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Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 285-293, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971396


The cardiovascular patch, served as artificial graft materials to replace heart or vascular tissue defect, is still playing a key role in cardiovascular surgeries. The defects of traditional cardiovascular patch materials may determine its unsatisfactory long-term effect or fatal complications after surgery. Recent studies on many new materials (such as tissue engineered materials, three-dimensional printed materials, etc) are being developed. Patch materials have been widely used in clinical procedures of cardiovascular surgeries such as angioplasty, cardiac atrioventricular wall or atrioventricular septum repair, and valve replacement. The clinical demand for better cardiovascular patch materials is still urgent. However, the cardiovascular patch materials need to adapt to normal coagulation mechanism and durability, promote short-term endothelialization after surgery, and inhibit long-term postoperative intimal hyperplasia, its research and development process is relatively complicated. Understanding the characteristics of various cardiovascular patch materials and their application in cardiovascular surgeries is important for the selection of new clinical surgical materials and the development of cardiovascular patch materials.

Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Tissue Engineering , Heart Ventricles , Heart Atria , Treatment Outcome
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 27-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970005


INTRODUCTION@#Despite promising trials, catheter ablation is still regarded as an adjunct to antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of various ablation therapies and AADs.@*METHOD@#Randomised controlled trials or propensity score-matched studies comparing atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence among any combination of ablation modalities or AAD were retrieved. Kaplan-Meier curves and risk tables for this outcome were graphically reconstructed to extract patient-level data. Frequentist network meta-analysis (NMA) using derived hazard ratios (HRs), as well as 2 restricted mean survival time (RMST) NMAs, were conducted. Treatment strategies were ranked using P-scores.@*RESULTS@#Across 24 studies comparing 6 ablation therapies (5,132 patients), Frequentist NMA-derived HRs of atrial fibrillation recurrence compared to AAD were 0.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25-0.48) for cryoballoon ablation (CBA), 0.34 (95% CI=0.25-0.47) for radiofrequency ablation (RFA), 0.14 (95% CI=0.07-0.30) for combined CBA and RFA, 0.20 (95% CI=0.10-0.41) for hot-balloon ablation, 0.43 (95% CI=0.15-1.26) for laser-balloon ablation (LBA), and 0.33 (95% CI=0.18-0.62) for pulmonary vein ablation catheter. RMST-based NMAs similarly showed significant benefit of all ablation therapies over AAD. The combination of CBA + RFA showed promising long-term superiority over CBA and RFA, while LBA showed favourable short-term efficacy.@*CONCLUSION@#The advantage of ablation therapies over AAD in preventing atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence suggests that ablation should be considered as the first-line treatment for PAF in patients fit for the procedure. The promising nature of several specific therapies warrants further trials to elicit their long-term efficacy and perform a cost-benefit analysis.

Humans , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation/methods , Heart Atria , Network Meta-Analysis , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 846-851, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982355


OBJECTIVES@#Early detection of asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction is essential to prevent the development of heart failure in hypertensive patients. Current studies suggest that left atrial strain contributes to the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function, but there are fewer studies on the correlation between left atrial strain and diastolic function in hypertensive patients. In this study, we applied a two-dimensional speckle tracking technique to evaluate the changes in left atrial strain in hypertensive patients, and to investigate the relationship between left atrial strain and left ventricular diastolic function.@*METHODS@#A total of 82 hypertensive patients who were visited the Department of Cardiology at the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from July 2021 to January 2022, were enrolled for this study, and 59 healthy subjects served as a control group. According to the number of left ventricular diastolic function indexes recommended by the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography Diastolic Function Guidelines (mitral annular e´ velocity: Septal e´<7 cm/s, lateral e´<10 cm/s, E/e´ ratio>14, left atrial volume index>34 mL/m2, peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity>2.8 m/s), the hypertensive patients were divided into 3 groups: Group Ⅰ (0 index, n=36 ), Group Ⅱ (1 index, n=39), and Group Ⅲ (2 indexes, n=7). Two-dimensional speckle tracking technique was used to measure left atrial reservoir strain (LASr), conduit strain, and contraction strain, and to analyze the correlation between left atrial strain and left ventricular diastolic function in hypertensive patients.@*RESULTS@#The LASr, left atrial conduit strain (LAScd), and LASr/(E/septal e´) of the hypertension group were lower than those of the control group, and E/LASr was higher than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in left atrium volume index between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Compared with Group Ⅰ, LASr, LAScd, and LASr/(E/septal e´) were decreased in Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ, LASr/(E/septal e´) was also decreased in Group Ⅲ compared with Group Ⅱ (all P<0.05). Compared with Group Ⅰ, E/LASr was increased in Group Ⅲ. LASr was positively correlated with septal e´, lateral e´, E, and E/A, and negatively correlated with E/septal e´.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The changes of left atrial function in patients with early hypertension are earlier than those of left atrial structure. Left atrial strain and its combination with conventional ultrasonographic indices [LASr/(E/septal e´)] of diastolic function are potentially useful in assessing left ventricular diastolic function in hypertensive patients.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Appendage , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Diastole
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e703, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1415381


Las neoplasias cardíacas se dividen en tumores primarios y secundarios; estos últimos son 30 veces más frecuentes. La mayoría de las neoplasias cardíacas son benignas y dentro de este grupo destaca el mixoma auricular. La presentación clínica es muy variable en relación con su ubicación, tamaño y movilidad, y los hallazgos a nivel de las pruebas complementarias son inespecíficos. Dado que su historia natural muchas veces pasa inadvertida, el mixoma puede culminar en la obstrucción auriculoventricular, obstrucción del tracto de salida ventricular o incluso embolias sistémicas; de esta forma, es el causante de sintomatología severa como síncope, insuficiencia cardíaca y muerte súbita cardíaca. Su manifestación clínica como un síncope es bastante frecuente. Se expone el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 81 años que consultó en el servicio de urgencias por un síncope. Durante su valoración, se identificó el mixoma auricular como etiología de este.

Cardiac neoplasms are divided into primary and secondary tumors, the latter are 30 times more frequent. Most are benign and within this group the atrial myxoma stands out. The clinical presentation is very variable in relation to its location, size and mobility, and the findings in the complementary tests are nonspecific. Since its natural history often goes unnoticed, the myxoma can culminate in atrial ventricular obstruction, ventricular outflow tract obstruction or even systemic embolism, causing severe symptoms such as syncope, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Its clinical manifestation as syncope is quite common. The case of an 81-year-old male patient who consulted at the emergency department for syncope is presented, in which the atrial myxoma was subsequently identified as the etiology of the event during the further evaluation.

As neoplasias cardíacas dividem-se em tumores primários e secundários, estes últimos são 30 vezes mais frequentes. A maioria são benignas e dentro deste grupo destaca-se o mixoma auricular. A apresentação clínica é muito variável em relação com sua localização, tamanho e mobilidade, e os achados a nível dos testes complementares são inespecíficos. Dado que a sua história natural muitas vezes passa despercebida, o mixoma pode culminar na obstrução aurículo-ventricular, obstrução do tracto de saída ventricular ou mesmo embolias sistémicas, sendo assim o causador de sintomatologia severa como síncope, insuficiência cardíaca e morte súbita cardíaca. Sua manifestação clínica como síncope é bastante comum. Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente de sexo masculino de 81 anos que consultou no serviço de urgências para um síncope. Durante a sua avaliação, se identificou mixoma auricular como etiologia deste

Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Syncope/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Myxoma/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Octogenarians , Heart Atria , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Myxoma/surgery
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 67-74, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397649


Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign primary tumors and are most often located in the left atrium at the level of the interatrial septum, with the characteristic of being pedunculated and highly mobile, which is why they sometimes interfere with the functioning of the mitral valve, generating variable degrees of stenosis and mitral insufficiency. Diagnosis is by echocardiography and treatment is surgical resection. We present the case of a patient with a large atrial myxoma and severe double mitral lesion.

Humans , Female , Aged , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Myxoma/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Myxoma/surgery , Myxoma/classification , Myxoma/physiopathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 52-58, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360111


Resumo Fundamento Os níveis de Proteína 3 relacionada ao fator de necrose tumoral/complemento sérico C1q (CTRP3) e a relação com a fibrilação atrial (FA) na doença arterial coronária estável (DAC) não estão claros atualmente. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a mudança nos níveis séricos de CTRP3 e sua relação com a FA paroxística em DAC estável. Método O estudo incluiu 252 pacientes com DAC e 50 controles saudáveis com idade/sexo compatíveis. Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram medidos, além da anamnese de rotina, exame físico, exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos com e sem DAC e indivíduos com DAC com e sem FA paroxística. Os valores eram estatisticamente significativos quando p<0,05. Resultados Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 foram significativamente menores em pacientes com DAC do que no grupo controle (p<0,001). A FA foi detectada em 28 pacientes (15,08%) no grupo DAC. A frequência de hipertensão e do sexo feminino, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as), o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, os níveis de creatinina e o diâmetro diastólico do átrio esquerdo foram maiores (p<0,05 para cada um), e os níveis de CTRP3 foram mais baixos em pacientes com FA (p<0,001). Na análise de regressão logística, os níveis séricos de CTRP3 e os diâmetros diastólicos do átrio esquerdo foram independentemente determinados pelos pacientes com FA (p<0,01 para cada um). Nesta análise, observamos que cada 1 ng/mL de redução nos níveis de CTRP3 aumentou o risco de FA em 10,7%. Na análise ROC dos valores de CTRP3 para detectar pacientes com FA, a área da curva ROC para CTRP3 foi 0,971 (0,951-991) e considerada estatisticamente significativa (p<0,001). Quando o ponto de corte de CTRP3 foi considerado em 300 ng/mL, demonstrava a presença de FA com 87,9% de sensibilidade e 86,8% de especificidade. Conclusão Os níveis séricos de CTRP3 caíram significativamente em pacientes com DAC estável, e níveis reduzidos de CTRP3 estiveram relacionados à presença de FA paroxística nesses pacientes.

Abstract Background Serum Complement C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) levels and the relationship with atrial fibrillation (AF) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the change in serum CTRP3 levels and its relationship with paroxysmal AF in stable CAD. Method The study included 252 patients with CAD and 50 age-sex matched healthy control subjects. Serum CTRP3 levels were measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory and echocardiography examinations. The patients were divided into groups with and without CAD and CAD patients with and without paroxysmal AF. Statistical significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results Serum CTRP3 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with CAD than in the control group (p<0.001). AF was detected in 38 patients (15.08%) in the CAD group. The frequency of hypertension and female gender, hs-CRP, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine levels and left atrial end-diastolic (LAd) diameter were higher (p<0.05 for each one), and CTRP3 levels were lower in patients with AF (p <0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, serum CTRP3 levels and LAd diameters were independently determined the patients with AF (p<0.01 for each one). In this analysis, we found that every 1 ng/mL reduction in CTRP3 levels increased the risk of AF by 10.7%. In the ROC analysis of CTRP3 values for detecting patients with AF, the area under the ROC curve for CTRP3 was 0.971 (0.951-991) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CTRP3 cut-off value was taken as 300 ng/mL, it was found to predict the presence of AF with 87.9% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. Conclusion Serum CTRP3 levels were significantly reduced in patients with stable CAD and decreased CTRP3 levels were closely related to the presence of paroxysmal AF in these patients.

Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , ROC Curve , Heart Atria
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc308, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411458


Introdução: Hipertensão Pulmonar (HP), uma condição clínica grave, pode levar à disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direto (DSVD), com implicações prognósticas. Pacientes com suspeita de HP devem ser submetidos ao ecocardiograma transtorácico (ECOTT) para diagnóstico e avaliação, colocando-o como o principal exame de triagem e acompanhamento. Objetivo: Verificar a associação e a concordância das medidas referentes à pressão média no átrio direito (AD) e à disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direto (DSVD) ao (ECOTT) e ao cateterismo de câmaras direitas (CCD) em pacientes com (HP). Métodos: Foram incluídos indivíduos com diagnóstico de (HP). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao ECOTT e CCD. Avaliou-se pelo ECOTT: área do átrio direito (AAD), pressão média do átrio direito (AD) através por meio do diâmetro e da colapsabilidade da veia cava inferior (PMADECOTT ), strain AD (SAD), TAPSE (excursão sistólica do plano anular tricúspide), MAF (mudança da área fracional), SPLVD (strain da parede livre do VD) e onda s´ tricuspídea. Pelo CCD avaliaram-se pressão média do (PMADCCD ) e índice cardíaco (IC). Resultados: Dos 16 pacientes, 13 eram do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 44,4 anos (±14,9). Constataram-se associação entre pressão média do átrio direito PMADCCD com área do átrio direito, PMADECOTT pressão média do átrio direito e SAD strain do átrio direito (r=0,845, r=0,621 e r=-0,523, respectivamente; p< 0,05). Verificou-se associação entre as categorias de risco de mortalidade, mensuradas pelas medidas AAD da área do átrio direito e pressão média do átrio direito PMADCCD (X2=10,42; p=0,003), com concordância moderada (k=0,44; p=0,012). DSVD A disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direto estava presente em dez pacientes. Houve associação entre disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direto DSVD (presente ou ausente) e índice cardíaco IC (r=0,522; p=0,04), com concordância moderada (k=0,43; p=0,037). Conclusão: As medidas do ecocardiograma transtorácico (ECOTT) e cateterismo de câmara direita (CCD) demostraram associação na avaliação da pressão média do átrio direito com melhor associação entre área do átrio direito AAD e pressão média do átrio direito (PMADCCD) . Houve associação com concordância moderada quanto à disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direto (DSVD) entre métodos. (AU)

Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a serious clinical condition, can lead to right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD) with prognostic implications. Patients with suspected PH should undergo transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for diagnosis and evaluation as the main screening and follow-up exam. Objective: To verify the associations of and agreement between measurements of mean pressure in the right atrium (RA) and RVSD with TTE Method: Individuals diagnosed with PH were included. All patients underwent TTE and RCC. The following were evaluated by TTE: right atrial area (RAA), mean right atrial pressure through the diameter and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (RMAPTTE), RA strain (RAS), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, fractional area change, RV free wall strain, and tricuspid s' wave. Mean RA pressure (RMAPRCC) and cardiac index (CI) were evaluated through the RCC. Results: Of the 16 patients, 13 were female. The mean patient age was 44.4 (±14.9) years. An association was found between RMAPRCC and AAD, RMAPTTE, and RAS (r=0.845, r=0.621, and r=-0.523, respectively; p<0.05). There was an association between the mortality risk categories measured by the RAA and RMAPRCC measures (X2=10.42; p=0.003), with moderate agreement (k=0.44; p=0.012). RVSDJ was present in 10 patients. There was an association between RVSD (present or absent) and CI (r=0.522; p=0.04) with moderate agreement (k=0.43; p=0.037). Conclusion: The TTE and RCC measurements showed an association in the assessment of mean right atrial pressure, especially between RAA and RMAPRCC. An association with RVSD and moderate agreement between methods were also noted. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Fluoroscopy/methods , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Hemodynamics/radiation effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc300, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411512


A disjunção do anel mitral (DAM) é uma inserção anormal da linha de flexão do anel mitral na parede atrial. O anel mostra uma separação (disjunção) entre a junção folheto posterior-parede atrial e a crista miocárdica ventricular esquerda.1 A DAM foi descrita pela primeira vez há mais de 30 anos em estudo de autópsia, estando relacionada com prolapso da valva mitral (PVM) em 92% dos casos.2 Desde então, foram realizados diversos estudos, sendo a prevalência de DAM em pacientes com PVM reportada de forma variável, podendo ou não estar associada à insuficiência mitral. O ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT) faz parte da avaliação inicial do prolapso valvar mitral, permitindo o diagnóstico e a avaliação de complicações relacionadas. Com a evolução de novos métodos diagnósticos, a ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e o ecocardiograma transesofágico (ETE) passaram a aprimorar a avaliação dessa patologia, bem como de sua extensão e localização. Contudo, as características fenotípicas do PVM que estão mais associadas a DAM permanecem incertas, sobretudo devido ao número limitado de pacientes, nos estudos clássicos sobre o tema. Portadores de DAM podem desenvolver sintomas relacionados a arritmias ventriculares, configurando a síndrome arrítmica da DAM (SDAM), podendo evoluir para morte súbita. Na literatura, os dados prognósticos ainda são conflitantes entre os diversos estudos acerca do tema, indo desde critérios claros de diagnóstico, o melhor método de imagem a ser aplicado, o tratamento e o prognóstico. Esta revisão descreve as características da DAM associada ou não ao prolapso valvar, auxiliando no diagnóstico e na conduta dessa importante patologia. (AU)

Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is an abnormal insertion of the flexion line of the mitral annulus into the atrial wall. The annulus presents a separation (disjunction) between the posterior leaflet­atrial wall junction and the left ventricular myocardial crest.1 MAD was first described more than 30 years ago in an autopsy study and is reportedly related to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in 92% of cases.2 Since then, several studies have been conducted, and reports on the prevalence of MAD in patients with MVP have varied. Ultimately, it may or may not be associated with mitral regurgitation. Transthoracic echocardiography is part of initial MVP assessment, allowing its diagnosis and the assessment of related complications. As new diagnostic methods emerged, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography improved the assessment of this pathology in terms of its diagnosis, extension, and location. However, the phenotypic characteristics of MVP that are more closely associated with MAD remain uncertain mainly due to the limited number of patients in classic studies on the subject. Patients with MAD may develop symptoms related to ventricular arrhythmias, configuring the MAD arrhythmic syndrome, which may progress to sudden death. The literature presents conflicting prognostic data among several studies on the subject from clear diagnostic criteria and best imaging method to be used to treatment and prognosis. This review describes MAD characteristics associated (or not) with valve prolapse to improve the diagnosis and management of this important pathology. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Mitral Valve Prolapse/complications , Mitral Valve Prolapse/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Prognosis , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc280, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411955


Cor triatriatum é um anomalia cardíaca congênita rara frequentemente diagnosticada na primeira infância. Este estudo de caso apresenta um adulto com um achado acidental de cor triatriatum sinistrum. Com base na apresentação clínica, o paciente foi tratado de forma conservadora. São apresentados achados de imagens ecocardiográficas de cor triatriatum sinistrum deste paciente juntamente de revisão narrativa da literatura sobre essa doença.(AU)

Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart anomaly often diagnosed in early childhood. This case study features an adult with an incidental finding of cor triatriatum sinistrum. Based on the clinical presentation, the patient was treated conservatively. Cor triatriatum sinistrum echocardiographic image findings of this patient are presented along with a narrative review of the literature about this disease. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cor Triatriatum/complications , Cor Triatriatum/diagnostic imaging , Incidental Findings , Heart Atria/abnormalities , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Fatty Liver/complications , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/complications , Kidney/injuries , Myocardial Infarction/genetics
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRC6478, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364801


ABSTRACT Primary cardiac tumors are rare, with an incidence between 0.0017 and 0.19%, and are asymptomatic in up to 72% of cases. Approximately 75% of tumors are benign, and nearly 50% of these are myxomas. Concerning location, 75% of myxomas are in the left atrium, 15 to 20% in the right atrium, and more rarely in the ventricles. The finding of cardiac myxomas usually implies immediate surgical excision to prevent embolic events and sudden cardiac death. Reports with documented growth rate are rare, and the actual growth rate remains a controversial issue. We report the rapid growth rate of a right atrial myxoma in an oligosymptomatic 69-year-old patient, with negative previous echocardiographic history in the last two years, who refused surgery upon diagnosis, enabling monitoring of myxoma growth.

Humans , Aged , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Myxoma/surgery , Myxoma/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Incidence , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1763-1768, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971362


Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), and right atrial embolism is a rare solid tumor, whose etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Moreover, it is often misdiagnosed. One patient with renal AML complicated with renal vein, IVC, and right atrial embolism was admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, who was a 35-year-old female, without any previous medical history, presented with right low back pain for more than 3 years. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed irregular lobulated fatty density mass in the right kidney, renal vein, IVC, and right atrium. The contrast-enhanced scan showed no enhancement of fat components at each phase and mild enhancement of solid components. Radical resection of the right kidney and removal of tumor thrombus were performed, and there was no recurrence 1 year after the operation. It is rare for renal AML to grow along the renal vein, IVC, and extend to the right atrium. Imaging examination is extremely important, and the CT findings of this case are characteristic, but the diagnosis eventually depends on pathological and immunohistochemical examinations.

Female , Humans , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Angiomyolipoma/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Embolism/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology
J. Card. Arrhythm. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 120-127, Dec., 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359639


Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent arrhythmia in clinical practice and has different strategies for its control. Of these strategies, the percutaneous ablation of the pulmonary veins stands out, with robust results in relation to drug treatment. It is an invasive procedure and, therefore, not free from complications, which must be properly diagnosed and treated. Among the possible complications, there is stiff atrium syndrome, characterized by reduced atrial compliance caused by post-ablation fibrosis, which, in turn, leads to atrial filling dysfunction and the consequent increase in atrial and venous capillary pulmonary pressures. The case report demonstrates this infrequent but important complication, which presents good results for clinical treatment, in addition to the contribution of cardiac magnetic resonance in its diagnosis and in the assessment of arrhythmia recurrence rates.

Atrial Fibrillation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Catheter Ablation , Heart Atria
J. Card. Arrhythm. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 128-134, Dec., 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359640


Percutaneous procedures through femoral access in patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) filter may be at risk of complications. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) through femoral access in patients previously implanted with IVC filter. We described the WatchmanTM device implantation in two patients with formal contraindication for oral anticoagulation. First patient had a GreenfieldTM filter and the second one an OpteaseTM filter, and in this patient an attempt to withdrawal the filter immediately before the LAAC procedure failed. A femoral approach was performed in both patients using a 14 Fr sheath. Before crossing IVC filters, venographies did not detect any thrombus. All steps of IVC filter crossing were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. No immediate or intrahospital complications related to the procedure occurred. Herein, we presented two cases of successful LAAC closure with Watchman device in patients with two different kinds of IVC filters.

Atrial Fibrillation , Vena Cava Filters , Heart Atria
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 23(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1389040


Resumen El presente articulo describe un caso clínico de una paciente con un ''trombo tumoral''. Estos son tumores que se extienden desde el órgano afectado hasta el atrio derecho, por la vena cava inferior. Hasta el 10 % de los tumores descritos pueden alcanzar la vena cava inferior y el 1 % de estos llegan a atrio derecho. El carcinoma de células renales es el más frecuente en producir este cuadro. El objetivo del articulo es mostrar que es fundamental realizar un adecuado diagnóstico diferencial, ya que existen diferentes procesos tumorales que pueden causar un ''trombo tumoral'' y diferentes causas de masas en el atrio derecho. La clínica de los pacientes con este cuadro será por obstrucción de la vena cava. El diagnóstico se realiza con estudios de imágenes, ultrasonido (US), ecocardiograma, tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y resonancia magnética. El manejo debe de ser quirúrgico, sin embargo, presenta pronóstico desfavorable, en algunos casos se puede resecar el tumor primario y extraer la masa que ha invadido la vena cava inferior.

Abstract: This article describes a clinical case of a patient with a 'tumoral thrombus''. These are tumors that extend from the affected organ to the right atrium, through the inferior vena cava. Up to 10% of the tumors described can reach the inferior vena cava and 1% of these reach the right atrium. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common to produce this condition. The objective of the article is to show that it is essential to carry out an adequate differential diagnosis since there are different tumor processes that can cause a ''tumoral thrombus'' and different causes of masses in the right atrium. The symptoms of patients with this condition will be caused by the obstruction of the vena cava. The diagnosis is made with imaging studies, ultrasound (US), echocardiography, computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. The management must be surgical, however it has an unfavorable prognosis, in some cases the primary tumor can be resected and the mass that has invaded the inferior vena cava removed.

Humans , Female , Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/complications
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 999-1007, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350014


Resumo Fundamento Alterações do substrato elétrico e anatômico do coração são fatores que originam e perpetuam a fibrilação atrial (FA), porém, os mecanismos envolvidos não foram totalmente elucidados ainda. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel do remodelamento do sistema nervoso cardíaco intrínseco (SNCI), incluindo fibras nervosas e receptores muscarínicos e β-adrenérgicos, na FA permanente humana. Métodos Foram avaliadas 4 amostras em átrios de 13 corações obtidos em necrópsias de pacientes com doença cardíaca e FA permanente, e em 13 controles com as mesmas doenças, porém, sem FA. Utilizando imunoperoxidase e histomorfometria, quantificamos a densidade das fibras do SNCI, bem como a porcentagem positiva de miocárdio para receptores β-adrenérgicos 1, 2 e 3, receptor quinase 5 acoplado à proteína G (GRK-5), e receptores muscarínicos 1 a 5. Os resultados foram comparados usando ANOVA e ANOVA hierarquizada e ajustados pelo volume do átrio esquerdo e, para avaliação da expressão de receptores β e GRK-5, pelo uso de β-bloqueadores. Adotamos como significativo α = 0,05. Resultados Houve aumento na densidade das fibras ( p <0,01), especialmente nas fibras simpáticas ( p =0,02). Quanto aos receptores muscarínicos, só houve diferença nos M1, que estavam aumentados (5,87±4,52 vs 2,85±2,40; p =0,03). Quanto aos componentes do sistema adrenérgicos analisados, houve expressão aumentada de β-3 (37,41 vs 34,18, p =0,04) e GRK-5 (51,16 vs 47,66; p<0,01). O uso de β-bloqueadores não teve impacto na expressão de receptores beta. Conclusão O aumento na inervação do SNCI e a alteração na expressão de receptores em regiões suscetíveis de desencadear FA podem ter um papel na fibrilação atrial permanente.

Abstract Background The primary factors that originate and perpetuate atrial fibrillation (AF) are electrical and anatomical substrate alterations. However, the central mechanisms governing AF perpetuation have not been elucidated yet, which is reflected on the modest results of the treatment in patients with long persistent AF. Objective To evaluate if human intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ICANS) remodeling, including nervous system fibers and muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors, play a role in permanent AF. Methods Heart necropsy samples from thirteen patients with heart disease and permanent AF and thirteen controls without AF were used. By using immunoperoxidase and histomorphometry quantification, we identified the following: the density of all fibers of the ICANS, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers; and the percentage of myocardium positive for β-adrenergic receptors 1, 2 and 3; G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK-5); and muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. The results were compared using ANOVA and nested ANOVA and were adjusted according to the left atrium volume for all variables, and β-blocker use to evaluate the expression of β-receptors and GRK-5. Results There was an overall increase in the density of fibers of the ICANS (p=0.006), especially in atrial sympathetic nerve fibers (p=0.017). Only M1 muscarinic receptors were increased (5.87 vs 2.35, p=0.032). For adrenergic receptors, the results were positive for increased expression of β-3 (37.41 vs 34.18, p=0.039) and GRK-5 (51.16 vs 47.66; p<0.001). β-blocker use had no impact on β-receptor expression. Conclusion Increased ICANS innervation and remodeling receptor expression in regions prone to triggering AF may play a role in permanent AF.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Autonomic Nervous System , Sympathetic Nervous System , Heart Atria , Myocardium
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 656-662, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351642


Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to review the surgical excision results and pathological diagnostic features of rarely observed intracardiac masses in the light of the literature. Diagnosis and treatment approaches and complications were evaluated. Methods: Forty patients (26 females, mean age 52.1±18.1 years, and 14 males, mean age 48.1±20.5 years), who had undergone surgery for intracardiac mass between January 2008 and December 2018, were included in this study. The patients' data were analyzed retrospectively from the medical records of both centers. Results: When the pathological diagnoses were examined, 85.8% of the masses (n=35) were observed to be benign (benign tumor + hydatid cyst) and 14.2% (n=5) were malignant tumors. The masses were most commonly located in the left atrium (75%, n=30), and this was followed by the right ventricle (12.5%, n=5), right atrium (7.5%, n=3), and left ventricle (5%, n=2). Of the patients, 7.5% (n=3) died during the early postoperative period, while the remaining 92.5% (n=37) were discharged with healing. In the histopathological diagnosis of the patients, in whom in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events were observed, there was malignancy in two cases. Conclusion: Intracardiac masses, which have pathological features, are severe life-threatening problems. In-hospital mortality is frequent, especially in malignant tumors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Echinococcosis , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Heart Atria/surgery , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged