addition, due to the worldwide shortage of ICU ventilators, the US Food and Drug Administration has granted temporary approval for the use of anaesthesia gas machines for patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Lastly, planning of logistics and staff deployment needs to be carefully considered during a crisis. Although OR and PACU are not designed for long-term care of critically ill patients, they may be adapted for ICU use with careful planning in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Critical Illness , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e86, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961798

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. En 2014, los países miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud firmaron la Estrategia para el acceso universal a salud y cobertura universal de salud. En ella, se comprometieron a aumentar el gasto público en salud hasta alcanzar la meta referencial de 6% del producto interno bruto (PIB). El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar, para cada uno de los países de la Región, si pueden alcanzar esta meta solo con crecimiento económico y, en el caso de ser posible, en qué plazos lo harían. Métodos. Se utilizaron datos del Banco Mundial y de la Organización Mundial de Salud y se estimaron las elasticidades del gasto público en salud con respecto al PIB para cada país. Con base en el crecimiento económico real y el proyectado por el Fondo Monetario Internacional 2016-2021, se proyectó la serie de gasto y se determinó el año en el que alcanzarían 6% del producto. Resultados. Seis países ya han alcanzado la meta de 6%. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe que la han logrado son aquellos que mantienen sistemas de salud únicos, basados en acceso y cobertura universales. Si se mantiene la priorización actual del gasto público en salud, tres países podrían alcanzar la meta en la próxima década. Otros cuatro países lo harían antes de medio siglo, diez en la segunda mitad y uno tendría que esperar hasta la próxima centuria. Por último, 13 países nunca alcanzarían la meta propuesta. Conclusiones. Este análisis demuestra las limitaciones del crecimiento económico como fuente de espacio fiscal. Será necesario recurrir a otras fuentes como mayor recaudación tributaria, impuestos específicos en salud y mayor eficiencia en el gasto público, lo que demandará un diálogo social y político de los países en torno al compromiso con los principios de la salud universal.


ABSTRACT Objective. In 2014, the Pan American Health Organization member countries signed the Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. In it, they committed to increasing public health expenditure until reaching the benchmark of 6% of gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this paper is to determine, for each country in the Region, if they can reach this goal by economic growth alone and, if so, how long it would take. Methods. Using World Bank and World Health Organization data, elasticity of public health expenditure with regard to GDP was estimated for each country. Real economic growth and International Monetary Fund projections for 2016-2021 were used to project the expenditure series and determine the year each country would reach 6% of GDP. Results. Six countries have already reached the 6% goal. The Latin American and Caribbean countries that have achieved it are those that have single health systems, based on universal access and coverage. If current prioritization of public health expenditure is maintained, three countries could reach the goal in the next decade. Four more countries would reach it before mid-century, ten in the second half of the century, and one would have to wait until the next century. Finally, 13 countries would never reach the proposed goal. Conclusions. This analysis demonstrates the limitations of economic growth as a source of fiscal space. Other sources will need to be tapped, such as increased tax collection, specific health taxes, and greater efficiency in public spending, which will require social and political dialogue in the countries regarding their commitment to universal health principles.


RESUMO Objetivo. Em 2014, os Estados Membros da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde firmaram a Estratégia para o acesso universal à saúde e cobertura universal de saúde com a qual se comprometeram a aumentar o gasto público em saúde até atingir a meta de referência de 6% do produto interno bruto (PIB). O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se cada um dos países da Região conseguiria atingir esta meta apenas com o crescimento econômico e, neste caso, em que prazo. Métodos. O estudo se baseou em dados obtidos do Banco Mundial e da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS). Foi estimada a elasticidade do gasto público em saúde com relação ao PIB para cada país. A partir do crescimento econômico real e do crescimento projetado pelo Fundo Monetário Internacional para o período 2016-2021, foi feita a projeção dos gastos e determinado o ano em que seriam alcançados 6% do PIB. Resultados. Seis países já atingiram a meta de 6%. Os países da América Latina e Caribe que atingiram esta meta são os que têm um sistema de saúde único baseado no acesso e cobertura universais. Se for mantida a priorização atual do gasto público em saúde, três países conseguiriam alcançar a meta na próxima década. Outros quatro países atingiriam a meta antes de meados do século, 10 na segunda metade deste século e um somente a alcançaria no século seguinte. E, por fim, 13 países nunca atingiriam a meta proposta. Conclusões. Esta análise demonstra as limitações do crescimento econômico como fonte de espaço fiscal. Será necessário recorrer a outras fontes, como maior arrecadação tributária, impostos próprios para a saúde e maior eficiência no gasto público, o que demanda dos países um diálogo social e político quanto ao compromisso com os princípios de saúde universal.


Subject(s)
Universal Health Insurance/economics , Healthcare Financing , Health Resources/organization & administration , Latin America
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 103, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of four mechanisms of knowledge transfer (training, technical visits, expatriation, and standard operating procedures) on the different dimensions (potential and realized) of absorptive capacity in international technical cooperation. METHODS We examine the case of implementation of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Data have been collected using semi-structured interviews (applied to 21 professionals of the Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, FIOCRUZ, and Itamaraty) and official documents. The data of the interviews have been submitted to content analysis, using the software NVivo. RESULTS Training and technical visits directly influenced the acquisition and, partly, the assimilation of knowledge. Expatriation contributed with the transformation of this knowledge from the development and refinement of operational routines. Finally, the definition of standard operating procedures allowed the Mozambican technicians to be the actors of the transformation of the knowledge previously acquired and assimilated and, at the same time, it laid the foundations for a future exploration of the knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Training and technical visits mainly influence the potential absorptive capacity, while expatriation and standard operating procedures most directly affect the realized absorptive capacity.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência de quatro mecanismos de transferência de conhecimento (treinamentos, visitas técnicas, expatriação e procedimentos operacionais padrão) sobre as diferentes dimensões (potencial e realizada) da capacidade absortiva na cooperação técnica internacional. MÉTODOS Examina-se o caso da implementação da Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas (aplicadas a 21 profissionais da Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos, Farmanguinhos, Fiocruz e Itamaraty) e de documentos oficiais. Os dados das entrevistas foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, com uso do software NVivo. RESULTADOS Os treinamentos e as visitas técnicas influenciaram diretamente a aquisição e, parcialmente, a assimilação do conhecimento. A expatriação contribuiu para a transformação desse conhecimento, por meio do desenvolvimento e refinamento das rotinas operacionais. Por fim, a definição dos procedimentos operacionais padrão permitiu que os técnicos moçambicanos fossem os atores da transformação do conhecimento adquirido e assimilado previamente e, ao mesmo tempo, criou as bases para uma futura exploração do conhecimento. CONCLUSÕES Os treinamentos e as visitas técnicas influenciam, principalmente, a capacidade absortiva potencial, enquanto a expatriação e os procedimentos operacionais padrão impactam mais diretamente a capacidade absortiva realizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology Transfer , Information Dissemination , Drug Industry/organization & administration , Knowledge Management , International Cooperation , Brazil , Drug Industry/education , Health Plan Implementation , Health Resources/organization & administration , Mozambique
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 58(5): 533-542, sep.-oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830830

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar indicadores de eficiencia de los recursos humanos (RH) de la Secretaría de Salud de México. Material y métodos: Utilizando información secundaria se exploraron tres dimensiones de eficiencia: a) desperdicio de fuerza laboral, b) distribución de RH entre niveles de atención, y c) productividad. Resultados: El grupo de trabajadores de salud analizado se caracteriza por presentar niveles importantes de desempleo y subempleo de RH, una distribución distante de las recomendaciones internacionales y niveles de producción heterogéneos entre los estados. Conclusiones: Es imperativo diseñar e implementar un plan de RH en salud alineado a las necesidades y demandas de las poblaciones cubiertas que contemple medidas regulatorias del mercado de formación de estos recursos, su distribución entre y al interior de los sistemas estatales de salud y la generación de incentivos para el desempeño.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze efficiency indicators of human resources working at Mexico's Ministry of Health. Materials and methods: Three dimensions of efficiency were explored: a) labor wastage, b) distribution of human resources (HR) across levels of care, and c) productivity. Results: Health workers present significant levels of unemployment and underemployment; distribution does not meet international recommendations, and heterogeneous levels of productivity were found among states. Conclusions: Health and educational authorities should develop and implement a HR plan that takes into consideration the needs and demands of the covered population, and includes a clearly defined set of measures to regulate the future production of HR as well as their distribution among and within state health systems, and that allocates incentives to improve performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Staff Development , Health Resources/organization & administration , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Efficiency , Geography, Medical , Forecasting , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Needs and Demand , Mexico
7.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(1): 158-163, Fev. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674851

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar que fatores produzem novas tendências no gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde e mudanças nos modelos de gestão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com dez gestores de unidades de saúde e dez especialistas da área de saúde de São Paulo, SP, em 2010. Foi adotada a metodologia Delphi. Foram utilizadas quatro rodadas para a coleta de dados, três quantitativas e a quarta qualitativa. Nas três primeiras foram levantadas as tendências de mudança nos modelos de gestão; no perfil do gestor e nas competências requeridas para a função, foi utilizado o teste estatístico de Mann Whitney. A quarta rodada ocorreu por meio de um painel com os envolvidos, tendo sido escolhida a análise temática. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados os principais fatores que estão impulsionando o gerenciamento das unidades básicas de saúde, como as mudanças nos modelos de gestão. Foi consenso de que as dificuldades no gerenciamento das equipes e nas políticas influemciam nesse processo. Verificou-se que os gestores estão a par das tendências do macrocontexto com o advento das organizações sociais de saúde, mas ainda não estão se antecipando nas ações institucionais. CONCLUSÕES: A formação acadêmica deve ser revista não só quanto aos conteúdos, mas quanto ao desenvolvimento desses profissionais. O recrutamento, a seleção, o desenvolvimento e a avaliação devem ser norteados por essas competências alinhadas à missão, à visão, aos valores e aos modelos de gestão das organizações no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde.


OBJECTIVE: To identify factors producing new trends in basic health care unit management and changes in management models. METHODS: This was a prospective study with ten health care unit managers and ten specialists in the field of Health in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The Delphi methodology was adopted. There were four stages of data collection, three quantitative and the fourth qualitative. The first three rounds dealt with changing trends in management models, manager profiles and required competencies, and the Mann-Whitney test was used in the analysis. The fourth round took the form of a panel of those involved, using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The main factors which are driving change in basic health care units were identified, as were changes in management models. There was consensus that this process is influenced by the difficulties in managing teams and by politics. The managers were found to be up-to-date with trends in the wider context, with the arrival of social health organizations, but they are not yet anticipating these within the institutions. CONCLUSIONS: Not only the content, but the professional development aspect of training courses in this area should be reviewed. Selection and recruitment, training and assessment of these professionals should be guided by these competencies aligned to the health service mission, vision, values and management models.


OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores que producen nuevas tendencias en el gerenciamiento de las unidades básicas de salud y cambios en los modelos de gestión. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo con diez gestores de unidades de salud y diez especialistas del área de salud de Sao Paulo, SP- Brasil, en 2010. Se adoptó la metodología Delphi. Se utilizaron cuatro circulaciones para la colecta de datos, tres cuantitativas y la cuarta cualitativa. En las tres primeras se alzaron las tendencias de cambio en los modelos de gestión, en el perfil del gestor y en las competencias requeridas para la función, utilizando la prueba estadística de Mann Whitney. La cuarta circulación ocurrió por medio de un panel con los involucrados, habiendo así escogido el análisis temático. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron los principales factores que están impulsando el gerenciamiento de las UBSs así como los cambios en los modelos de gestión. Se llegó al consenso que las dificultades en el gerenciamiento de los equipos y en las políticas influyen en este proceso. Se verificó que los gestores están a la par de las tendencias del macro contexto con el advenimiento de las organizaciones sociales de salud, pero, aún, no están anticipándose en las acciones institucionales. CONCLUSIONES: La formación académica debe ser revisada no sólo con respecto a los contenidos, sino también con relación al desarrollo de esos profesionales. El reclutamiento, la selección, el desarrollo y la evaluación deben ser norteados por tales competencias alineadas a la misión, a la visión, a los valores y a los modelos de gestión de las organizaciones en el contexto del SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administrative Personnel/organization & administration , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Health Personnel/trends , Health Resources/trends , Models, Organizational , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Brazil , Delphi Technique , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Workforce/trends , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Health Resources/organization & administration , Professional Competence , Prospective Studies , Primary Health Care
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(3)Sept. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-654612

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Obtener información de línea base sobre el estado de las capacidades básicas delsector salud a nivel local, municipal y provincial, a fin de facilitar la identificación de prioridadesy orientar las políticas públicas dirigidas a garantizar los requisitos y capacidades establecidosen el Anexo 1A del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional de 2005 (RSI-2005).Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal mediante la aplicación de uninstrumento de evaluación de capacidades básicas referidas a la autonomía legal e institucional,el proceso de vigilancia e investigación y la respuesta frente a emergencias sanitarias en36 entidades involucradas en el control sanitario internacional de los niveles local, municipaly provincial en las provincias de La Habana, Cienfuegos y Santiago de Cuba.Resultados. Los policlínicos y centros provinciales de higiene y epidemiología de las tres provinciascontaban con más del 75% de las capacidades básicas requeridas. Doce de 36 unidadesdisponían del 50% del marco legal e institucional implementado. La vigilancia e investigaciónde rutina presentaron una disponibilidad variable, mientras que las entidades de La Habanacontaron con más del 40% de capacidades básicas en el campo de la respuesta ante eventos.Conclusiones. Las provincias evaluadas cuentan con capacidades básicas instaladas quepermitirán la implementación del RSI-2005 según el plazo previsto por la Organización Mundialde la Salud. Es necesario establecer y desarrollar planes de acción eficaces para consolidara la vigilancia como una actividad esencial de seguridad nacional e internacional en términosde salud pública.


Objective. Obtain baseline information on the status of the basic capacities ofthe health sector at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in order to facilitateidentification of priorities and guide public policies that aim to comply with therequirements and capacities established in Annex 1A of the International HealthRegulations 2005 (IHR-2005).Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by application ofan instrument of evaluation of basic capacities referring to legal and institutionalautonomy, the surveillance and research process, and the response to healthemergencies in 36 entities involved in international sanitary control at the local,municipal, and provincial levels in the provinces of Havana, Cienfuegos, andSantiago de Cuba.Results. The polyclinics and provincial centers of health and epidemiology in thethree provinces had more than 75% of the basic capacities required. Twelve out of36 units had implemented 50% of the legal and institutional framework. There wasvariable availability of routine surveillance and research, whereas the entities inHavana had more than 40% of the basic capacities in the area of events response.Conclusions. The provinces evaluated have integrated the basic capacities thatwill allow implementation of IHR-2005 within the period established by the WorldHealth Organization. It is necessary to develop and establish effective action plans toconsolidate surveillance as an essential activity of national and international securityin terms of public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Plan Implementation , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba , Disaster Planning , Guideline Adherence , Health Policy , Health Priorities , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services Research , Health Plan Implementation/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services/supply & distribution , International Cooperation , Liability, Legal , Needs Assessment , Population Surveillance , Professional Autonomy , State Medicine/organization & administration , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(7): 1849-1856, jul. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-645583

ABSTRACT

O artigo aborda a temática do financiamento e o processo de descentralização tendo como objetivo examinar a composição, a direção e a gestão dos recursos na área da saúde. A amostra investigada foi constituída por 14 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. A pesquisa envolveu coleta de dados referente às transferências, recursos próprios municipais e gastos com atenção básica. Na análise da gestão foi realizado um levantamento junto aos dirigentes locais e conselheiros. Observa-se que o financiamento do Sistema Único de Saúde se faz às expensas das transferências federais e receitas municipais, com pequena participação dos recursos estaduais. A direção dos gastos tem privilegiado a atenção básica. No processo de gestão, verifica-se centralização das ações nas prefeituras. As secretarias municipais e os conselhos cumprem em parte a legislação e apresentam dificuldades na autonomia e o controle social. Os resultados mostram que os instrumentos de planejamento e gestão são limitados em função das contradições presentes no contexto institucional, político e cultural no âmbito regional.


This article investigates the issue of funding and the decentralization process in order to examine the composition, application and management of resources in the healthcare area. The sample surveyed involved 14 municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The research involved data gathering of financial transfers, the municipality's own resources and primary healthcare expenses. Management analysis included a survey of local managers and counselors. It was seen that the Unified Health System is funded mainly by federal transfers and municipal revenues and to a far lesser extent by state resources. Funds have been applied predominantly in primary healthcare. The management process saw centralization of actions in the city governments. Municipal secretarial offices and councils comply partially with legislation, though they have problems with autonomy and social control. The results show that planning and management instruments are limited, due to the contradictions inherent to the institutional, political and cultural context of the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Financing, Government , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/organization & administration , Public Health/economics , Brazil
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 129(2): 77-84, Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587832

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare investments should consider short and long-term demands. The objectives here were to compare the average tenures of ministers of health in Brazil and in another 22 countries and to evaluate the relationship between ministers' tenures and a number of indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study conducted at Centro Paulista de Economia da Saúde (CPES). METHODS: Twenty-two countries with the highest Human Development Indices (HDIs) and Brazil were included. The number of ministers over the past 20 years was investigated through each country's Ministry of Health website. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the number of ministers in each country with that country's indicators. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare ministers' tenures in Brazil and other countries. RESULTS: The mean tenure (standard deviation, SD) of Brazilian ministers of health was 15 (12) months, a period that is statistically significantly shorter than the mean tenure of 33 (18) months in the other 22 countries (P < 0.05). There was a moderate and statistically significant positive correlation between the number of ministers and mortality rates for several conditions. The number of ministers also presented moderate and statistically significant negative correlations with per capita total healthcare expenditure (r = -0.567) and with per capita government healthcare expenditure (r = -0.530). CONCLUSION: On average, ministers of health have extremely short tenures. There is an urgent need to think and plan healthcare systems from a long-term perspective.


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Investimentos em saúde deveriam considerar as demandas de curto e longo prazo. Os objetivos foram comparar o tempo médio no cargo dos ministros da saúde no Brasil e em outros 22 países e avaliar a relação entre o tempo médio dos ministros no cargo e alguns indicadores. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo realizado no Centro Paulista de Economia da Saúde (CPES). MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois países com os Índices de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDHs) mais altos e o Brasil foram incluídos. O número de ministros da saúde nos últimos 20 anos foi pesquisado na página eletrônica do Ministério da Saúde de cada país. Coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (CCP) foi utilizado para comparar o número de ministros em cada país com os indicadores daquele país. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi usado para comparar o tempo de permanência do ministro da saúde no Brasil com os outros países. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio (desvio padrão, DP) no cargo dos ministros brasileiros foi de 15 (12) meses, um período estatisticamente significante menor do que a média observada nos outros 22 países, 33 (18) meses (P < 0,05). Foi observada uma moderada e também estatisticamente significante correlação positiva entre o número de ministros e taxas de mortalidade para várias condições. Houve uma moderada e significante correlação negativa entre o número de ministros e o investimento em saúde per capita total (r = -0.567) e o investimento em saúde público per capita (r = -0.530). CONCLUSÃO: O ministro da saúde permanece, na média, pouco tempo no cargo. Há uma premente necessidade de se pensar e planejar o sistema de saúde para o longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administrative Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy/economics , Leadership , Public Health Administration , Brazil , Cause of Death , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Resources/organization & administration , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s188-s196, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, RHS | ID: lil-597138

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describen las condiciones de salud de la población salvadoreña y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud de El Salvador, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, y la participación de los usuarios de los servicios de salud en la evaluación del sistema. Asimismo se discuten las más recientes innovaciones implantadas por el sistema salvadoreño de salud, dentro de las que destacan la aprobación de la Ley de Creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud que busca ampliar la cobertura, disminuir las desigualdades y mejorar la coordinación de las instituciones públicas de salud.


This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , El Salvador , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
12.
Journal of Health Administration. 2011; 14 (46): 39-46
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-162254

ABSTRACT

Medical-Services Insurance Organization [MSIO] is one of the major financial health institutions in Iran. The obligation of the optimal use of the resources has made the evaluation of the efficiency of this organization necessary. The purpose of this study was to measure the efficiency and the ranking of all the head offices of MSIO in Iran. This applied cross-sectional study was descriptive in nature. The study population constituted all the 31 head offices of MSIO. To determine the efficiency through Data Envelopment Analysis, the information related to the inputs and outputs in 2009 were collected from the Office of Statistics and Information of MSIO by means of self-developed checklists. APDEA Model was run in EMS software to estimate the efficiency. The mean values of the three types of efficiency of the head offices of MSIO, namely; technical, managerial, and criterion were 0.5093, 0.5851, and 0.8292, respectively. Considering the findings of AP-DEA model of Data Envelopment Analysis, the capacity of efficiency promotion at these head offices- using the same amount of inputs without any increase in fees- is approximately 17 percent. The findings indicated that AP-DEA Model could better measure the efficiency capacity of MSIO head offices compared with the basic DEA models. It was also found that those offices showing efficiency capacity less than one bear a surplus of inputs in human resources, physical space, and overhead expenses. The development of a comprehensive plan aiming at reducing these inputs can help reach the optimal efficiency


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians' Offices/organization & administration , Healthcare Financing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Resources/organization & administration
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s96-s109, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597130

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS), que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.


This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Argentina , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s109-s119, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597131

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.


This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Bolivia , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s120-s131, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597132

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Brasil, que está compuesto por un sector público que cubre alrededor de 75 por ciento de la población y un creciente sector privado que ofrece atención a la salud al restante 25 por ciento de los brasileños. El sector público está constituido por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y su financiamiento proviene de impuestos generales y contribuciones sociales recaudadas por los tres niveles de gobierno (federal, estatal y municipal). El SUS presta servicios de manera descentralizada a través de sus redes de clínicas, hospitales y otro tipo de instalaciones, y a través de contratos con establecimientos privados. El SUS es además responsable de la coordinación del sector público. El sector privado está conformado por un sistema de esquemas de aseguramiento conocido como Salud Suplementaria financiado con recursos de las empresas y/o las familias: la medicina de grupo (empresas y familias), las cooperativas médicas, los llamados Planes Autoadministrados (empresas) y los planes de seguros de salud individuales. También existen consultorios, hospitales, clínicas y laboratorios privados que funcionan sobre la base de pagos de bolsillo, que utilizan sobre todo la población de mayores ingresos. En este trabajo se analizan los recursos con los que cuenta el sistema, las actividades de rectoría que se desarrollan y las innovaciones más recientemente implantadas, incluyendo el Programa de Salud de la Familia y el Programa Más Salud.


This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75 percent of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Brazil , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s132-s142, 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597133

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70 por ciento de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5 por ciento de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10 por ciento de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE), que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.


This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70 percent of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5 percent of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small proportion of the population uses private health services and pays for them out-of-pocket. Around l0 percent of the population is covered by other public agencies, basically the Health Services for the Armed Forces. The system was recently reformed with the establishment of a Universal System of Explicit Entitlements, which operates through a Universal Plan of Explicit Entitlements (AUGE), which guarantees timely access to treatment for 56 health problems, including cancer in children, breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease, HIV/AIDS and diabetes.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Chile , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s144-s155, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597134

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se presenta una breve descripción de las condiciones de salud de Colombia y una descripción detallada del sistema colombiano de salud. Esta última incluye una descripción de su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos con los que cuenta, quién vigila y evalúa al sector salud y qué herramientas de participación tienen los usuarios. Dentro de las innovaciones más recientes del sistema se incluyen las modificaciones al Plan Obligatorio de Salud y a los montos de la unidad de pago por capitación, la integración vertical entre empresas promotoras de salud y las instituciones prestadoras de servicios, así como el establecimiento de nuevas fuentes de recursos para lograr la universalidad e igualar los planes de beneficios entre los distintos regímenes.


This document briefly describes the health conditions of the Colombian population and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Colombian health system. The description of the system includes its structure and coverage; financing sources; expenditure in health; physical material and human resources available; monitoring and evaluation procedures; and mechanisms through which the population participates in the evaluation of the system. Salient among the most recent innovations implemented in the Colombian health system are the modification of the Compulsory Health Plan and the capitation payment unit, the vertical integration of the health promotion enterprises and the institutions in charge of the provision of services and the mobilization of additional resources to meet the objectives of universal coverage and the homologation of health benefits among health regimes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Colombia , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s156-s167, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597135

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS), la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.


This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. CCSS provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. The private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. These services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. The Ministry of Health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. Among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (EBAIS), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the Health Boards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Costa Rica , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Sanitation/economics , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s168-s176, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597136

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.


This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro) and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas).


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Cuba , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Government/economics , Financing, Government/organization & administration , Financing, Government/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , State Medicine/economics , State Medicine/organization & administration , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Universal Health Insurance/economics , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s177-s187, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597137

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud en Ecuador y, con mayor detalle, las características del sistema ecuatoriano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la generación de información en salud, las tareas de investigación, y la participación de los ciudadanos en la operación y evaluación del sistema. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han implantado en el sistema ecuatoriano de salud dentro de las que destaca la incorporación de un capítulo específico sobre salud a la nueva Constitución que reconoce a la protección de la salud como un derecho humano y la construcción de la Red Pública Integral de Salud.


This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Ecuador , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Human Rights/legislation & jurisprudence , Information Services/organization & administration , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
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