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1.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(3): e401, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1367036

ABSTRACT

Las nuevas terapias oncológicas han logrado aumentar la sobrevida del paciente con cáncer, observando, sin embargo, un incremento de la morbilidad y mortalidad vinculadas a sus efectos secundarios. El desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares adversos impacta negativamente en el pronóstico durante el tratamiento del cáncer, pero también en los supervivientes al cáncer, donde las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y las segundas neoplasias son la principal causa de muerte1-5. La cardiotoxicidad inducida por el tratamiento del cáncer se define como el conjunto de ECV derivadas de los tratamientos oncológicos. Su manifestación es variada e incluye el desarrollo de disfunción ventricular, insuficiencia cardíaca (IC), isquemia miocárdica, hipertensión arterial (HTA) y arritmias, entre otras. Puede ser consecuencia tanto del efecto directo del tratamiento sobre la estructura y función cardíacas, como del desarrollo acelerado de enfermedad cardiovascular6-9. Con frecuencia, se utiliza el término cardiotoxicidad como sinónimo de disfunción ventricular por quimioterapia (DV-QT). Dado que la cardiotoxicidad abarca un espectro más amplio de afectación cardiovascular, creemos conveniente hablar de DV-QT para referirnos a la afectación de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo. La DV-QT y el desarrollo de IC representan una de las complicaciones más temidas por su impacto pronóstico en la esfera cardiovascular y oncológica, dado que limitan el arsenal terapéutico para el tratamiento del cáncer5,10. Han sido creadas diversas sociedades de cardio-onco-hematología con el fin de generar recomendaciones de práctica clínica y formar profesionales capacitados para el manejo de las complicaciones CV del tratamiento del cáncer11. La cardio-oncología es una disciplina en creciente y continuo desarrollo. Creemos que es fundamental realizar tareas de formación médica continua, así como también estimular el trabajo conjunto de diversas especialidades para brindar una mejor asistencia. Este texto es el resultado del trabajo de un equipo multidisciplinario que incluye cardiólogos, hematólogos y oncólogos, y pretende brindar información a los integrantes del equipo de salud involucrados en la asistencia de pacientes oncológicos. Debido a la extensión del presente texto, hemos decidido fraccionar el contenido en tres partes para facilitar su difusión.


New oncological therapies have been successful in increasing cancer patient survival, but they have also led to an increase in morbidity and mortality linked to their side effects. During cancer treatment, the development of cardiovascular side effects has a negative impact in prognosis, but also in cancer survivors, in whom cardiovascular diseases and secondary malignancies are the main cause of death. Cancer related cardiotoxicity is defined as the development of cardiovascular diseases related to cancer treatment. Clinical presentation is broad involving ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, arterial hypertension and arrhythmias among others. This may result from the direct cardiovascular effect of a cancer treatment or accelerated development of cardiovascular diseases. Frequently, in the literature cardiotoxicity and chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction are used as synonyms. However, cardiotoxicity includes a broad spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations, thus in this text we refer to chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction as the presence of left ventricular systolic impairment. Chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction and heart failure are two of the most feared complications of cancer treatment due to its impact on cardiovascular and oncological prognosis, affecting treatment options. Numerous worldwide cardio-onco-hematology societies have emerged to generate clinical practice guidelines and improve the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular cancer treatment side effects. Cardio-Oncology is a discipline in continuous growth and development. We strongly believe that continuum medical education and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to provide a quality health care. This text is the result of a multidisciplinary work involving cardiologists, hematologists and oncologists. It is our goal to provide information to the health care team involved in the assistance of cancer patients. Due to its extension, it will be divided in three parts.


O desenvolvimento de novas terapias oncológicas levou a um aumento na sobrevida dos pacientes, mas ao mesmo tempo traz consigo morbidades relacionadas aos tratamentos. O desenvolvimento de efeitos cardiovasculares adversos tem um impacto negativo no prognóstico dos pacientes em tratamento, bem como nos pacientes considerados curados, nos quais doença cardiovascular e malignidades secundárias são as principais causas de morte. Cardiotoxicidade relacionada ao câncer é definida como o desenvolvimento de doença cardiovascular secundária ao tratamento. A gama de apresentações clínicas é ampla, podendo se manifestar como disfunção ventricular, insuficiência cardíaca, isquemia miocárdica, hipertensão arterial, arritmias, entre outras. Isto pode ser resultante de desenvolvimento e progressão acelerados de doença cardiovascular ou por efeito direto das terapias. Frequentemente é dito na literatura que cardiotoxicidade e disfunção ventricular relacionada à quimioterapia são sinônimos. Entretanto, cardiotoxicidade engloba um amplo espectro de manifestações cardiovasculares. Neste texto, portanto, nos referimos à disfunção ventricular causada por quimioterápicos exclusivamente como a presença de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda. Disfunção ventricular relacionada à quimioterapia e insuficiência cardíaca são duas das mais temidas complicações do tratamento oncológico devido ao seu impacto no prognóstico cardiovascular e oncológico, podendo afetar ainda a escolha e manutenção das opções terapêuticas. Diversas sociedades cardio-onco-hematológicas surgiram ao redor do mundo com o objetivo de gerar diretriz clínicas práticas e melhorar o diagnóstico e tratamento das complicações cardiovasculares resultantes das terapias oncológicas. A cardio-oncologia é uma disciplina em contínuo crescimento e desenvolvimento. Nós acreditamos fortemente que educação médica continuada e uma abordagem multidisciplinar são necessárias para um cuidado médico de qualidade. Este texto é o resultado de um trabalho multidisciplinar envolvendo cardiologistas, hematologistas e oncologistas. Nosso objetivo é de oferecer informação à equipe de cuidados em saúde envolvido na assistência destes pacientes. Devido à sua extensão, este texto será dividido em três partes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiotoxins/adverse effects , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922060

ABSTRACT

The automatic diagnosis function of the electrocardiograph (ECG) machine directly affects the clinical application of the device. However, there is currently no unified criteria for the evaluation of the automatic diagnosis function of the 12-lead ECG machine in clinic. We established a 12-lead ECG automatic diagnostic function clinical evaluation specification from the scope of the specification, the automatic diagnostic function judgment rules, general technical measurement requirements, test methods and conditions, and ECG data input. Emphasis is given to the judgment rules of the automatic diagnosis function, including the accuracy of ECG feature values, the interpretation and judgment of automatic diagnosis results. This specification aims to provide technical basis for the clinical evaluation for automatic diagnosis function of the 12-lead ECG.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Humans
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 259-265, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131042

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes y objetivo: La amiloidosis cardíaca es una entidad que permanece infradiagnosticada, a pesar de los avances recientes en su diagnóstico y tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio es revisar una serie de casos de amiloidosis cardíaca para describir los principales datos clínicos y los hallazgos en las pruebas de imagen. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con diagnóstico principal o secundario de amiloidosis cardíaca en los informes de alta de pacientes hospitalizados en este centro desde 2006 hasta 2016. Se revisaron los datos clínicos de los pacientes, así como las pruebas de imagen (ECG, ecocardiograma, gammagrafía cardíaca, resonancia magnética cardíaca). Se realizó seguimiento de los pacientes hasta enero de 2018. Resultados: Se analiza a 30 pacientes (20 varones) con media de 65 años. Los principales datos ecocardiográficos fueron dilatación biauricular, disfunción diastólica e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI) en un 97%. Sólo el 6.7% cumplía criterios de HVI en el electrocardiograma. Hasta un 33% tenía disfunción sistólica. Se realizó gammagrafía y resonancia magnética cardíaca en un 33%. La supervivencia a los 12 meses fue de 61%. Conclusión: La presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca, fibrilación auricular o trastornos de conducción junto a datos ecocardiográficos indicativos debe alertar al clínico. Otros datos como disfunción sistólica o sexo femenino no deben disminuir la sospecha. El estudio debe completarse con gammagrafía y resonancia magnética cardíaca, ya que el diagnóstico temprano tiene implicaciones pronósticas y terapéuticas.


Abstract Background and objective: Cardiac amyloidosis is an entity that remains underdiagnostic, despite recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study is to review a series of diagnosed cases of cardiac amyloidosis to describe the main clinical data and the findings in the imaging tests. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of patients with primary or secondary diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in discharge reports of patients hospitalized in our center from 2006 to 2016. The clinical data of the patients were reviewed, as well as the imaging tests (ECG, echocardiogram, cardiac scintigraphy, cardiac magnetic resonance). Patients were followed until January 2018. Results: We analyze 30 patients (20 men) with an average of 65 years. The main echocardiographic data were biatrial dilatation, diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 97%. Only 6.7% met criteria for LVH in the electrocardiogram. Up to 33% had systolic dysfunction. Scintigraphy and cardiac magnetic resonance were performed in 33%. Survival at 12 months was 61%. Conclusion: The presence of heart failure, atrial fibrillation or conduction disorders with suggestive echocardiographic data should alert the clinician. Other data such as systolic dysfunction or female sex should not decrease the suspicion. The study should be completed with gammagraphy and cardiac magnetic resonance since early diagnosis has prognostic and therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography , Radionuclide Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Amyloidosis/physiopathology
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(5): 795-802, maio 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131233

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Múltiplos sistemas de pontuação têm sido elaborados para calcular o risco de eventos cardiovasculares adversos maiores (MACE) em pacientes com dor no peito. Não há dados que avaliem se o escore HEART tem um desempenho superior a TIMI e GRACE para a predição de MACE, especialmente na era de troponina I de alta sensibilidade e em uma população exclusivamente latino-americana. Objetivo Comparar o desempenho dos escores HEART, TIMI e GRACE para a predição de MACE em 30 dias de acompanhamento, em pacientes atendidos com dor no peito no departamento de emergência. Métodos Os escores HEART, TIMI e GRACE foram analisados em 519 pacientes com dor no peito no departamento de emergência. O desfecho primário foi a ocorrência de MACE no período de 30 dias. O desempenho do escore HEART foi comparado com o dos escores TIMI e GRACE utilizando o teste de DeLong, considerando estatisticamente significativos os valores de p de 0,05. Resultados Um total de 224 pacientes (43%) apresentaram MACE no período de 30 dias. A estatística C para os escores HEART, TIMI e GRACE foi de 0,937, 0,844 e 0,797 respectivamente (p < 0,0001). Uma pontuação de 3 ou menos no escore HEART apresentou uma sensibilidade de 99,5% e um valor preditivo negativo de 99% para classificar pacientes de baixo risco de maneira correta; ambos os valores foram mais elevados do que aqueles obtidos pelos outros escores. Conclusão O escore HEART, em um período de 30 dias, prediz eventos cardiovasculares, mais eficazmente, em comparação com os outros escores. Troponinas de alta sensibilidade mantêm a superioridade previamente demonstrada deste escore. Este escore oferece uma identificação mais precisa dos pacientes de baixo risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Multiple scoring systems have been designed to calculate the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with chest pain. There is no data on whether the HEART score outperforms TIMI and GRACE in the prediction of MACE, especially in the era of high-sensitivity troponin assay and in an exclusively Latin-American population. Objective To compare the performance of the HEART, TIMI, and GRACE scores for predicting major cardiovascular events at 30 days of follow-up, in patients who consult for chest pain in the emergency department. Methods HEART, TIMI, and GRACE scores were analyzed in 519 patients with chest pain at the emergency department. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of MACE within 30 days. The performance of the HEART score was compared with the TIMI and GRACE scores using the DeLong test with p values of 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results A total of 224 patients (43%) had MACE at 30 days. The C statistic for the HEART, TIMI, and GRACE score was 0.937, 0.844, and 0.797 respectively (p < 0.0001). A HEART score of 3 or less had a sensitivity of 99.5% and a negative predictive value of 99% to classify low risk patients correctly; both values were higher than those obtained by the other scores. Conclusion The HEART score more effectively predicts cardiovascular events at 30 days of follow-up compared to the other scores. High-sensitivity troponins maintain this score's previously demonstrated superiority. This score offers more precise identification of low-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Troponin , Severity of Illness Index , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Triage/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital
5.
Cienc. enferm. (En línea) ; 26: 6, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124364

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre variações do clearance de creatinina (ClCr) e os fatores clínicos de pacientes internados em clínica médica. Material e Método: Estudo longitudinal, do tipo coorte prospectivo, quantitativo, realizado em um hospital público do Distrito Federal. 85 pacientes evoluíram com Lesão Renal Aguda (LRA), de acordo com a classificação Kidney Disease: Improving Glogal Guidelines (KDIGO). O acompanhamento foi até 1 mês pós-alta hospitalar. A gravidade dos pacientes foi medida através do Índice de Comorbidade de Charlson. Considerou-se significativo resultados com p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: 51,8% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Entre as comorbidades se destacaram hipertensão arterial (70,6%), diabetes mellitus (57,6%) e as cardiopatias (52,9%). O tempo de permanência hospitalar (p= 0,001) e a idade (p= 0,05) estiveram associadas a pior função renal. Pacientes com ClCr ≤ 30 ml/min estiveram associados a uma maior taxa de mortalidade (p= 0,007). Conclusão: Idade avançada e maior tempo de internação hospitalar se associaram a piora da função renal (ClCr < 60 ml/min). Àqueles com severa piora da função renal (ClCr < 30 ml/min) apresentaram maior taxa mortalidade.


ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the relationship between variations in creatinine clearance (ClCr) and clinical factors in hospitalized patients in internal medicine. Material and Method: A prospective, quantitative, cohort study conducted at the medical clinic of a public hospital in Distrito Federal. 85 patients progressed with Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), according to the Kidney Disease Improving Glogal Guidelines (KDIGO) classification. Patients were followed-up to 1 month after hospital discharge. Patient severity was measured using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results with p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Results: 51.8% of the patients were male. Most common comorbidities were hypertension (70.6%), diabetes mellitus (57.6%) and heart disease (52.9%). The length of hospital stay (p = 0.001) and age (p = 0.05) were associated with worse renal function. Patients with CrCl ≤ 30 ml/min were associated with a higher mortality rate (p = 0.007). Conclusion: Older patients and longer hospital stay were associated with worsening renal function (CrCl < 60 ml/min). Those with severe worsening of renal function (CrCl < 30 ml/min) presented higher mortality rate.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Verificar la relación entre variaciones del clearance de creatinina (CLCr) y los factores clínicos de pacientes internados en medicina interna. Material y Método: Estudio longitudinal, del tipo cohorte prospectivo, cuantitativo, realizado en un hospital público del Distrito Federal. 85 pacientes evolucionaron con Lesión Renal Aguda (LRA), de acuerdo con la clasificación de las normas KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Guidelines). El seguimiento fue hasta 1 mes post-alta hospitalaria. La gravedad de los pacientes fue medida a través del Índice de Comorbilidad de Charlson. Se consideraron significativos resultados con p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: 51,8% de los pacientes eran del sexo masculino. Entre las comorbilidades se destacaron hipertensión arterial (70,6%), diabetes mellitus (57,6%) y las cardiopatías (52,9%). El tiempo de permanencia hospitalaria (p = 0,001) y la edad (p = 0,05) estuvieron asociadas a la peor función renal. Los pacientes con ClCr ≤ 30 ml/min estuvieron asociados a una mayor tasa de mortalidad (p = 0,007). Conclusión: Edad avanzada y el mayor tiempo de internación hospitalaria se asociaron al empeoramiento de la función renal (ClCr < 60 ml/ min). Aquellos con severo empeoramiento de la función renal (CLCr < 30 ml/min) presentaron mayor tasa de mortalidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Comorbidity , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Inpatients , Kidney Diseases/complications , Length of Stay
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020178, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131846

ABSTRACT

Atrial myxomas are rare primary cardiac tumours with neurological manifestations being reported in 30% of cases. Though a rare cause of ischemic stroke in young patients, considering it as a possibility in absence of any obvious risk factors can help avoid misdiagnosis at early stages. We present a case of left atrial myxoma in a 36-year-old male with no known co-morbidities, showing an unusual clinical presentation of isolated bilateral painless vision loss. With multiple infarcts on Non Contrast Computerised Tomography (NCCT) and a suspicion of Atrial Myxoma on Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE), patient was successfully managed surgically with confirmation of diagnosis on histopathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Stroke/etiology , Myxoma , Thrombosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Neurologic Manifestations
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 542-549, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042056

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of CHA2DS2-VASc score in individuals undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: Records of consecutive 464 patients who underwent elective isolated CABG, between January 2015 and August 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was the primary outcome of this study. MACE in patients with low (L) (<2, n: 238) and high (H) (≤2, n: 226) CHA2DS2-VASc scores were compared. Univariate logistic regression analysis identified preditors of MACE. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral vascular disease were more frequent in the H group than in the L group. European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) I and SYNTAX I scores were similar in both groups while SYNTAX II-CABG score was significantly higher in the H group than in the L group. Postoperative myocardial infarction, need for intra-aortic balloon pump, acute renal failure, and mediastinitis were more frequent in the H group than in the L group. The H group had significantly higher in-hospital mortality and MACE rates than the L group (P<0.01). EuroSCORE I, SYNTAX II-CABG, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were predictors for MACE. SYNTAX II-CABG > 25.1 had 68.4% sensitivity and 52.7% specificity (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.653, P=0.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.607-0.696) and CHA2DS2-VASc > 2 had 52.6% sensitivity and 84.1% specificity (AUC: 0.752, P<0.01, 95% CI: 0.710-0.790) to predict MACE. Pairwise comparison of receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed similar accuracy for both scoring systems. Conclusion: CHA2DS2-VASc score may predict MACE in patients undergoing isolated CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Logistic Models , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Complications , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hypertension/complications
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(1): 87-99, July 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011237

ABSTRACT

Abstract The electrocardiogram (ECG) has been reinvigorated by the identification of electrical alterations that were not definitely clarified before. In this context, and mainly regarding the definition of arrhythmogenic substrates, the association of the ECG with the vectorcardiogram (VCG) has gathered much more information about the cardiac electrical phenomena, thus allowing us to differentiate potentially fatal cases from benign ones. Obtaining a VCG concomitantly with the performance of an ECG has led to a significant gain in the definition of extremely sophisticated pathologies, which function suffer some type of structural or dynamic alterations, involving either the reduction or enhancement of ionic channels and currents. The classic aspects of the ECG/VCG association in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarctions, conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular hypertrophies, and the correlations between these electrical disorders are still valid and assertive. The association of these pathologies is further clarified when they are seen through the ECG/VCG dyad. The three-dimensional spatial orientation of both the atrial and the ventricular activity provides a far more complete observation tool than the ECG linear form. The modern analysis of the ECG and its respective VCG, simultaneously obtained by the recent technique called electro-vectorcardiogram (ECG/VCG), brought a significant gain for the differential diagnosis of some pathologies. Therefore, we illustrate how this type of analysis can elucidate some of the most important diagnoses found in our daily clinical practice as cardiologists.


Resumo O eletrocardiograma (ECG) foi revigorado com o reconhecimento de alterações elétricas que ainda não haviam sido observadas de maneira definitiva. Nesse contexto, principalmente na definição dos substratos arritmogênicos, a associação do ECG com o vetorcardiograma (VCG) propiciou mais informações sobre os fenômenos elétricos cardíacos, possibilitando distinguir os casos potencialmente fatais dos benignos. A obtenção de um VCG ao mesmo tempo da realização do ECG trouxe um ganho muito importante para definir patologias extremamente sofisticadas, com alterações estruturais ou dinâmicas que envolvem canais e correntes iônicas, cujas funções são diminuídas ou exageradas em razão de mutações genéticas. Os aspectos clássicos da relação ECG/VCG no diagnóstico diferencial das áreas inativas, dos distúrbios de condução, das sobrecargas atriais e ventriculares e das associações entre esses distúrbios elétricos continuam vigentes e assertivos, e ficam mais claros quando vistos pelo binômio ECG/VCG. Além disso, a orientação espacial tridimensional das atividades atrial e ventricular cria uma ferramenta de observação muito mais completa do que o modo linear do ECG. A análise moderna do ECG e do respectivo VCG, obtidos simultaneamente pela técnica recente chamada de eletrovetorcardiograma (ECG/VCG), trouxe um ganho importante no diagnóstico diferencial de algumas patologias. Desse modo, são abordadas aqui as principais utilidades dessa análise na elucidação de diagnósticos importantes da atividade diária na clínica cardiológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vectorcardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Diseases/physiopathology
10.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 99-106, Junio 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009227

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las cardiopatías congénitas (CC) son las anomalías congénitas más frecuentes. Representan el 0,8-1,2% de todos los defectos del nacimiento y tienen una prevalencia de alrededor de 5,8 por cada 1000 personas. El Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Garrahan es un centro de referencia nacional y de países limítrofes donde se realizan 18000 consultas anuales. Los pacientes que concurren por primera vez se atienden en el consultorio de orientación. Objetivo: Describir la epidemiologia y perfil de los pacientes que asisten diariamente al consultorio de orientación de cardiología infantil en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel de Buenos Aires. Métodos: Entre septiembre de 2017 y febrero de 2018 se recolectaron los datos de 1000 pacientes atendidos en forma consecutiva en el consultorio de orientación de cardiología. A la totalidad de los pacientes se les realizó anamnesis, examen físico cardiovascular, electrocardiograma, y en los casos en los que se consideró necesario, saturometría, radiografía de tórax y/o ecocardiograma. Las variables a considerar fueron edad, procedencia, presencia o ausencia de cardiopatías congénitas o adquiridas, soplo, cianosis, insuficiencia cardíaca, estado nutricional, síndromes genéticos asociados, métodos diagnósticos e indicaciones terapéuticas implementadas. Se subdividió la población en cinco grupos: Grupo A (pacientes con cardiopatía congénita), Grupo B (cardiopatías operadas), Grupo C (miocardiopatías), Grupo D (arritmias), Grupo E (corazón sano). Resultados: La edad mediana fue 4.86 años (0.03 a 18.9 años). El 64% de los pacientes procedían de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los motivos de consulta fueron: interconsultas internas 29.5%, derivación por cardiopatía 27.2%, soplo 17.6%, síncope 7%, segunda opinión 5.1%, arritmias 4.8%, precordialgia 3.1%, palpitaciones 2.6%, episodio paroxístico 1.4%, cardiomegalia 0.7%, disnea 0.5%, mal progreso de peso 0.3%. El 10.6% tenían un síndrome genético. Grupo A: 252 pacientes con una edad mediana de 1.9 años. Las cardiopatías acianóticas con hiperflujo pulmonar fueron las más frecuentes (66.66%, 168/252). Grupo B: 51 pacientes, 23.52%(12/51) fueron Fallot reparados en otra institución. Grupo C: 22 pacientes, siendo la miocardiopatía hipertrófica la más frecuente. Grupo D: 47 pacientes, la preexcitación ventricular fue el hallazgo más frecuente (34,04%, 16/47). Grupo E: 628 pacientes, 45.70% (287/628) derivados por pediatras del área ambulatoria, principalmente para valoración de pacientes con enfermedades sistémicas o síndromes genéticos. Conclusión: Los motivos de derivación al consultorio de orientación de cardiología fueron muy diversos. La mayoría de los pacientes provenían de provincia de Buenos Aires. Solamente el 37.2% presentó algún problema cardiológico de base. El 91% de los pacientes que consultaron por soplo, no tuvieron cardiopatía. El grupo correspondiente a los pacientes con cardiopatías no operadas (grupo A) fue el de menor edad (mediana de 1.9 años) y las cardiopatías simples no cianóticas con hiperflujo pulmonar representaron el 66.66% de las cardiopatías. La implementación del ecocardiograma portátil en el consultorio de orientación permitió confirmar el diagnóstico y definir la conducta terapéutica en el 29.4% de los pacientes durante la primer consulta (AU)


Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common congenital abnormalities. They account for 0.8-1.2% of all birth defects and have a prevalence of around 5.8 per 1000 people. The Department of Cardiology of Garrahan Hospital is a national and bordering-country reference center, receiving 18000 consultations annually. Patients seen for the first time are assessed at the cardiology guidance clinic. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and profile of patients who seen daily at the child cardiology guidance clinic of a third-level pediatric hospital in Buenos Aires. Methods: Between September 2017 and February 2018, data from 1000 patients consecutively seen at the cardiology guidance clinic were collected. All patients underwent anamnesis, cardiovascular physical examination, electrocardiogram and, if considered necessary, pulse oximetry, chest x-ray, and/or echocardiogram. The variables considered were age, place of origin, presence or absence of congenital or acquired heart disease, murmur, cyanosis, heart failure, nutritional status, associated genetic syndromes, diagnostic methods, and treatment. The population was divided into five groups: Group A (patients with congenital heart defects), Group B (operated cardiopathies), Group C (myocardiopathies), Group D (arrhythmias), Group E (healthy heart). Results: Median age was 4.86 years (0.03 to 18.9 years). Overall, 64% of patients came from the province of Buenos Aires. The reasons for consultation were: internal consultations 29.5%, cardiac shunt 27.2%, murmur 17.6%, syncope 7%, second opinion 5.1%, arrhythmias 4.8%, precordialgia 3.1%, palpitations 2.6%, paroxysmal episode 1.4%, cardiomegaly 0.7%, dyspnea 0.5%, 0.3% poor weight gain. A genetic syndrome was identified in 10.6%. Group A: 252 patients with a median age of 1.9 years. Acyanotic congenital heart defect with pulmonary hyperflow was the most common (66.66%, 168/252). Group B: 51 patients, 23.52% (12/51) had tetralogy of Fallot repaired at another institution. Group C: 22 patients, in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the most common. Group D: 47 patients, in whom ventricular preexcitation was the most common finding (34.04%, 16/47). Group E: 628 patients, 45.70% (287/628) referred by pediatricians from the outpatient clinics, mainly for the assessment of systemic diseases or genetic syndromes. Conclusion: The reasons for referral to the cardiology guidance clinic were varied. Most of the patients came from the province of Buenos Aires. Only 37.2% had an underlying heart disease. Of the patients who consulted because of a murmur, 91% did not suffer from heart disease. The group of patients with congenital heart disease who had not undergone surgery (group A) was the youngest (median 1.9 years) and simple non-cyanotic heart disease with pulmonary hyperflow accounted for 66.66% of heart diseases. The implementation of the portable echocardiography in the guidance clinic confirmed the diagnosis and defined the management in 29.4% of patients during the first consultation (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiology Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Heart Murmurs/diagnosis , Heart Murmurs/epidemiology , Observational Study
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 93-105, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003622

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As troponinas cardíacas T e I são marcadores considerados altamente sensíveis e específicos para o diagnóstico de infarto agudo do miocárdio. Atualmente, com o advento dos ensaios ultrassensíveis, uma série de anormalidades não primariamente cardíacas pode se manifestar por meio da elevação destes ensaios. A redução de seu limiar de detecção promoveu maior precocidade no diagnóstico e na utilização de medidas terapêuticas baseadas em evidência, no entanto, esta característica aumentou o espectro de doenças cardíacas não coronarianas detectáveis, trazendo desafios para a caracterização das síndromes coronarianas agudas e um novo papel para estes testes nas desordens conhecidas no ambiente das unidades de tratamento intensivo, em especial na sepse. A abordagem de pacientes por meio de um maior entendimento do comportamento destes marcadores deve ser redimensionada para sua correta interpretação.


ABSTRACT Cardiac troponins T and I are considered highly sensitive and specific markers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Currently, a series of nonprimary cardiac abnormalities may manifest as an elevation in high-sensitive assays. The reduction in their detection limits has allowed earlier diagnosis and the use of evidence-based therapeutic measures; however, this characteristic has increased the spectrum of detectable noncoronary heart diseases, which poses challenges for characterizing acute coronary syndromes and creates a new role for these tests in known disorders in intensive care units, especially sepsis. Management of patients through a greater understanding of how these markers behave should be re-evaluated to ensure their correct interpretation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Heart Diseases/blood , Intensive Care Units , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/blood
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 56-60, Jan. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985002

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Diabetes is one of the most common chronic pathologies around the world, involving treatment with general clinicians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, ophthalmologists, nephrologists and a multidisciplinary team. Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) can be affected by cardiac autonomic neuropathy, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. In this review, we will present current concepts, clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, and possible treatment. New drugs recently developed to reduce glycemic level presented a pleiotropic effect of reducing sudden death, suggesting a potential use in patients at risk.


RESUMO Diabetes é uma das mais frequentes patologias crônicas em todo o mundo, cujo tratamento envolve uma equipe multidisciplinar, médicos generalistas, endocrinologistas, cardiologistas, nefrologistas e oftalmologistas. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2) podem apresentar neuropatia autonômica cardíaca (NAC), levando a aumento de mortalidade e morbidade. Nesta revisão, apresentaremos atuais conceitos, características clínicas, diagnóstico, prognóstico e possíveis tratamentos. Novas drogas recentemente desenvolvidas para redução de níveis glicêmicos apresentaram efeito pleiotrópico de redução de morte súbita, sugerindo um potencial uso neste perfil de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetic Neuropathies/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Prognosis , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies/mortality , Diabetic Neuropathies/therapy , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/therapy
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190016.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042231

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar os fatores de risco associados ao diagnóstico médico autorreferido de doença cardíaca no Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal que analisa informações da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), realizada em 2013. A amostra consistiu de 60.202 adultos. A doença cardíaca foi definida pelo diagnóstico médico autorreferido de doença do coração. Foram analisadas associações entre a ocorrência de doença e as características sociodemográficas, as condições de saúde e o estilo de vida. Foi empregado o modelo de regressão logística binária hierarquizado. Resultados: A prevalência de diagnóstico autorreferido de doença cardíaca no Brasil foi de 4,2% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 4,0 ‒ 4,3) e esteve associada a sexo feminino (odds ratio [OR] = 1,1; IC95% 1,1 ‒ 1,1), idade igual ou maior que 65 anos (OR = 4,7; IC95% 3,3 ‒ 5,6), avaliação do estado de saúde ruim/muito ruim (OR = 4,1; IC95% 3,5 ‒ 4,6) e regular (OR = 2,4; IC95% 2,2 ‒ 2,7), indivíduos hipertensos (OR = 2,4; IC95% 2,2 ‒ 2,7), colesterol elevado (OR = 1,6; IC95% 1,5 ‒ 1,8), sobrepeso (OR = 1,5; IC95% 1,4 ‒ 1,8) e obesidade (OR = 2,0; IC95% 1,7 ‒ 2,2), insuficientemente ativo nos quatro domínios (OR = 1,5; IC95% 1,02 ‒ 2,1), ser ex-fumante (OR = 1,4; IC95% 1,3 ‒ 1,6) ou ser fumante (OR = 1,2; IC95% 1,03 ‒ 1,3) e consumir frutas e hortaliças 5 ou mais dias da semana (OR = 1,5; IC95% 1,1 ‒ 1,5). Conclusão: A importância do conhecimento da prevalência de doença cardíaca e fatores de riscos associados no atual contexto epidemiológico brasileiro deve ser ressaltada para orientar as ações de prevenção das doenças cardiovasculares, que representam a primeira causa de óbito no Brasil e no mundo.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the risk factors associated with the self-reported medical diagnosis of heart disease in Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, analyzing information from 60,202 adult participants of the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013. Heart disease was defined by self-reported medical diagnosis of heart disease. We analyzed associations between the occurrence of disease and sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle. A hierarchical binary logistic regression model was used. Results: The prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of heart disease in Brazil was 4.2% (confidence interval of 95% [95%CI] 4.0 ‒ 4.3) and was associated with females (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1; 95%CI 1.1 ‒ 1.1), people 65 years old or older (OR = 4.7; 95%CI 3.3 ‒ 5.6), poor or very poor health conditions (OR = 4.1; 95%CI 3.5 ‒ 4.6) and fair health conditions (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 2.2 ‒ 2.7), hypertensive individuals (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 2.2 ‒ 2.7), those with increased cholesterol (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 1.5 ‒ 1.8), overweight individuals (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.4 ‒ 1.8) and obese individuals (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.7 ‒ 2.2), sedentary behavior (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.02 ‒ 2.1), former smokers (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.3 ‒ 1.6) or current smokers (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.03 ‒ 1.3) and the consumption of fruits and vegetables 5 or more days each week (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1 ‒ 1.5). Conclusion: The importance of knowledge on the prevalence of heart disease and associated risk factors in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized because it guides actions to control and prevent cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Health Surveys/methods , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Life Style , Middle Aged
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(4): 616-620, ago. 2018. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950054

ABSTRACT

La hidatidosis es una zoonosis producida por el parásito Echinococcus granulosus. En el ciclo zoonótico del parásito, el hombre es un huésped intermediario y sufre la enfermedad tras la ingesta de alimentos y agua contaminados por la materia fecal de animales infectados. En Argentina, la enfermedad constituye un problema importante de salud pública. Suele manifestarse con compromiso hepático y pulmonar. La afectación de otros órganos, que incluyen el corazón, es infrecuente.


Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Echinococcus granulosus larvae, transmitted by the ingestion of infected food, characterized by the formation of cysts in vital organs. In Argentina, the disease is spread throughout the territory, constituting an important public health issue. The disease usually affects the liver and lungs. The affection of other organs is rare, and even more uncommon the affection of the heart. We present the case of a disseminated hydatidosis in a pediatric patient, whose initial clinical manifestation was an acute arterial embolism of the right limb caused by the rupture of a hydatidic cardiac cyst.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Embolism/etiology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Echinococcosis/complications , Embolism/parasitology , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/parasitology
16.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 291-295, jul.-ago. 2018. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916538

ABSTRACT

Um dos grandes desafios no atendimento dos pacientes nas unidades de emergência é o tratamento das arritmias ventriculares, principalmente, quando sustentadas e recorrentes, pois são de difícil tratamento e estão associadas à alta mortalidade. O principal mecanismo envolvido na sustentação das taquicardias ventriculares é o mecanismo de reentrada, devido às cicatrizes miocárdicas secundárias a diversas cardiopatias estruturais. A tempestade elétrica pode ser séria quando ocorre em portadores de desfibriladores automáticos, provocando múltiplos choques correspondentes fora do ambiente hospitalar. Nesses casos é necessária a internação hospitalar, onde medidas específicas e escalonadas de tratamento são realizadas, indo desde o manejo clínico até intervenções específicas, como programação de dispositivos eletrônicos, intervenções eletrofisiológicas ou cirúrgicas


One of the biggest challenges in the care of patients in emergency units is the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, particularly when sustained and relapsing, as they are difficult to treat and are associated with high mortality. The main mechanism involved in the maintenance of ventricular tachycardias is the mechanism of reentry, due to myocardial scars secondary to various structural heart diseases. The electrical storm may be serious when it occurs in patients with automatic defibrillators, causing multiple corresponding shocks outside the hospital setting. In these cases, admission to hospital is necessary, where specific and stepwise treatment measures are performed, ranging from clinical management to specific interventions, such as programming of electronic devices, and electrophysiological or surgical interventions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pacemaker, Artificial , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Quinidine/therapeutic use , Verapamil/therapeutic use , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Defibrillators , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography/methods , Brugada Syndrome/diagnosis , Brugada Syndrome/therapy , Heart , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Amiodarone/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. mex. cardiol ; 29(2): 83-89, Apr.-Jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020705

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Zipf-Mandelbrot law has been used to assess the complexity of cardiac systems. The objective of this work is to corroborate the clinical applicability of a diagnostic methodology developed from Zipf-Mandelbrot law, in the differentiation of normality and acute cardiac disease. Material and methods: there were taken 50 continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring records, 20 normal and 30 with acute alterations of the cardiac dynamics. The frequencies of occurrence of heart rates in ranges of 15 lat/min were organized hierarchically to demonstrate the hyperbolic behavior of dynamics and to apply the Zipf-Mandelbrot law. A linearization was performed and the statistical fractal dimension of each dynamic was obtained, giving rise to the mathematical diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Results: The values of the statistical fractal dimension of the acute cardiac dynamics were between 0.7123 and 0.9327, whereas for the normal dynamics were found between 0.4253 and 0.6698, evidencing quantitative differences between states of normality and disease. Sensitivity and specificity values of 100% were found and the kappa coefficient was 1. Conclusions: The clinical and diagnostic utility of the mathematical methodology based on Zipf-Mandelbrot law was verified, observing a decrease of dynamics complexity in cases of acute heart disease.(AU)


Resumen: Objetivo: La ley de Zipf-Mandelbrot ha sido utilizada con el fin de evaluar la complejidad de los sistemas cardiacos. El objetivo de este trabajo es corroborar la aplicabilidad clínica de una metodología diagnóstica desarrollada a partir de la ley de Zipf-Mandelbrot, en la diferenciación de normalidad y enfermedad cardiaca aguda. Material y métodos: Se tomaron 50 Holter cardiacos (monitoreo electrocardiográfico continuo ambulatorio), 20 normales y 30 con alteraciones agudas de la dinámica cardiaca. Se organizaron jerárquicamente las frecuencias de aparición de frecuencias cardiacas en rangos de a 15 lat/min, para evidenciar el comportamiento hiperbólico de las dinámicas y aplicar la ley de Zipf-Mandelbrot. Se realizó una linealización y se obtuvo la dimensión fractal estadística de cada dinámica, dando lugar al diagnóstico matemático. Fueron calculadas la sensibilidad, especificidad y el coeficiente Kappa. Resultados: Los valores de la dimensión fractal estadística de las dinámicas cardiacas agudas se encontraron entre 0.7123 y 0.9327, mientras que para las dinámicas normales se hallaron entre 0.4253 y 0.6698, evidenciando diferencias cuantitativas entre estados de normalidad y enfermedad. Se encontraron valores de sensibilidad y especificidad del 100% y el coeficiente kappa fue de 1. Conclusiones: Fue comprobada la utilidad clínica y diagnóstica de la metodología matemática basada en la ley de Zipf-Mandelbrot, observando un decremento de la complejidad de la dinámica en casos de enfermedad cardiaca aguda.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyoplasty/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Systems Analysis , Fractals , Heart Rate
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7413, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951746

ABSTRACT

Complementary examinations are "inadequate" whenever the likelihood of benefits from their indication is lower than the negative results. The low benefit is a result of poor performance in detecting relevant changes that lead to improved behavior. However, inadequate examinations are prevalent and little is known about patients' notions of the usefulness of such indications. The aim of this study was to describe relevant findings in inappropriate echocardiograms and to assess the level of agreement between patients and cardiologists regarding their usefulness. Adults without known cardiovascular disease who were referred for echocardiogram by inappropriate criteria according to the American College of Cardiology were selected. Relevant findings were defined by any change in the degree of moderate to severe, according to the American Society of Echocardiography. We tested the level of agreement between the patients who underwent echocardiographic examination and the physicians who requested the exam through a standard questionnaire. Five hundred patients were included, with average age of 52±17 years (47% males). Only 17 patients had any relevant changes (3.4%, 95%CI=2 to 5.4%). The most frequent alterations included valve changes in 8 and diastolic dysfunction grade II in 6 patients. Eighty-seven examinations were performed to determine the level of agreement between patients and cardiologists. For the question "Is this test really necessary?", 92% of patients responded positively, compared with 5% of cardiologists (Kappa negative 0.04; P=0.01). The frequency of relevant findings was low in inadequate echocardiograms and patients and cardiologists had a different perception regarding its usefulness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Attitude , Unnecessary Procedures/psychology , Cardiologists/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography/standards , Attitude of Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status , Cardiologists/psychology , Heart Diseases/psychology
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 391-396, dic. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To determine the usefulness of myeloperoxidase in discriminating between patients with acute coronary syndrome and patients with chest pain by other causes. Methods: The study included all patients over 18 years of age who come consecutively to the emergency department from September 2015 to December 2015 with chest pain of non- traumatic origin. The initial patient evaluation was performed according to the study protocol for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in our Emergency Department. This included the serial measurement of troponin, and in this case myeloperoxidase, with serialization on admission and at 6 h. For the determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a single step sandwich enzyme immunoassay by Siemens, automated on a Dimension analyser, was used. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the concentration of myeloperoxidase at time 0 among patients diagnosed with ACS: 505 (413) pmol/L, and non-ACS patients: 388 (195) pmol/L (p < .001), as well as at 6 h (p < .001). An area under the curve ROC of 0.824 was obtained at 6 h for ACS patients, with a confidence interval of 95% from 0.715 to 0.933 and a level of significance of p <.001. Statistically significant differences were also found in the concentration of myeloperoxidase at time 0 and at 6 h among patients with ACS and patients with heart disease other than coronary artery disease. Conclusions: The concentration of MPO helps to differentiate between ACS and non-ACS patients, as well as between ACS patients and patients with heart diseases other than coronary artery disease.


Resumen Objetivos: Conocer la utilidad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO) para discriminar entre pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo y dolor torácico de otras causas. Métodos: De septiembre a diciembre de 2015 se incluyeron todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años que acudieron de forma consecutiva al servicio de urgencias con dolor torácico de origen no traumático. La evaluación inicial del paciente se realizó de acuerdo con el protocolo de estudio para pacientes con sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) en nuestro servicio de urgencias, que incluye la medición de troponina y en este caso MPO, con serialización al ingreso y a las 6 h. Para la determinación de MPO se utilizó un inmunoensayo enzimático de tipo sándwich, de una sola etapa de Siemens, automatizado en un equipo Dimension . Resultados: Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la concentración de MPO a tiempo 0 entre los pacientes con diagnóstico de SCA: 505 (413) pmol/l y los pacientes no SCA: 388 (195 pmol/l (p < 0.001), así como a las 6 h (p < 0.001). Se obtuvo a las 6 h un área bajo la curva ROC para pacientes con SCA de 0.824 con un intervalo de confianza del 95% de 0.715 a 0.933 y un grado de significación p < 0.001. También se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la concentración de MPO tanto a tiempo 0 como a las 6 h entre pacientes con SCA y pacientes con enfermedad cardiaca diferente de enfermedad coronaria. Conclusiones: La concentración de MPO sirve para diferenciar entre pacientes SCA y pacientes que no son SCA, así como entre pacientes SCA y pacientes con otras enfermedades cardiacas diferentes a la enfermedad coronaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chest Pain/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Peroxidase/metabolism , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Time Factors , Troponin/metabolism , Coronary Artery Disease/enzymology , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergency Service, Hospital , Acute Coronary Syndrome/enzymology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/enzymology
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