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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the association of the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy with congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring, and to establish a model for predicting the probability of CHD based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*METHODS@#Based on the prospective birth cohort study in Gansu Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in 2010-2012, a nested case-control study was conducted for the follow-up observation of 14 359 pregnant women. Among the pregnant women, 97 pregnant women whose offspring were diagnosed with CHD during follow-up were enrolled as the CHD group, and 194 pregnant women whose offspring had no CHD were selected as the control group. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of heavy metals and trace elements in maternal blood samples and fetal umbilical cord blood samples. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between heavy metal and trace elements and CHD in offspring. A nomogram model for predicting the probability of CHD in offspring was established based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the CHD group had significantly higher levels of aluminum (Al), natrium (Na), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), stannum (Sn), stibium (Sb), barium (Ba), and thorium (Th) in maternal blood samples (P<0.05), as well as significantly higher levels of Al, zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), kalium (K), Ca, Ti, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), Se, Sr, argentum (Ag), cadmium (Cd), Sn, and plumbum (Pb) in umbilical cord blood (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase in the Sb level in maternal blood was associated with the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-14.07, P=0.004], while in umbilical cord blood, the high levels of Al (aOR=4.22, 95%CI: 1.35-13.16, P=0.013), Mg (aOR=8.00, 95%CI: 1.52-42.08, P=0.014), and Pb (aOR=3.82, 95%CI: 0.96-15.23, P=0.049) were significantly associated with the risk of CHD in offspring. The levels of Al, Th, and Sb in maternal blood and levels of Al, Mg, and Pb in umbilical cord blood were included in the predictive model for CHD in offspring based on the levels of heavy metals and trace elements during pregnancy, and the calibration curve of the nomogram predictive model was close to the ideal curve.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increases in the levels of Al, Th, Sb, Mg, and Pb during pregnancy may indicate the increase in the risk of CHD in offspring, and the nomogram predictive model based on these indices can be used to predict the probability of CHD in offspring.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Trace Elements/analysis
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(4): 148-155, dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-968639

ABSTRACT

Turner syndrome (TS) is a common disorder (1/2.000 women) that affects multiple organs at different stages of life and needs a multidisciplinary approach. It can be present in women of all ethnicities and is caused by a monosomy of the X chromosome that causes a haploinsufficiency of certain genes. Its main features consist of specific but variables physical characteristics, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, middle and inner ear diseases, skeletal alterations, and from the endocrinological point of view, short stature and ovarian insufficiency. Given the comorbidities associated with TS, it has been estimated that they have an increased risk of mortality (up to 3 times more) and a reduction in life expectancy of approximately 13 years. Depending on the genotype, the abnormalities can become very subtle, in these cases the diagnosis is late, when the adolescent consults, for example, for primary amenorrhea or an adult woman for infertility. Once the diagnosis is confirmed by a karyotype, these patients must remain in pediatric control in a continuous way to investigate associated pathologies in a timely manner, with periodic evaluations by specialists, such as otolaryngologists, cardiologists, neurologists and endocrinologists, among others. Numerous advances in the care of these patients gave rise to new guidelines published in 2017. In this article we will comment on the main conditions associated with TS and its specific etiology, we will mention what is relevant regarding the genotype-phenotype relationship in this syndrome and we will discuss the fundamental aspects of the control of the TS patient, with emphasis on the treatment of short stature and ovarian insufficiency, as well as the cardiovascular aspects and those related to fertility.


El Síndrome de Turner (ST) es una patología frecuente (1/2.000 mujeres) que afecta múltiples órganos en distintas etapas de la vida y necesita un enfoque multidisciplinario. Se produce por una monosomía del cromosoma X que provoca una haploinsuficiencia de determinados genes. Sus características principales consisten en un fenotipo característico pero variable, con presencia de cardiopatías congénitas, anomalías renales, enfermedades del oído medio e interno, alteraciones esqueléticas, y del punto de vista endocrinológico, talla baja e insuficiencia ovárica. Dadas las comorbilidades asociadas al ST, principalmente cardiovasculares (CV), presentan mayor mortalidad con respecto a la población general (hasta 3 veces más). Dependiendo del genotipo, las anomalías pueden llegar a ser muy sutiles, realizándose en estos casos el diagnóstico en forma tardía, cuando la adolescente consulte, por ejemplo, por amenorrea primaria o una mujer adulta por infertilidad. Una vez confirmado el diagnóstico mediante un cariotipo, estas pacientes deben permanecer en control endocrinológico pediátrico en forma continua hasta la transición hacia adultos, con el fin de pesquisar patologías asociadas en forma oportuna. Por ello requieren evaluaciones periódicas por especialistas, tales como otorrinolaringólogos, cardiólogos, neuropsiquiatras, entre otros. Numerosos avances en el cuidado de estas pacientes, dieron origen a nuevas guías publicadas el 2017. En este artículo comentaremos sobre las principales condiciones asociadas al ST y su etiología específica, mencionaremos lo relevante respecto a la relación genotipo-fenotipo en este síndrome y discutiremos los aspectos fundamentales del control de la paciente con ST, haciendo énfasis en el tratamiento de la talla baja y la insuficiencia ovárica, así como los aspectos CV y los relacionados a fertilidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome/complications , Turner Syndrome/diagnosis , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Turner Syndrome/drug therapy , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Gonadal Dysgenesis/etiology , Growth Disorders/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Infertility, Female
3.
Salud colect ; 14(3): 531-544, jul.-sep. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979104

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este artículo explora aspectos socioculturales de un programa de brigadas de cardiología pediátrica para la atención de menores de poblaciones de escasos recursos que habitan en regiones periféricas de Colombia. Problematizamos las brigadas como estrategia humanitaria para cerrar las brechas de inequidad en el acceso a la atención en salud, y como contexto particular para el encuentro médico, la experiencia de la cardiopatía y la definición de las trayectorias de cuidado. A partir de la observación etnográfica de brigadas y de entrevistas a familias asistentes y personal de salud, realizadas durante el año 2016 en cinco ciudades diferentes, indagamos en las dinámicas que configuran el encuentro médico y cuestionamos los mecanismos (médicos y sociales) mediante los cuales se evalúa y decide qué familias pueden acceder a atención médica especializada en Bogotá. Se concluye que las brigadas, al ser iniciativas que continúan anclándose en el humanitarismo, en lugar de contribuir a la transformación de las condiciones que generan inequidades en salud acaban reproduciéndolas y exacerbándolas en la medida que seleccionan las vidas con prioridad para ser salvadas.


ABSTRACT This article explores the sociocultural aspects of a program of pediatric cardiology health brigades that provides care to children from low-income populations in peripheral regions of Colombia. We analyzed the brigades as a humanitarian strategy to close the gaps of inequity in access to health care, and as a particular context of the medical encounter, the experience of heart disease and the definition of care trajectories. Based on ethnographic observation of brigades and interviews with families receiving care and with health personnel, carried out in 2016 in five different cities, we looked at the dynamics that shape the medical encounter and questioned the mechanisms (medical and social) through which it is evaluated and decided which families can access care in Bogota. We conclude that the brigades, as initiatives that continue to be anchored in humanitarism instead of contributing to the transformation of the conditions that generate health inequities, reproduce and exacerbate such inequities by selecting which lives receive priority to be saved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Pediatrics , Cardiology , Triage/methods , Colombia , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Vulnerable Populations , Altruism
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 321-334, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las cardiopatías congénitas son los defectos más frecuentes y primera causa de muerte en menores de un año, su etiología es multifactorial y los factores de riesgo diversos y muchos prevenibles. Objetivo: implementar un programa educativo para el desarrollo de conocimientos sobre prevención de cardiopatías congénitas en mujeres en edad fértil de dos consultorios médicos del Policlínico Docente "Samuel Fernández "del municipio Matanzas, entre enero 2015 a marzo 2016. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención, se diagnosticó el nivel de conocimientos y necesidades educativas sentidas a través de un cuestionario al universo de mujeres en edad fértil de los consultorios médicos declarados. Para determinar la existencia de asociación entre ambas variables, se calculó el Chi cuadrado, para una confiabilidad de 99%. Se aplicó la prueba de la t de Student para comparar las medias aritméticas de la variable conocimiento antes y después de la intervención, para una confiabilidad de 99%. Resultados: el nivel de conocimiento de las féminas fue regular y las necesidades educativas sentidas altas antes de la intervención, modificándose a bien después de implementada la misma, con diferencias estadísticamente altamente significativas. Conclusiones: Se comprueba la eficacia del producto elaborado al constatarse el desarrollo de conocimientos sobre el tema (AU).


Introduction: congenital heart diseases are the most frequent defects and the first cause of death in children aged less than a year. Its etiology is multifactorial and the risk factors are diverse and many of them preventable. Objective: to put into practice an educative program for the development of knowledge on congenital heart diseases in fertile aged women from two medical consultations of the Teaching Policlinic "Samuel Fernández", municipality of Matanzas, from January 2015 to March 2016. Materials and methods: an intervention was carried out. It was diagnosed the level of knowledge and the educative necessities using an questionnaire filled in by the universe of fertile aged women from the declared medical consultations. To determine the existence of association between both variables chi-square was calculated for a reliability of 99 %. The T student test was applied to compare the arithmetic average of knowledge variable before and after the intervention, for a 99 % of reliability. Results: the women´s level of knowledge was regular and the perceived educative necessities were high before the intervention; the level of knowledge turned to good after the intervention, with significantly high statistical differences. Conclusions: the efficacy of the elaborated product was proved when development of knowledge on the theme was stated (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Preventive Health Services , Primary Health Care , Women , Maternal and Child Health , Risk Factors , Early Intervention, Educational , Fertility , Genetic Background , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Heart Defects, Congenital/prevention & control , Health Programs and Plans , Infant Mortality , Health Education , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Controlled Before-After Studies , Health Gains , Health Promotion , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(4): 306-313, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the cause of congenital anomalies resulted from gestational diabetes on fetal cardiac tissue in experimental animal study model. Methods: Totally 12 female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups, each consisting of 6 rats. Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to the study group by dissolving in citrate solution. The rats with a blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL and above were considered to be diabetic rats. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) values were calculated in the cardiac tissues and maternal serum samples of the fetuses delivered by cesarean section after the mating process. The cardiac tissues were also subjected to histopathological examination. Results: TOS and OSI values in fetal cardiac tissues of the diabetic rats were found to be significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.026 and p=0.005). Histopathological examination revealed that the mitotic index was lower and the cell organization was found to be damaged in the fetuses of the study group rats. Conclusion: Increased levels of free oxygen radicals considered to be due to hyperglycemia may cause congenital anomalies, especially during organogenesis period, by disrupting cell homeostasis and adversely affecting mitosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Heart/embryology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Reference Values , Blood Glucose/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/embryology , Hyperglycemia/complications , Microscopy , Antioxidants/analysis
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 489-494, June 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787026

ABSTRACT

Las cardiopatías congénitas corresponden al grupo de anomalías del desarrollo que se presentan con mayor frecuencia. Durante el desarrollo cardíaco participan distintos linajes celulares, donde destacan las Células de la Cresta Neural (CCN) por su amplia gama de derivados embriológicos y la susceptibilidad de afectar a múltiples sistemas si su función es alterada. El objetivo fue determinar el rol que cumplen las CCN durante el desarrollo cardíaco y las cardiopatías congénitas asociadas. Se diseñó un estudio descriptivo en base a una revisión sistemática de la literatura de las bases de datos MEDLINE y Scopus, utilizando la combinación de términos MeSH: ("Heart Diseases/congenital" OR "Heart Diseases/embriology" OR "Heart Diseases/etiology" OR "Heart Disesaes/epidemiology") AND ("Neural Crest/abnormalities"). Se restringió la búsqueda a artículos de los últimos 10 años. De un total de 35 artículos obtenidos, 22 fueron incluidos para su revisión por estar relacionados con los objetivos de este estudio, excluyéndose duplicados entre bases de datos. Posteriormente se hizo un análisis individual y en conjunto de la información obtenida de los artículos seleccionados. La evidencia indica la participación directa o indirecta de las CCN durante la formación de las estructuras derivadas del polo arterioso del corazón en desarrollo, los grandes vasos arteriales y sus ramas colaterales, así como en su inervación y sistema de conducción. La alteración del funcionamiento normal de las CCN produce fenotipos cardíacos alterados, siendo la persistencia del tronco arterioso, doble salida ventricular derecha, defectos septales interventriculares y malformación de los aparatos valvares aórtico y pulmonar, los más frecuentes.


Congenital heart defects are the group of most frequent anomalies of development. Cardiac development in different cell lines, which include the Neural crest cells (NCC) for their wide range of embryological derivatives and susceptibility to affect multiple systems if their function is altered participate. The objective was to determine the role of the NCC during heart development and associated congenital heart disease. A descriptive study was designed based on a systematic review of the literature from the MEDLINE and Scopus data, using a combination of MeSH terms ("Heart Diseases / congenital" OR "Heart Diseases / Embryology" OR "Heart Diseases/etiology "OR" Heart Diseases/epidemiology ") AND ("Neural Crest/abnormalities"). Search for articles in the last 10 years was restricted. From a total of 35 articles retrieved, 22 were included related to the objectives of this study for review, excluding duplicated between databases. Subsequently, an individual and joint analysis was realized with the information from the selected items. Evidence indicates the direct or indirect involvement of NCC during the formation of the structures derived from arterial pole of the developing heart, the large arterial vessels and their collateral branches, as well as its innervation and conduction system. The disruption of normal operation of the NCC produces altered cardiac phenotypes, with the Persistence Truncus Arteriosus, Double-Outlet Right Ventricle, ventricular Septal Defects and malformation of the most common valvular aortic and pulmonary devices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Defects, Congenital/embryology , Neural Crest/abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(2): 102-109, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Los niños con síndrome de Down (SD) tienen mayor frecuencia de malformaciones congénitas y de enfermedades con riesgo de hospitalización en comparación con la población general. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar las estancias hospitalarias de niños con SD. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO Estudio retrospectivo en niños con SD menores de 15 años atendidos en el Servicio de Pediatría del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, durante los años 2008-2011. RESULTADOS De los 222 egresos hospitalarios de 161 niños con SD, 110 correspondieron a mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 8 meses y una mediana de estancia hospitalaria de 6 días. El 56,7% ingresó en la unidad de pacientes críticos. El 59,4% de los egresos fue por corrección quirúrgica de su cardiopatía congénita. La infección respiratoria aguda baja fue el principal diagnóstico de egreso por causa no cardioquirúrgica. Hubo 3 fallecidos en la serie. CONCLUSIONES Los niños con SD son un grupo relevante para los cuidados hospitalarios, no solo por su alta incidencia en Chile, sino por ser un grupo de riesgo respiratorio y cardiovascular, con hospitalizaciones prolongadas, alta frecuencia de estancia en cuidados críticos y riesgo de mortalidad. Este grupo de niños necesita cuidados complejos y su atención requiere de un equipo multidisciplinario que conozca sus características particulares.


INTRODUCTION Children with Down's syndrome (DS) have a higher risk of congenital malformations and acute diseases, with increased risk of hospital admissions compared with the general population. This study describes patterns of hospital admissions for children and adolescents with DS. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective study of hospital admissions of children with DS, younger than 15 years old, and cared for by the Paediatric Department of the Hospital Clínico Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, between 2008 and 2011. RESULTS There were 222 admissions of 161 patients with DS during the study period, of which 110 were girls. The median age was 8 months, and the median hospital stay was 6 days. Just over half (56.7%) of the hospital stays were in the Paediatric Critic Care Unit. Heart surgery was performed on 59.4%, and the principal congenital heart defect attended was atrioventricular canal. The principal diagnosis, other than heart surgery, was lower respiratory tract infection. In this series, 3 children died. CONCLUSIONS Children with DS are a relevant group for inpatient care, because their high incidence in Chile, their respiratory and cardiovascular risk, prolonged hospitalizations, high frequency of critical care days and mortality risk. This group has special and complex needs during their hospitalizations and it is necessary to create a multidisciplinary team with competences to take care the particular characteristics of this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Down Syndrome/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Down Syndrome/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Hospitals, University , Length of Stay
10.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 25(3): 160-163, jul.-set. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788858

ABSTRACT

O transplante cardíaco em crianças tem sido opção nas cardiopatias congênitas complexas e nas cardiomiopatias refratárias a terapêutica convencional. A investigação diagnóstica da etiologia das cardiopatias tem avançado na última década como, por exemplo, a sequência de exons. A assistência circulatória tem sido utilizada como ponte para transplante e no tratamento de rejeições agudas e crônicas. Do ponto de vista imunológico, a prova cruzada virtual no momento do transplante principalmente para os pacientes sensibilizados tem sido útil e fundamental. Novas drogas imunossupressoras como tacrolimo, sirolimo e rituximabe apresentam-se como promissoras na prevenção e tratamento da rejeição. O transplante com sitema ABO incompativel é uma possibilidade para recém-nascidos pela escassez de doadores.


Heart transplant in children has been an option in complex congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies that do not respond to conventional treatment. The diagnostic investigatio nof the etiology of heart disease has advanced in the last decade, an example of this being exon sequencing. Circulatory support has been used as a bridge to transplantation, and in the treatment of acute and chronic rejections. From an immunological point of view,the virtual crossmatch test at the time of transplant, particularly for sensitized patients, has been useful and essential. New immunosuppressant drugs such as tacrolimus, sirolimusand rituximab have shown promise in the prevention and treatment of rejection. ABO--incompatible transplantation is a possibility for newborn infants, due to the lack of donos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Child , Heart Transplantation/methods , Heart Transplantation/trends , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Prognosis
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(5): 578-583, oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-731645

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) (OMIM # 225500) syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia disorder transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. The diagnosis is made based on phenotypic characteristics such as chondrodysplasia, heart defects and polydactyly. The prognosis depends mainly on the severity of the disease, diagnosis and comprehensive management of the condition. Objective: To describe a patient diagnosed with EVC syndrome. Case report: Newborn diagnosed with EVC syndrome who presented dysmorphic facies, shortened long bones, rhizomelic shortening, small hands, brachydactyly, single transverse palmar crease, postaxial polydactyly in the upper limbs, bilateral preaxial polysyndactyly in lower limbs and hypoplastic nails, complex heart defects and narrow thorax. The evolution was unfavorable; the patient died 8 weeks after birth from complications due to heart defects. Conclusions: EVC syndrome is rare and unknown; therefore, it is important to spread its characteristics within the pediatric community, emphasizing that it affects multiple organ systems and requires a multidisciplinary approach to treat individually each patient, to provide genetic and reproductive counseling to couples and to give information regarding child development expectations.


Introducción: El síndrome Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) (OMIM #225500) es una displasia esquelética rara de herencia autosómica recesiva, cuyo diagnóstico se realiza por sus características fenotípicas como la condrodisplasia, cardiopatía y polidactilia. El pronóstico depende fundamentalmente de la severidad de la cardiopatía, al igual que del diagnóstico y manejo integral oportunos. Objetivo: Caracterizar un paciente con diagnóstico clínico de Síndrome de EVC, cuya baja frecuencia dificulta el correcto diagnóstico en pediatría. Caso clínico: Recién nacido con facies dismórfica, extremidades con huesos largos cortos, acortamiento rizomélico, manos pequeñas, braquidactilia, pliegue palmar único, polidactilia post axial en miembros superiores, polisin-dactilia preaxial bilateral en miembros inferiores y uñas hipoplásicas, cardiopatía compleja y tórax estrecho, en el que se concluyó un diagnóstico clínico de EVC. La evolución fue desfavorable, falleciendo a las 8 semanas de nacimiento por complicaciones secundarias a la cardiopatía. Conclusiones: El síndrome de EVC es de baja frecuencia y poco conocido, por lo que es importante difundir sus características en la comunidad pediátrica, haciendo énfasis en que al afectar múltiples sistemas y órganos, requiere un manejo multidisciplinario con el objetivo de intervenir en la patología individualizando cada paciente; además de consejería genética y reproductiva a las parejas, e información de las expectativas del desarrollo del niño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome/physiopathology , Toes/abnormalities , Polydactyly/etiology , Fingers/abnormalities , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(2,supl.A): 9-12, Abr.-Jun. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-728058

ABSTRACT

As cardiopatias congênitas são anomalias estruturais e/ou funcionais do coração ou dos grandes vasos. A morbidade nesta população também está relacionada a problemas de alimentação: em alguns casos, essas dificuldades podem estar associadas à disfagia orofaríngea, distúrbio de deglutição que pode trazer complicações como desnutrição, desidratação, alterações pulmonares e pode levar à morte. As causas da disfagia nessa população são múltiplas como: fadiga, que pode levar à incoordenação entre sucção, deglutição e respiração; intubação orotraqueal prolongada; síndromes associadas às cardiopatias; comprometimentos neurológicos; a até mesmo atraso no desenvolvimento neurocomportametal devido ao tempo prolongado de internação, comum nessa população. O objetivo da fonoterapia é a eficácia da fase oral, coordenação entre sucção, deglutição e respiração e transição laringotraqueal. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever a intervenção fonoaudiológica em uma criança no pós-operatório da cirurgia cardíaca que evoluiu com disfagia orofaríngea, Neste caso, a fonoterapia possibilitou a reabilitação da deglutição e transição alimentar da via alternativa para via oral exclusiva, minimizando riscos de aspiração laringotraqueal.


Congenital heart defects are structural abnormalitiesand/or functional heart or great vessels. The morbity in this population is also related to feeding problems in some cases these difficulties may be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia, a swallwing disorder that can cause complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, pulmonar disorders and can lead to death. The causes of dysphagia in this population are manifold such as fadigue which can lead to incoordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing, prolonged intubation, syndromes associated with heart disease, neurological damage and even neurobehavior development delay due to prolonged hospitalization common in this population. The goal of speech therapy is the efficiency of the oral coordination of sucking , swallowing and breathing and transition to oral feeding minimizing risk of tracheal aspiration. The aim of the study was to describe the speech therapy in a postoperative cardiac surgery child who developed oropharyngeal dysphagia. In this case, speech therapy enabled the rehabilitation of swallowing and feeding transition alternative pathway for oral exclusive, minimizing the risk of tracheal aspiration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/methods , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Patient Care Team , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery
13.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 29(2): 251-260, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-594007

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Revisar as características clínicas, etiológicas e diagnósticas da síndrome de deleção 22q11 e sua associação com as cardiopatias congênitas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram pesquisados artigos científicos presentes nos portais Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando-se descritores específicos como "22q11", "DiGeorge syndrome", "velocardiofacial syndrome", "congenital heart defects" e "cardio-vascular malformations". O período adotado para a revisão foi de 1980 a 2009. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As malformações cardíacas são os defeitos congênitos observados mais frequentemente ao nascimento e representam um problema importante de Saúde Pública. Dentre suas principais causas conhecidas destaca-se a síndrome de deleção 22q11, também chamada de síndrome de DiGeorge, síndrome velocardiofacial e CATCH22. Trata-se de uma doença autossômica domi-nante caracterizada por um fenótipo altamente variável, o que dificulta em muito seu reconhecimento clínico. Além disso, a maior parte dos pacientes apresenta uma microdeleção identificada principalmente por técnicas de citogenética molecular, como a hibridização in situ fluorescente, pouco disponíveis em nosso meio. De forma similar a outras síndromes, a síndrome de deleção 22q11 associa-se a certos defeitos cardíacos específicos, no caso os do tipo conotruncal. Apesar disso, não há ainda na literatura um consenso sobre quais os pacientes com car-diopatia congênita que deveriam ser investigados para a síndrome de deleção 22q11. CONCLUSÕES: Cardiologistas e cirurgiões cardíacos, espe-cialmente pediátricos, devem estar cientes das peculiaridades e dos cuidados dispensados à síndrome de deleção 22q11. Os indivíduos com a síndrome apresentam comumente alterações envolvendo vários sistemas, o que pode levar a dificuldades e a complicações durante seu manejo clínico e cirúrgico.


OBJECTIVE: To review clinical, etiological and diagnostic characteristics of the 22q11 deletion syndrome and its as-sociation with congenital heart defects. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases were searched from 1980 to 2009 using specific descrip-tors as "22q11", "DiGeorge syndrome", "velocardiofacial syndrome", "congenital heart defects" and "cardiovascular malformations". DATA SYNTHESIS: Heart malformations are the most fre-quent congenital defects at birth and represent an important Public Health problem. The 22q11 deletion syndrome, also called DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome and CATCH22, stands out as one of the main known causes of congenital heart defects. This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by a highly variable phenotype, which renders its difficult clinical identification. In addition, the majority of the patients present a microdeletion identified mainly by molecular cytogenetic techniques as fluorescent in situ hybridization, which are rarely available in Brazil. Similarly to other syndromes, 22q11 deletion syndrome is associated to some specific heart defects, espe-cially conotruncal. It is still not clear which patients with congenital heart defect should be screened for 22q11 dele-tion syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, particu-larly the pediatric ones, must be aware about the features and health care related to 22q11 deletion syndrome. Subjects with the syndrome very often present abnormalities of mul-tiple systems, that could result in difficulties and complica-tions during their clinical and surgical course.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , DiGeorge Syndrome/complications , DiGeorge Syndrome/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 26(2): 273-281, abr.-jun. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597749

ABSTRACT

It is well-known that hypertension is a very common disease, and severe cerebrovascular accidents might occur if the blood pressure is not properly controlled. However, conditions associated with uncontrolled hypertension may be overlooked, and may become critical and eventually require a surgical intervention on an urgent basis. Coronary artery disease, acute aortic syndrome, congenital and valvular heart disease, and arrhythmias are under this topic of discussion. Of them, coronary artery disease including myocardial infarction and especially postinfarction myocardial rupture, and aortic dissection are major critical situations that physicians may encounter in clinical practice. The role that hypertension plays in these conditions can be complex, including hemodynamic, electrophysiological and biomolecular factors, where the latter may prevail in the current era. Coronary artery disease may be associated with a reduced nitric oxide synthesis. Transforming growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases have been observed in relation to aortic syndrome. Wnt, p38 and JNK signaling pathway may be involved in the development of ventricular hypertrophy responsible for cardiac arrythmias. Various gene phynotypes may present in different congenital heart defects. This article is to present these conditions, and to further discuss the possible etiologies and the potential treatment strategies so as to highlight the relevance at a prognostic level.


É sabido que a hipertensão é uma doença muito comum, e que os acidentes cerebrovasculares graves podem ocorrer se a pressão sanguínea não for apropriadamente controlada. Contudo, as condições associadas à hipertensão não controlada podem ser negligenciadas, e tornarem-se críticas, necessitando, eventualmente, uma intervenção cirúrgica urgente. Doença coronariana, síndrome aórtica aguda, cardiopatias congênitas, valvopatias e arritmias são sob este tópico de discussão. Dentre eles, a doença corornariana, inclusive o infarto do miocárdio e especialmente a ruptura cardíaca pós-infarto e a dissecção aórtica, são as situações críticas principais que os médicos podem encontrar na prática clínica. O papel que a hipertensão desempenha nessas condições pode ser complexo, incluindo fatores hemodinâmicos, eletrofisiológicos e biomoleculares, nos quais o último pode prevalecer atualmente. A doença coronariana pode associar-se com uma redução na síntese de óxido nítrico. Fator de crescimento transformador e nas metaloproteinases da matriz têm sido observados em relação à síndrome aórtica. O Wnt, p38 e a via de sinalização JNK caminho podem estar implicado no desenvolvimento da hipertrofia ventricular responsável por arritmias cardíacas. Vários fenótipos dos genes podem apresentar defeitos cardíacos congênitos diferentes. Este artigo apresenta essas condições, e discute, além disso, possíveis etiologias e as estratégias de tratamento potenciais bem destacar sua importância quanto a prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Acute Disease , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Syndrome
15.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics. 2009; 19 (1): 11-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91412

ABSTRACT

Determining the frequency of chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion in children with congenital cardiac conotruncal abnormalities using Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization [FISH] technique and estimating relation between DiGeorge Syndrome and cardiac conotruncal abnormalities. One-hundred and eighty cases [106 Males, 74 Females] with selective congenital heart disease [conotruncal abnormalities] referred to the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University during 2004-2007 were evaluated by pediatric cardiologists. All patients were assessed for chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH technique. Consequently, patients with 22q microdeletion were studied for T cell abnormalities. Median age of the patients at the time of study was 18 months [3d-16y]. The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 was detected in 17 [9.5%] patients with conotruncal abnormalities, including 5 [29.4%] Tetralogy of Fallot plus Supravalvular Pulmonary Stenosis, 4 [23%] Truncus Arteriosus, 5 [29.4%] Pulmonary Artesia with Ventricular Septal Defect, 2 [11.8%] CO AO+Intrrupted Aortic Arch and one case of Valvular Pulmonary Stenosis. Five of uncorrelated cases had crananiofacial dysmorphism. Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion FISH study should be considered in patients with cardiac lesions particularly conotruncal abnormality with or without syndromic problems [craniofacial dysmorphism and developmental delay] to provide an appropriate genetic counseling with more accurate estimation of recurrence risk and ultimately prenatal diagnosis in affected families


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/statistics & numerical data , DiGeorge Syndrome/congenital , DiGeorge Syndrome/genetics , /etiology , /genetics , Pulmonary Atresia/etiology , Pulmonary Atresia/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Pulmonary Subvalvular Stenosis/etiology , Pulmonary Subvalvular Stenosis/genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis/standards , Truncus Arteriosus , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/etiology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/genetics
16.
Biol. Res ; 42(4): 461-468, 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-537105

ABSTRACT

Microdeletion 22q11 in humans causes velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes. Most patients share a common 3Mb deletion, but the clinical manifestations are very heterogeneous. Congenital heart disease is present in 50-80 percent of patients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The phenotypic variability suggests the presence of modifiers. Polymorphisms in the VEGFA gene, coding for the vascular endothelial growth factor A, have been associated with non-syndromic congenital heart disease, as well as with the presence of cardiovascular anomalies in patients with microdeletion 22q11. We evaluated the association of VEGFA polymorphisms c.-2578C>A (rs699947), c.-1154G>A (rs1570360) and c.-634C>G (rs2010963) with congenital heart disease in Chilean patients with microdeletion 22q11. The study was performed using case-control and family-based association designs. We evaluated 122 patients with microdeletion 22q11 and known anatomy of the heart and great vessels, and their parents. Half the patients had congenital heart disease. We obtained no evidence of association by either method of analysis. Our results provide further evidence of the incomplete penetrance of the cardiovascular phenotype of microdeletion 22ql 1, but do not support association between VEGFA promoter polymorphisms and the presence of congenital heart disease in Chilean patients with this syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , DiGeorge Syndrome/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , DiGeorge Syndrome/complications , Family , Gene Frequency , Haplotypes , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Young Adult
17.
Pediatria (Säo Paulo) ; 29(4): 305-310, 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-483907

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: destacar a infecção por parvovirus B19 como uma das causas de anemia em lactentes com doença hemolítica de base...


Objective: to highlight B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of anemia in infants with underlying hemolytic disease...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Anemia/virology , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/enzymology , Anemia/therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology
18.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 9(1): 9-14, ene.-abr. 2007. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-580851

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas (CC) se encuentran entre las malformaciones congénitas más comunes y tienen gran impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad pediátricas. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la prevalencia y tendencias de las CC en Costa Rica en el período de 1996 al 2004. Materiales y métodos. El presente es un estudio retrospectivo de base poblacional de los datos del Registro Nacional de Malformaciones Congénitas, anotando variables como año de registro de la CC, tipo, sexo, edad materna y distribución geográfica. Se realizó además un análisis de su impacto en la mortalidad infantil a partir de datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. Resultados: De todas las malformaciones congénitas las cardiopatías son las más letales y su prevalencia dentro del tiempo estudiado mostró un aumento de 0.10 por ciento a 0.18 por ciento. Son más frecuentes en varones (p=NS) y la edad materna no demostró ser un factor de riesgo para presentarla. Las CC más frecuentes son los defectos del tabique interventricular. San José y Limón fueron las provincias con mayor prevalencia y Guanacaste con la menor. Conclusiones: Las CC son las malformaciones más frecuentes y son causa importante de muerte infantil en Costa Rica. Deben mejorarse su diagnóstico perinatal y su registro, con el objetivo de dictar políticas de prevención y atención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heart Diseases , Infant Mortality , Prevalence , Costa Rica
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 28(3)mayo-jun. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-448646

ABSTRACT

En general se acepta que la etiología del 90 por ciento de las cardiopatías congénitas responde a la interacción de factores genéticos y ambientales. Desarrollamos este trabajo prospectivo para determinar la prevalencia de estos factores en la población gestante atendida en la consulta de Genética Comunitaria del municipio de Matanzas entre el 2000-2004, así como la asociación de éstos con Cardiopatía Congénitas en la descendencia. Se concluye que la prevalencia de factores genéticos fue de un 8.08 por ciento y de ambientales de un 25.59 por ciento. Los factores más frecuentes fueron alcoholismo, hipoxia, añosidad materna e hipertensión arterial; las áreas más afectadas por factores genéticos fueron Versalles, Contreras, Playa y Ceiba Mocha; y por factores ambientales Versalles, Carlos Verdugo, Milanés y Playa; el 14.28 por ciento de la descendencia afectada con Cardiopatías Congénitas tuvo algún antecedente genético, el 28.57 por ciento estuvo expuesta a algún teratógeno cardiovascular, el 16.66 por ciento asociada a ambos factores y el 40.77 a ninguno...


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. chil. ultrason ; 9(4): 127-129, 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-471390

ABSTRACT

La implementación del Plan de Acceso Universal y de garantías explícitas (Plan AUGE) del Ministerio de Salud de Chile, ha generado un cambio profundo en el quehacer de la medicina en nuestro país. Uno de los temas prioritarios en este nuevo sistema, es el diagnóstico precoz de las cardiopatías congénitas operables. En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia del semestre enero-junio del 2005, que ha permitido mejorar el diagnóstico precoz de la patología cardiaca fetal y en ello una mejora en la calidad de atención y de referencia a centros terciarios.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Humans , Heart Defects, Congenital , Echocardiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Chile , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Program Evaluation , Risk Factors , Referral and Consultation
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