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1.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 124-129, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131020

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Congenital heart disease represents a public health issue worldwide. Objective: To know the number of patients with heart disease treated in two public hospitals of the State of Jalisco, as well as the mortality and resources available to participating hospitals for the care of these patients in the period from 2015 to 2018; the information was requested to the National Transparency Platform, and the database of pediatric cardiology services and pediatric cardiovascular surgery of the participating hospitals were also reviewed. Results: The second level hospital has human resources, but not the material to attend to these patients; so it is not possible to offer any type of palliative or corrective treatment. A total of 624 patients were evaluated, of which 92.2% corresponded to non-critical heart disease; overall mortality was 12% but in critical heart disease it was 79.5%. The third level hospital has human and material resources to care for these patients. During the study period, 289 operations were performed and the overall mortality was 20.4%. Conclusion: Congenital heart disease in the State of Jalisco is an important cause of mortality, with a high incidence and a very limited resolution capacity since the health services in the State of Jalisco for the care of these patients are insufficient and inadequate. It is essential to strengthen the health system for the care for these patients.


Resumen Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas representan un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Conocer la cantidad de pacientes cardiópatas atendidos en dos hospitales públicos del estado de Jalisco, así como la mortalidad y los recursos con que cuentan los hospitales participantes para la atención de estos pacientes en el período del 2015 al 2018. Se solicitó la información a la Plataforma Nacional de Transparencia y además se revisaron las bases de datos de los servicios de cardiología pediátrica y cirugía cardiovascular pediátrica de los hospitales participantes. Resultados: El hospital de segundo nivel cuenta con los recursos humanos, pero no con el material para atender a estos pacientes, por lo que no es posible ofrecer ningún tipo de tratamiento paliativo o correctivo (sólo se cierran algunos conductos arteriosos en la etapa neonatal). Se valoró a un total de 624 pacientes, de los cuales el 92.2% correspondió a cardiopatías no críticas; la mortalidad global fue del 12% pero en las cardiopatías críticas fue del 79.5%. El hospital de tercer nivel cuenta con recursos humanos y material para atender a estos pacientes; en el período de estudio se realizaron 289 operaciones y la mortalidad global fue del 20.4%. Conclusión: Las cardiopatías congénitas en el estado de Jalisco son una causa importante de mortalidad, con una incidencia elevada y una capacidad de resolución sumamente limitada, ya que los servicios de salud de Jalisco para la atención de estos pacientes son insuficientes e inadecuados. Es esencial fortalecer el sistema de salud para atender a estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Prospective Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital/mortality , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Mexico
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 197-204, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887181

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated inflammatory condition that affects a significant amount of the global population. Yet geographic variability in the consequences of psoriasis warrants region-level analyses. Objective: The current study contributes to the psoriasis outcomes literature by offering a comprehensive assessment of the humanistic and economic burden in Brazil. Methods: The 2012 Brazil National Health and Wellness Survey (N=12,000) was used to assess health-related quality of life (Short Form-12, version 2), work productivity, and healthcare resource use associated with experiencing psoriasis vs. no psoriasis, along with varying levels of psoriasis severity. Results: A total of 210 respondents reported diagnosis of psoriasis (N=157, 42, and 11 reporting mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis, respectively). Compared with controls, respondents with psoriasis reported diminished mental component summary scores and health utilities, as well as increased presenteeism, activity impairment, and physician visits over the past six months, adjusting for covariates. Among those with psoriasis, physical health decreased as psoriasis severity increased. Although work productivity and healthcare resource utilization did not differ with psoriasis severity, the high rates of productivity loss (e.g. 45.5% presenteeism in the severe psoriasis group) suggest an economic burden. Study limitations: Cost analyses were not performed, and cross-sectional patient-reported data limit causal conclusions and may reflect reporting biases. Conclusions: Nevertheless, these results suggest a significant burden to patients with psoriasis across both humanistic and economic outcomes. The association between psoriasis and mental health aspects and health utilities were particularly strong and exceeded what would be considered clinically meaningful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Psoriasis/economics , Psoriasis/physiopathology , Quality of Life/psychology , Work Performance/economics , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Psoriasis/psychology , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Health Surveys , Cost of Illness , Disability Evaluation , Efficiency/physiology , Self Report
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00094417, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952401

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem por objetivo identificar mudanças nos indicadores de organização da atenção à saúde da criança em serviços de atenção primária do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Pesquisa avaliativa desenvolvida por três séries de avaliações transversais com a participação de 81 serviços, envolvendo 32 municípios do centro-oeste paulista, que responderam ao instrumento Quali AB nos anos de 2007, 2010 e 2014. A análise utilizou 74 indicadores de saúde da criança e 7 de caracterização dos serviços. A comparação dos indicadores evidenciou mudanças na organização de ações de saúde da criança, com melhora da maioria dos indicadores em 2010 e manutenção, ou piora, em 2014, em relação a 2007. Conclui-se que os avanços preconizados pelas políticas de atenção à saúde da criança não têm se efetivado plenamente na organização da oferta da atenção integral, ainda que temas relevantes como obesidade infantil e violência sejam abordados em um pequeno número de serviços.


This article aims to identify changes in indicators for the organization of children's health services in primary care in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. An evaluative study was conducted with three series of cross-sectional evaluations with participation by 81 services, involving 32 municipalities (counties) in the central-west region of the state, who answered the Quali AB questionnaire in 2007, 2010, and 2014. The analysis used 74 children's health indicators and 7 services indicators. Comparison of the indicators evidenced changes in the organization of children's healthcare, with an improvement in the majority of the indicators in 2010 and maintenance or worsening in 2014, compared to 2007. In conclusion, children's health policy recommendations have not been fully realized in the organization of the supply of comprehensive care, although relevant issues such as childhood obesity and violence have been addressed by a few services.


El objetivo del presente artículo es identificar cambios en los indicadores de organización de la atención a la salud infantil en los servicios de atención primaria del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Se trata de una investigación evaluativa, desarrollada por tres series de evaluaciones transversales con la participación de 81 servicios, involucrando a 32 municipios del centro-oeste paulista, que respondieron al instrumento Quali AB durante los años de 2007, 2010 y 2014. El análisis utilizó 74 indicadores de salud infantil y 7 de caracterización de los servicios. La comparación de los indicadores evidenció cambios en la organización de acciones de salud infantil, con una mejora de la mayoría de los indicadores en 2010 y un mantenimiento, o empeoramiento, en 2014, comparándolo con 2007. Se concluye que los avances preconizados por las políticas de atención a la salud infantil no se han hecho efectivos plenamente en la organización de la oferta de atención integral, aunque algunos temas relevantes como la obesidad infantil y la violencia sean abordados en un pequeño número de servicios de atención primaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Child Health/trends , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/trends , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Child Health Services/trends , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion/trends , Health Promotion/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/trends , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Research
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(5): 583-591, Sep.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903818

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Comparar los niveles de eficiencia del gasto sanitario para 25 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Material y métodos: Aplicando la metodología del análisis de frontera estocástica se estiman los índices de eficiencia de los países, utilizando datos de los años 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 y 2012. Se consideran dos variables alternativas de resultado de salud, la esperanza de vida y la mortalidad infantil. Para este último caso, se analizan los determinantes de la ineficiencia. Resultados: La media del nivel de eficiencia de la región considerando la esperanza de vida es mayor que al utilizar la mortalidad infantil. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los países aún pueden mejorar el uso de los recursos y que orientar una política de gasto hacia programas de inmunización y que garantice que los partos sean atendidos por un personal capacitado es una manera eficiente de salvar la vida de los neonatos.


Abstract: Objective: To compare the efficiency levels of health expenditure in 25 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Materials and methods: The methodology of stochastic frontier analysis was applied to estimate the efficiency scores of the countries, using data from years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2012. Two output variables were considered, life expectancy at birth and infant mortality. In the latter case, determinants of inefficiency were analyzed. Results: The average efficiency level of the region using life expectancy is higher than when using infant mortality. Conclusions: Results suggest that countries can still improve the use of resources. Guiding the expenditure policy towards immunization programs and ensuring births take place in the presence of trained staff are efficient ways to save neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Care Rationing , Program Evaluation , Infant Mortality , Stochastic Processes , Life Expectancy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Caribbean Region , Efficiency , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Latin America
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(6): 538-542, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896355

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: The Regulatory Complex is the structure that operationalizes actions for making resources available to meet the needs of urgent and emergency care in the municipality of São Paulo. In the case of urgent care, needs are immediate and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To identify the most frequently requested resources, the resolution capacity and the mortality rate associated with the unavailability of a certain resource. Method: Our study was based on data from medical bulletins issued by the Urgent and Emergency Regulation Center (CRUE) in the city of São Paulo from 2009 to 2013. Results: 91,823 requests were made over the five years of the study (2009 to 2013). Neurosurgery requests were the most frequent in all years (4,828, 5,159, 4,251, 5,008 and 4,394, respectively), followed by computed tomography (CT) scans, adult intensive care unit (ICU) beds, cardiac catheterization, and pediatric ICU beds. On average, requests for neurosurgery, adult ICU, pediatric ICU, CT scans, catheterization and vascular surgery were answered in 70%, 27%, 39%, 97%, 87% and 77% of cases. The total number of deaths relating to requests for neurosurgery, CT scans, adult ICU, pediatric ICU, catheterization and vascular surgeon assessment were 182, 9, 1,536, 1,536, 135, 49 and 24 cases, respectively. Conclusion: There is a lack of resources to meet urgent and emergency needs in the city of São Paulo.


Resumo Introdução: O Complexo Regulador é a estrutura que operacionaliza as ações de acesso aos recursos para atendimento de urgência e emergência médicas no município de São Paulo. Nas urgências, as necessidades são imediatas e associadas a elevada morbidade e mortalidade. Objetivo: Identificar os recursos mais frequentemente solicitados, a capacidade de resolução e o índice de mortalidade associado à falta do recurso. Método: Este trabalho foi baseado nos dados dos boletins médicos da Central de Regulação de Urgência e Emergência (CRUE) do Município de São Paulo, nos anos de 2009 a 2013. Resultados: Foram feitas 91.823 solicitações nos cinco anos do estudo (2009 a 2013). As solicitações de neurocirurgia foram as mais frequentes em todos os anos (4.828, 5.159, 4.251, 5.008 e 4.394, respectivamente), seguidas pela tomografia, vaga de UTI adulto, cateterismo cardíaco e UTI pediátrica. Em média, os pedidos de neurocirurgia, UTI adulto, UTI infantil, tomografia, cateterismo e cirurgia vascular foram atendidos em 70%, 27%, 39%, 97%, 87% e 77% dos casos. O número total de óbitos associados à falta de recurso para neurocirurgia, tomografia, UTI adulto, UTI infantil, cateterismo e avaliação de cirurgião vascular foram de 182, 9, 1.536, 135, 49 e 24 casos, respectivamente. Conclusão: Há elevada falta de recursos para suprimento das necessidades de urgência e emergência no município de São Paulo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Brazil
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(1): 107-112, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844588

ABSTRACT

El triaje en el departamento de urgencias clasifica a los pacientes en niveles según prioridad en la atención. Los neonatos constituyen una población vulnerable y requieren una rápida evaluación. Objetivo: Correlacionar los niveles de prioridad en neonatos que consultan en el departamento de urgencias pediátricas con la hospitalización, consumo de recursos y tiempos de atención. Pacientes y Método: Estudio observacional, utilizando la base de datos del modelo andorrano de triaje (MAT-SET) con el software ePATV4 en las urgencias pediátricas. Se incluyó a neonatos clasificados en los 3 niveles de atención establecida: nivel i resucitación, nivel ii emergencia y nivel iii urgencia. Se analizó la correlación entre los niveles de prioridad, la hospitalización y el consumo de recursos. Además, se analizaron los tiempos de atención médica y estadía en urgencias. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.103 neonatos. Se encontró que el mayor nivel de prioridad se correlacionó positivamente con la hospitalización (r = 0,66; p < 0,005) y con el consumo de recursos (r = 0,59; p < 0,005). Los tiempos de atención fueron 126 ± 203, 51 ± 119 y 33 ± 81 min para los niveles i, ii, y iii, respectivamente y los de estadía 150 ± 203, 80 ± 131 y 55 ± 86 min, respectivamente para dichos niveles (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El mayor nivel de prioridad en la atención de los neonatos en la urgencia pediátrica se correlacionó positivamente con una mayor necesidad de hospitalización y consumo de recursos. Además, requirieron mayor tiempo de atención y estadía en la urgencia.


The triage system in the emergency department classifies patients according to priority levels of care. Neonates are a vulnerable population and require rapid assessment. Objective: To correlate the priority levels in newborns seen in the paediatric emergency department with admissions, resource consumption, and service times. Patients and Method: Observational study, using the Andorran triage model (MAT-SET) with ePATV4 software database, in paediatric emergencies. Neonates were classified into 3 levels of care established for them as level I resuscitation, level II emergency, and level iii urgent. The correlation between levels of priority and admission and resource consumption were analysed, as well as the time spent on medical care and stay in the emergency department. Results: The study included 1103 infants. The highest priority level was positively correlated with hospital admission (r = 0.66, P<.005) and resource consumption (r = 0.59, P < .005). The medical care times were 126 ± 203, 119 ± 51, and 33 ± 81 min for levels i, ii, and iii, respectively and the stay in emergency department was 150 ± 203, 131 ± 80, and 55 ± 86 min, respectively for these levels (P < .05). Conclusion: The higher level of priority in the care of neonates in the paediatric emergency department was positively correlated with increased need for hospital admission and resource consumption. They also required a longer time for medical care and stay in the emergency department.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Triage/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Spain , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Length of Stay
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 36(4): 136-142, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141578

ABSTRACT

Introducción: ASIS en un instrumento para conocer la realidad sanitaria que incluye la perspectiva de los actores, destinado a encaminar la planificación de las actividades en salud orientadas a la comunidad. Objetivo: recabar características sociodemográficas de la población, indagar los problemas de salud identificados por la comunidad, conocer qué estrategias utilizan para atenderlos y conocer sus recursos sociosanitarios. Material y métodos: Método de Análisis Rápido y Planificación Participativa (MARPP) implementado entre junio de 2013 y mayo de 2014 en la comunidad del barrio Santa María, Bajo Boulogne, San Isidro, República Argentina. Se integraron datos de tres fuentes: datos sociodemográficos del Censo Nacional 2010, encuesta domiciliaria para conocer los problemas de salud de la comunidad y un relevamiento de sus recursos sociosanitarios. Resultados: según los datos del Censo, los menores de 19 años representan el 33% de la población, mayoritariamente argentina y alfabetizada. Las viviendas disponen de conexión con agua corriente, desagüe cloacal y gas. Un 12,8% vive con necesidades básicas insatisfechas. Adicionalmente, se encuestaron 225 viviendas con una tasa de respuesta del 70%. El 30% (67/225) de los adultos y el 42% (52/122) de los niños (expresado por adultos responsables) informaron haber padecido algún problema de salud agudo en los últimos dos meses. Para ambos grupos, el principal problema de salud percibido fueron trastornos respiratorios; para los adultos, el segundo en frecuencia fueron los del aparato locomotor. El 55% de los adultos reconocieron padecer algún problema crónico, principalmente cardiovascular. Los problemas más destacados del barrio fueron la inseguridad y la violencia. El 73% refirió conocer el Centro de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria San Pantaleón, y el 34% manifestó usarlo habitualmente. Conclusiones: este relevamiento representa una primera aproximación a la percepción y a las necesidades de la comunidad. (AU)


Introduction: ASIS is an instrument to know the health situation including the perspective of the actors, and to guide the planning of activities in health-oriented community. Aims: to collect socio-demographic characteristics of the community population, to investigate health problems identified by the community and learn what strategies used to solve them, and know their health resources. Methods: Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methodology implemented between June 2013 and May 2014 in the Santa María community, Bajo Boulogne, Argentina. Data were collected from three sources: socio-demographic data from the 2010 National Census, we conducted a survey ad hoc on a sample to know the health problems of the community, and we described their health resources. Results: according to Census data, under age 19 account for 33% of the population, mainly from Argentina and alphabetized. Their houses have connection with running water, sewerage and gas. 12.8% live with unsatisfied basic needs. In addition, 225 homes were surveyed with a response rate of 70%: 30% (67/225) of adults and 42% (52/122) of children (expressed by responsible adults) reported having had an acute health problem in the past two months. For both, the main perceived health problem was respiratory; for adults, the second in frequency were of musculoskeletal problems. Fifty-five percent of adults suffer from some recognized, mainly cardiovascular chronic problem. The major problems reported were insecurity and violence. 73% reported knowledge of the Centro de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria San Pantaleón, although it usually uses only 34% of respondents. Conclusions: it represents a first approach to the perception and the needs of the community. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Comprehensive Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Socioeconomic Factors , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Community Health Centers , Censuses , Qualitative Research , Family Practice/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 50(4): 579-586, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-794932

ABSTRACT

Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the use of a severity indicator for end-stage liver disease as a predictor of resource use in a teaching hospital in São Paulo. METHOD Descriptive, retrospective study, classifying independent variables in seven key dimensions: identification/risk rating; length of stay/use of advanced life support; imaging; clinical analysis; special procedures; blood products in the intensive care unit; and in the operating room. The frequencies were analyzed by linear regression analysis of variance to detect relevance due to the dependent variable (severity indicator) in 76 cases seen in 2013. RESULTS Among the variables studied, those that presented relevance due to the functional risk score were laboratory measurements of bilirubin, amylase, transaminase, blood count, creatine phosphokinase (p<0.05), hemotherapy procedures fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrate (p<0.05), and Doppler echocardiography image (p<0.07). CONCLUSION Given the results/objective of this study, it is concluded that the indicator presents a potential predictive capability in the use of postoperative resources of liver receptors in the size, clinical analysis, images and hemotherapy dimensions.


Resumen OBJETIVO Evaluar el empleo del indicador de gravedad para enfermedades hepáticas terminales como factor predictivo del uso de recursos en un hospital escuela de São Paulo. MÉTODO Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, clasificando variables independientes en siete dimensiones principales: identificación/clasificación de riesgo; tiempo de permanencia/uso de soporte avanzado a la vida; estudios de imagen; análisis clínicos; procedimientos especiales; hemoderivados en unidad de terapia intensiva y en quirófano. Las frecuencias fueron analizadas por regresión lineal con análisis de varianza para detección de relevancias ante la variable dependiente (indicador de gravedad) en 76 casos atendidos en 2013. RESULTADOS Entre las variables estudiadas, presentaron relevancia en función del score de riesgo funcional las dosificaciones de laboratorio de bilirrubina, amilasa, transaminasa, hemograma, creatinfosfoquinasa (p<;0,05), procedimientos hemoterápicos, plasma fresco congelado (PFC) y concentrado de plaquetas (p<;0,05), e imagen Ecodoppler (p<;0,07). CONCLUSIÓN Frente a los resultados/propósito del estudio, se concluyó que el indicador presenta potencial capacidad predictiva en el empleo de recursos post operatorios de receptores de hígado en las dimensiones, análisis clínicos, imágenes y hemoterapia.


Resumo OBJETIVO Avaliar o uso do indicador de gravidade para doenças hepáticas terminais como fator preditivo do uso de recursos em um hospital-escola de São Paulo. MÉTODO Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, classificando variáveis independentes em sete dimensões principais: identificação/classificação de risco; tempo de permanência/uso de suporte avançado à vida; exames de imagem; análises clínicas; procedimentos especiais; hemoderivados em unidade de terapia intensiva; e em centro cirúrgico. As frequências foram analisadas por regressão linear com análise de variância para detecção de relevâncias face à variável dependente (indicador de gravidade) em 76 casos atendidos em 2013. RESULTADOS Dentre as variáveis estudadas, apresentaram relevância em função do escore de risco funcional as dosagens laboratoriais de bilirrubina, amilase, transaminase, hemograma, creatinofosfoquinase (p<0,05), procedimentos hemoterápicos plasma fresco congelado (PFC) e concentrado de plaquetas (p<0,05), e imagem Ecodoppler (p<0,07) CONCLUSÃO Face aos resultados/propósito do estudo conclui-se que o indicador apresenta potencial capacidade preditiva no uso de recursos pós-operatórios de receptores de fígado nas dimensões, análises clínicas, imagens e hemoterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Liver Transplantation , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Health Resources , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Forecasting
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 34(3): 196-201, 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-775488

ABSTRACT

Reportes internacionales han descrito el mayor uso de recursos de salud por parte de los pacientes adultos con cardiopatía congénita (CC). Objetivo: Describir el uso de recursos de salud por parte de esta población en términos de frecuencia de controles médicos, consultas a servicio de urgencia, hospitalizaciones y procedimientos realizados. También se buscó explorar la frecuencia de control odontológico y la indicación de profilaxis de endocarditis como una medida de calidad de atención. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo de corte transversal, analítico e individual en pacientes controlados en el Instituto Nacional del Tórax, durante el período 2014-2015. Los pacientes respondieron una encuesta en forma autónoma. Se realizó análisis por grupos según sexo y tipo de CC según el consenso de Bethesda (simple, moderada o compleja). El análisis estadístico se realizó a través del programa SPSS. Resultados: Se recolectaron 363 encuestas válidas que correspondieron a 180 hombres (49,6%) y con una edad promedio de 29,2±13,3 años. Según el tipo de CC: simple 78 pacientes (21,5%), moderada 161 (44,4%) y compleja 124 (34,2%). 296 pacientes (84,6%) tuvieron el último control médico hace menos de un año. 151 pacientes (41,6%) han consultado una o más veces al servicio de urgencia. 76 pacientes (20,9%) han sido hospitalizados una o más veces y 54 pacientes (14,9%) se han realizado uno o más procedimientos en el último año. En el análisis por tipo de CC no se encontraron diferencias significativas en ninguno de los parámetros evaluados. En el análisis según sexo, se observó que las mujeres consultan más al servicio de urgencia que los hombres (48,1% vs 35%, p<0,05). En cuanto a salud oral, 122 pacientes (33,6%) no ha realizado un control odontológico hace más de 1 año y de aquellos pacientes que asistieron al dentista, 165 de ellos (45,5%) no recibió profilaxis antibiótica para endocarditis en su última atención. Conclusiones: Los adultos con CC reportan una demanda de recursos de salud expresada en controles médicos, consultas de urgencia, hospitalizaciones y procedimientos, que aparentemente no es sólo por factores relacionados a sus patologías. Es necesario elaborar estrategias de atención en salud para responder a las necesidades de esta creciente población y que permitan un uso razonable de recursos. Es perentorio estimular el control periódico dental y la profilaxis de endocarditis.


A greater use of health resources by adults with congenital heart disease has been reported in international studies. Aim: to describe the use of health resources by adults with CHD in Chile including frequency of medical controls, emergency consultations, hospitalization and medical procedures. Dental consultations and prophylaxis for infective endocarditis were also evaluated Methods: a cross sectional analytic study was per-formed on patients with CHD followed in the Instituto Nacional del Tórax, Santiago, Chile, during 2014 and 2015. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire and data was analyzed according to gender, and type of CHD (Bethesda classification). Statistics were computed using SPSS. Results: Valid answers were obtained from 363 sub-jects, 180 males (49.6%). Mean age was 20.2 ± 13.3 years. 78 patients (21.5%) had simple, 161 (44.4%) moderate and 124 (34.2%) severe CHD. 296 (84.6%) patients had a medical control within the last year. 151 (41.6%) had attended a medical emergency service > 1 occasion, 76 (20.9% had >= 1 hospitalizations and 54 (14.9%) had been subjected to a medical procedure related to their CHD. Women had more medical controls than males (48,1% vs 35%, p<0,05). 122 (33.6%) had no dental control in the last year and 45% of those attending had no prophylaxis for IE Conclusión: Adults with CHD use health resources including medical visits, hospitalizations and procedures, apparently not all of them related to their CHD. Strategies to optimize use of health resources should be designed. Emphasis on dental controls and prophylaxis for infective endocarditis is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dental Care , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Age and Sex Distribution , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 190-195, Mar-Apr/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674640

ABSTRACT

Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5%) was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs. .


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Geographic Information Systems , Geographic Mapping , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Trachoma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(3): 332-337, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677341

ABSTRACT

Background: Efficiency in the use ofresources in health systems and hospitals has been a matter ofinterestfor administrators as well asforpolicy makers. The growing costs due to higher levéis of demand from the population require a better use and allocation ofsuch costs. Aim: To assess the technical efficiency in 28 hospitals in Chile, considering the period from May to October, 2011. Material and Methods: The average number ofavailable beds, the number ofstaffand the expenses on consumer and service goods were used as production inputs and, on the other hand, the expenditures adjusted by the Diagnosis-Related Groups (IR-DRG) were used as producís. To assess the technical efficiency, the Data Envelopment Analysis technique was used. Results: The levéis of inefficiency fluctuóte from 20 to 23.3%. In other words, with a 20% increase in hospital discharges and maintainingfixed inputs, hospitals could become efficient. Conclusions: The incorporation of methodologies to determine efficiency allows gathering new knowledge for people who manage resources as well asforpolicy makers by optimizing practices and having better allocation criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Efficiency, Organizational/standards , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/standards , Benchmarking , Chile , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Efficiency, Organizational/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Resources/standards , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data
13.
Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2013; 42 (9): 1021-1025
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140854

ABSTRACT

The aim of present study was to determine the impact of two different ICU management model, open and semi closed, on resources utilization in intensive care unit. Retrospective cohort analysis using data from hospital database was applied to compare the effect of ICU management model on ICU length of stay and bed disposition of 1064 patients admitted to the general ICU of Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran during the two consecutive 12-month periods from Mar, 2009 to Feb, 2010. In open and semi closed interval 380 and 684 patients were admitted to ICU respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender and severity of illness [based on APACHE-II score] and nurse to bed ratio between two groups. Average ICU length of stay, net mortality rate and bed turnover rate were lower in semi closed model than open model management significantly [P<0.05]. Semi closed model improves patient care and lead to lower mortality rate and resources utilization too


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(3)Sept. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-654612

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Obtener información de línea base sobre el estado de las capacidades básicas delsector salud a nivel local, municipal y provincial, a fin de facilitar la identificación de prioridadesy orientar las políticas públicas dirigidas a garantizar los requisitos y capacidades establecidosen el Anexo 1A del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional de 2005 (RSI-2005).Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal mediante la aplicación de uninstrumento de evaluación de capacidades básicas referidas a la autonomía legal e institucional,el proceso de vigilancia e investigación y la respuesta frente a emergencias sanitarias en36 entidades involucradas en el control sanitario internacional de los niveles local, municipaly provincial en las provincias de La Habana, Cienfuegos y Santiago de Cuba.Resultados. Los policlínicos y centros provinciales de higiene y epidemiología de las tres provinciascontaban con más del 75% de las capacidades básicas requeridas. Doce de 36 unidadesdisponían del 50% del marco legal e institucional implementado. La vigilancia e investigaciónde rutina presentaron una disponibilidad variable, mientras que las entidades de La Habanacontaron con más del 40% de capacidades básicas en el campo de la respuesta ante eventos.Conclusiones. Las provincias evaluadas cuentan con capacidades básicas instaladas quepermitirán la implementación del RSI-2005 según el plazo previsto por la Organización Mundialde la Salud. Es necesario establecer y desarrollar planes de acción eficaces para consolidara la vigilancia como una actividad esencial de seguridad nacional e internacional en términosde salud pública.


Objective. Obtain baseline information on the status of the basic capacities ofthe health sector at the local, municipal, and provincial levels in order to facilitateidentification of priorities and guide public policies that aim to comply with therequirements and capacities established in Annex 1A of the International HealthRegulations 2005 (IHR-2005).Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted by application ofan instrument of evaluation of basic capacities referring to legal and institutionalautonomy, the surveillance and research process, and the response to healthemergencies in 36 entities involved in international sanitary control at the local,municipal, and provincial levels in the provinces of Havana, Cienfuegos, andSantiago de Cuba.Results. The polyclinics and provincial centers of health and epidemiology in thethree provinces had more than 75% of the basic capacities required. Twelve out of36 units had implemented 50% of the legal and institutional framework. There wasvariable availability of routine surveillance and research, whereas the entities inHavana had more than 40% of the basic capacities in the area of events response.Conclusions. The provinces evaluated have integrated the basic capacities thatwill allow implementation of IHR-2005 within the period established by the WorldHealth Organization. It is necessary to develop and establish effective action plans toconsolidate surveillance as an essential activity of national and international securityin terms of public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Plan Implementation , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba , Disaster Planning , Guideline Adherence , Health Policy , Health Priorities , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services Research , Health Plan Implementation/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services/supply & distribution , International Cooperation , Liability, Legal , Needs Assessment , Population Surveillance , Professional Autonomy , State Medicine/organization & administration , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , World Health Organization
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(1): 49-55, July 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDS | ID: lil-646452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Brazil's public health surveillance system (HSS), identifying its core capacities, shortcomings, and limitations in dealing with public health emergencies, within the context of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005). METHODS: In 2008-2009 an evaluative cross-sectional study was conducted using semistructured questionnaires administered to key informants (municipal, state, and national government officials) to assess Brazilian HSS structure (legal framework and resources) and surveillance and response procedures vis-à-vis compliance with the IHR (2005) requirements for management of public health emergencies of national and international concern. Evaluation criteria included the capacity to detect, assess, notify, investigate, intervene, and communicate. Responses were analyzed separately by level of government (municipal health departments, state health departments, and national Ministry of Health). RESULTS: Overall, at all three levels of government, Brazil's HSS has a well-established legal framework (including the essential technical regulations) and the infrastructure, supplies, materials, and mechanisms required for liaison and coordination. However, there are still some weaknesses at the state level, especially in land border areas and small towns. Professionals in the field need to be more familiar with the IHR 2005 Annex 2 decision tool (designed to increase sensitivity and consistency in the notification process). At the state and municipal level, the capacity to detect, assess, and notify is better than the capacity to investigate, intervene, and communicate. Surveillance activities are conducted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in 40.7% of states and 35.5% of municipalities. There are shortcomings in organizational activities and methods, and in the process of hiring and training personnel. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the core capacities of Brazil's HSS are well established and fulfill most of the requisites listed in the IHR 2005 with respect to both structure and surveillance and response procedures, particularly at the national and state levels.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar el sistema de vigilancia de salud pública del Brasil, identificando sus capacidades básicas, deficiencias y limitaciones para manejar emergencias de salud pública, dentro del contexto del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI 2005). MÉTODOS: En el período 2008-2009 se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal de evaluación utilizando cuestionarios semiestructurados administrados a informantes clave (funcionarios del gobierno municipal, estatal y nacional) a fin de evaluar la estructura del sistema de vigilancia de salud pública del Brasil (marco jurídico y recursos), y la vigilancia y los procedimientos de respuesta, con relación al cumplimiento de los requisitos del RSI 2005 para el manejo de emergencias de salud pública de importancia nacional e internacional. Los criterios de evaluación incluyeron la capacidad de detectar, evaluar, notificar, investigar, intervenir y comunicar. Las respuestas se analizaron por separado según el nivel gubernamental (departamentos de salud municipales y estatales y ministerio de salud nacional). RESULTADOS: En general, en los tres niveles del gobierno, el sistema de vigilancia de salud pública del Brasil tiene un marco jurídico bien establecido (incluidas las reglamentaciones técnicas esenciales) y la infraestructura, los suministros los materiales y los mecanismos requeridos para el enlace y la coordinación. Sin embargo, todavía hay algunos puntos débiles a nivel estatal, especialmente en las zonas fronterizas y los pueblos pequeños. Los profesionales de campo deben conocer más la herramienta de decisión del anexo 2 del RSI 2005 (diseñada para aumentar la sensibilidad y la consistencia del proceso de notificación). En el nivel estatal y municipal, la capacidad para detectar, evaluar y notificar es mejor que la capacidad para investigar, intervenir y comunicar. Las actividades de vigilancia se llevan a cabo 24 horas al día, 7 días a la semana, en 40,7% de los estados y 35,5% de los municipios. Existen deficiencias en las actividades de organización y los métodos, y en el proceso de contratación y capacitación del personal. CONCLUSIONES: En general, las capacidades básicas del sistema de vigilancia de salud pública del Brasil están bien establecidas y cumplen la mayoría de los requisitos enumerados en el RSI 2005, tanto con respecto a la estructura como a la vigilancia y los procedimientos de respuesta, en particular en los niveles nacional y estatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health Surveillance , Brazil , Budgets/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Civil Defense/economics , Civil Defense/legislation & jurisprudence , Civil Defense/standards , Disease Outbreaks , Government Agencies/economics , Government Agencies/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Agencies/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , International Cooperation , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration , Personnel Management , Politics , Program Evaluation , Public Health Administration/economics , Public Health Administration/legislation & jurisprudence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Health , World Health Organization
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(5): 394-404, sept.-oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625725

ABSTRACT

The benefit of early breast cancer detection is the foundation for programs around the globe to reduce morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer. These programs range from educational programs targeted to women and health professionals to organized or opportunistic screening programs that target specific age groups of women.Modern mammography programs tend to follow the protocols from the randomized clinical trials, but there is variation in key program elements such as the age groups invited to screening, the screening interval, performance indicators, and the uptake rate. Until recently, the emphasis on early breast cancer detection was limited to mammography, but the steady rise in incidence and mortality in low and medium resource countries, where mammography may be unaffordable, has led to a renewal in emphasizing the incremental value of downsizing palpable tumors through physical exams. There is consensus that programs should be designed based on disease burden and available resources, but that even in low resource countries there are opportunities to reduce breast deaths through earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. Screening programs are most effective when they are organized, and program planners should consider WHO criteria and local input data as a basis for tailoring screening programs to the needs of their population.


El beneficio de la detección temprana del cáncer de mama es el fundamento para programas alrededor del mundo que buscan reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con este padecimiento. Estos programas abarcan desde los de tipo educativo, orientados a mujeres y profesionales de la salud, hasta programas de monitoreo organizados u oportunistas que tienen como objetivo grupos específicos de edad. Los programas modernos de mastografía tienden a seguir protocolos para estudios clínicos aleatorios,pero hay una variación en elementos clave como los grupos de edad invitados a participar, el intervalo para el monitoreo, indicadores de desempeño, y la tasa de captación. Hasta hace poco, el énfasis en la detección temprana del cáncer estaba limitado a la mastografía, pero el incrementoen la incidencia ymortalidad en países de recursos bajos a medios, donde las mastografías no son asequibles, ha llevado a un renovado énfasis en el valor de los exámenes físicos. Existe un consenso en cuanto a que los programas deben estar diseñados basándose en la carga de la enfermedad y los recursos disponibles, pero incluso los países con recursos más limitados tienen oportunidades para reducir las muertes de cáncer de mama a través de un diagnóstico oportuno y un tratamiento eficaz. Los programas de detección son más eficaces cuando están organizados, y los planeadores del programa deben considerar los criterios de la OMS y la información local como bases para ajustarlos a las necesidades de la población.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , International Cooperation , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Developing Countries , Early Diagnosis , Global Health , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Mammography/adverse effects , Mammography/economics , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Palpation , Resource Allocation
17.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s188-s196, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, RHS | ID: lil-597138

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describen las condiciones de salud de la población salvadoreña y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud de El Salvador, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos con los que cuenta, las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, y la participación de los usuarios de los servicios de salud en la evaluación del sistema. Asimismo se discuten las más recientes innovaciones implantadas por el sistema salvadoreño de salud, dentro de las que destacan la aprobación de la Ley de Creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud que busca ampliar la cobertura, disminuir las desigualdades y mejorar la coordinación de las instituciones públicas de salud.


This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , El Salvador , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
18.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s96-s109, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597130

ABSTRACT

En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS), que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.


This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Argentina , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s109-s119, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597131

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describen las características generales del sistema de salud de Bolivia: su organización y cobertura; sus fuentes de financiamiento y gasto en salud; los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone; las actividades de rectoría que desarrolla, y el nivel que ha alcanzado la investigación en salud. También se discuten las innovaciones más recientes que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años, incluyendo el Seguro Universal Materno Infantil, el Programa de Extensión de Cobertura a Áreas Rurales, el Modelo de Salud Familiar, Comunitaria e Intercultural y el programa de subsidios monetarios Juana Azurduy, dirigido a fortalecer la atención prenatal y del parto.


This paper describes the Bolivian health system, including its structure and organization, its financing sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and humans resources, its stewardship activities and the its health research institutions. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations developed in Bolivia: the Maternal and Child Universal Insurance, the Program for the Extension of Coverage to Rural Areas, the Family, Community and Inter-Cultural Health Model and the cash-transfer program Juana Azurduy intended to strengthen maternal and child care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Bolivia , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
20.
Salud pública Méx ; 53(supl.2): s120-s131, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-597132

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Brasil, que está compuesto por un sector público que cubre alrededor de 75 por ciento de la población y un creciente sector privado que ofrece atención a la salud al restante 25 por ciento de los brasileños. El sector público está constituido por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y su financiamiento proviene de impuestos generales y contribuciones sociales recaudadas por los tres niveles de gobierno (federal, estatal y municipal). El SUS presta servicios de manera descentralizada a través de sus redes de clínicas, hospitales y otro tipo de instalaciones, y a través de contratos con establecimientos privados. El SUS es además responsable de la coordinación del sector público. El sector privado está conformado por un sistema de esquemas de aseguramiento conocido como Salud Suplementaria financiado con recursos de las empresas y/o las familias: la medicina de grupo (empresas y familias), las cooperativas médicas, los llamados Planes Autoadministrados (empresas) y los planes de seguros de salud individuales. También existen consultorios, hospitales, clínicas y laboratorios privados que funcionan sobre la base de pagos de bolsillo, que utilizan sobre todo la población de mayores ingresos. En este trabajo se analizan los recursos con los que cuenta el sistema, las actividades de rectoría que se desarrollan y las innovaciones más recientemente implantadas, incluyendo el Programa de Salud de la Familia y el Programa Más Salud.


This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75 percent of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services Administration , Brazil , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Financing, Organized/economics , Financing, Organized/organization & administration , Financing, Organized/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Indicators , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/statistics & numerical data , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Administration/economics , Health Services Administration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services/economics , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Benefits/economics , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/economics , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/economics , Insurance, Health/organization & administration , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics , National Health Programs/organization & administration , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data , Organizational Innovation , Private Sector/economics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration , Social Security/economics , Social Security/organization & administration , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Vital Statistics
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