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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 599-604, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364357

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A evolução natural da insuficiência cardíaca é uma pior progressiva e internações hospitalares recorrentes. São necessárias estratégias para se detectar descompensações em tempo hábil. O uso do telemonitoramento da insuficiência cardíaca é inconsistente. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o impacto desse programa de telemonitoramento (PTM) em internações hospitalares e admissões em serviços de emergência. Métodos Este é um estudo retrospectivo observacional que analisou dados de todos os pacientes que se cadastraram no PTM de janeiro a 2018 a dezembro de 2019. Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos e relacionados ao PTM. O número de internações hospitalares e admissões em serviços de emergência do ano anterior e posterior ao cadastro foram comparados, utilizando-se o teste de Wilcoxon. Um p-valor bilateral de <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Um total de 39 pacientes foram cadastrados, com uma média de idade de 62,1 ± 14 anos e predominância de pacientes do sexo masculino (90%). As causas mais comuns de insuficiência cardíaca foram cardiomiopatia isquêmica e dilatada. A fração de ejeção média foi de 30% e o tempo mediano da duração da doença foi de 84 meses (FIQ 33-144). Pacientes que foram cadastrados por menos de um mês foram excluídos, com um total de 34 pacientes analisados. Os pacientes foram acompanhados no PTM por um período mediano de 320 dias. O número de admissões em serviços de emergência foi reduzido em 66% (p<0,001) e o número de internações hospitalares por insuficiência cardíaca foi reduzido em 68% (p<0,001). O PTM não teve impacto no número de internações hospitalares por outras causas. Conclusões Este estudo sugere que o PTM poderia reduzir a utilização de serviços de saúde em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca.


Abstract Background The natural history of heart failure is a progressive decline and recurrent hospital admissions. New strategies to timely detect decompensations are needed. The use of telemonitoring in heart failure is inconsistent. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this telemonitoring program (TMP) in hospitalizations and emergency department admissions. Methods This is a retrospective observational study, that analyzed data of all the patients who enrolled in the TMP program from January 2018 to December 2019. Demographic, clinical, and TMP-related data were collected. The number of hospitalizations and emergency department admissions from the year before and after enrollment were compared, using the Wilcoxon test. A two-sided p<0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 39 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 14 years and a male predominance (90%). The most common causes of heart failure were ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy. The mean ejection fraction was 30% and the median time of disease duration was 84 months (IQR 33-144). Patients who were enrolled for less than one month were excluded, with a total of 34 patients analyzed. Patients were followed in the TMP for a median of 320 days. The number of emergency department admissions was reduced by 66% (p<0.001), and the number of hospitalizations for heart failure was reduced by 68% (p<0.001). The TMP had no impact on the number of hospitalizations for other causes. Conclusions This trial suggests that a TMP could reduce health service use in patients with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Telemedicine , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Middle Aged
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 646-654, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364346

ABSTRACT

Resumo A deficiência de ferro (DF) ou ferropenia é uma importante comorbidade na insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER) estável, e muito prevalente tanto nos anêmicos como não anêmicos. A ferropenia na ICFER deve ser pesquisada por meio da coleta de saturação de transferrina e ferritina. Há dois tipos de ferropenia na IC: absoluta, em que as reservas de ferro estão depletadas; e funcional, onde o suprimento de ferro é inadequado apesar das reservas normais. A ferropenia está associada com pior classe funcional e maior risco de morte em pacientes com ICFER, e evidências científicas apontam melhora de sintomas e de qualidade de vida desses pacientes com tratamento com ferro parenteral na forma de carboximaltose férrica. O ferro exerce funções imprescindíveis como o transporte (hemoglobina) e armazenamento (mioglobina) de oxigênio, além de ser fundamental para o funcionamento das mitocôndrias, constituídas de proteínas à base de ferro, e local de geração de energia na cadeia respiratória pelo metabolismo oxidativo. A geração insuficiente e utilização anormal de ferro nas células musculares esquelética e cardíaca contribuem para a fisiopatologia da IC. A presente revisão tem o objetivo de aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito da fisiopatologia da ferropenia na ICFER, abordar as ferramentas disponíveis para o diagnóstico e discutir sobre a evidência científica existente de reposição de ferro.


Abstract Iron deficiency (ID) is an important comorbidity in heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF) and is highly prevalent in both anemic and non-anemic patients. In HFrEF, iron deficiency should be investigated by measurements of transferrin saturation and ferritin. There are two types of ID: absolute deficiency, with depletion of iron stores; and functional ID, where iron supply is not sufficient despite normal stores. ID is associated with worse functional class and higher risk of death in patients with HFrEF, and scientific evidence has indicated improvement of symptoms and quality of life of these patients with treatment with parenteral iron in the form of ferric carboxymaltose. Iron plays vital roles such as oxygen transportation (hemoglobin) and storage (myoblogin), and is crucial for adequate functioning of mitochondria, which are composed of iron-based proteins and the place of energy generation by oxidative metabolism at the electron transport chain. An insufficient generation and abnormal uptake of iron by skeletal and cardiac muscle cells contribute to the pathophysiology of HF. The present review aims to increase the knowledge of the pathophysiology of ID in HFrEF, and to address available tools for its diagnosis and current scientific evidence on iron replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume , Ferritins
4.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.966-973, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353818
5.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 11-15, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342507

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome resultante de defeitos estruturais e funcionais da bomba cardíaca, mais de 80% dos pacientes são idosos, com diversas comorbidades associadas. A demência é definida por qualquer desordem onde o declínio significativo do nível prévio de cognição do paciente interfere em sua independência e funcionamento social, doméstico ou ocupacional. A relação entre o comprometimento cognitivo leve e a IC já é bem estabelecida na literatura, porém estudos recentes apontam uma possível relação da IC na patogênese e no agravo da demência. OBJETIVOS: Classificar a limitação funcional de voluntários com IC com fração de ejeção preservada (FEp) e realizar o teste Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) de memória para analisar se há associação entre as limitações funcionais da IC e o deterioramento cognitivo do paciente. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal, foram avaliados 27 pacientes com história de ICFEp no ambulatório de Insuficiência Cardíaca do Hospital da Universidade Luterana do Brasil. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 27 pacientes, com idade média de 72.4 anos, sendo 18 (66.6%) do sexo feminino, 24 (88.8%) obtiveram escore no MoCA inferior a 26, sendo a média da escala 20.4. Entre os 27 pacientes, quatro apresentavam classe funcional NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III e 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostra uma tendência de pior desempenho no MoCA entre pacientes com pior classe funcional de IC (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)


INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome resulting from structural and functional defects of cardiac pump, more than 80% of the patients are elderly with diverse associated comorbidities. The dementia is defined by any disorder where the significant decline of the previous cognition level of the patient intervene on his independence and social, domestic or occupational functioning. The link between light cognitive impairment and HF is already well documented in literature, however recent studies point a possible relation of HF in pathogenesis and deteriorating of dementia. OBJETIVE: Rank functional limitation of volunteers with HF with preserved ejection fraction and to apply the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) memory test to analyse if there is a association between HF functional limitations and dementia onset/worsening. METHODS: Transversal observational study, 27 patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction were assessed in Universidade Luterana do Brasil's heart failure clinic. RESULTS: Assessing 27 patients, with average age of 72.4 years (+/-7.3), being 18 (66.6%) female, we found 24 (88.8%) with MoCA score lower to 26, being the average score 20.4. Between the 27 patients, 4 had functional class NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III and 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSION: The present study shows a tendency to lower performance in MoCA on patients with worse HF functional classification (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 229-234, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248790

ABSTRACT

Resumen Hoy una de las principales causas de mortalidad es el cáncer. La supervivencia en pacientes con cáncer ha incrementado de 1970 (25%) a la actualidad (80%). A raíz de la introducción de las antraciclinas como tratamiento de cáncer desde 1960-1970, más del 60% de los pacientes son tratados con estos agentes; sin embargo, la exposición de quimioterápicos conlleva las enfermedades cardiovasculares como la principal causa de mortalidad en enfermos supervivientes de cáncer en el s. XXI. Hay múltiples factores que incrementan la sensibilidad de cardiotoxicidad inducida por antracíclicos. En 1970 el estándar de oro para la detección de disfunción ventricular era la biopsia endomiocárdica, en forma posterior la detección y manejo de la cardiotoxicidad fue guiada por los síntomas, en 1981 la detección de cardiotoxicidad fue reportada con la determinación de la fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) por ecocardiografía 2D. En la actualidad el ecocardiograma 3D para FEVI y volúmenes sistólico y diastólico han presentado una alta correlación de los valores obtenidos por resonancia magnética para la evaluación de la función cardiaca. Hoy en día la ecocardiografía strain, strain-rate y speckle tracking se utilizan para determinar la función miocárdica regional y global. Para una valoración integral estos resultados se pueden complementar con biomarcadores cardiacos (troponinas y propéptido natriurético tipo B) y cambios electrocardiográficos. De esta forma se puede detectar insuficiencia cardiaca subclínica y dar un tratamiento oportuno.


Abstract Today one of the main causes of mortality is cancer. Survival in cancer patients has increased from 1970 (25%) to the present (80%). Following the introduction of anthracyclines as a cancer treatment since 1960-70, more than 60% of patients are treated with these agents, although chemotherapeutic exposure leads to cardiovascular diseases as the main cause of mortality in surviving patients. of cancer in the 21st Century. There are multiple factors that increase the sensitivity of anthracyclic-induced cardiotoxicity. In 1970 the gold standard for the detection of ventricular dysfunction was endomyocardial biopsy, subsequently the detection and management of cardiotoxicity was guided by symptoms, in 1981 the detection of cardiotoxicity was reported with the determination of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LVEF), by 2D echocardiography. Currently, the 3D echocardiogram for LVEF and systolic and diastolic volumes have presented a high correlation of the values obtained by magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of cardiac function. Today strain, strain-rate and speckle tracking echocardiography are used to determine regional and global myocardial function. For a comprehensive assessment, these results can be complemented with cardiac biomarkers (troponins) and electrocardiographic changes. In this way, subclinical heart failure can be detected and timely treatment can be given.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Heart Failure/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 77-86, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152986

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O exame físico permite a avaliação prognóstica de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) descompensada, porém não é suficientemente confiável e depende da experiência clínica do profissional. Considerando as respostas hemodinâmicas a situações do tipo "luta ou fuga" tais como a admissão no serviço de emergência, foi proposto o índice hemodinâmico agudo (IHA), calculado a partir da frequência cardíaca e pressão de pulso. Objetivo avaliar a capacidade prognóstica intra-hospitalar do IHA na IC descompensada. Métodos estudo prospectivo, multicêntrico e observacional baseado no registro BREATHE, incluindo dados de hospitais públicos e privados no Brasil. Foram utilizadas análises ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), de estatística c e de regressão multivariada, assim como o critério de informação de Akaike, para testar a capacidade prognóstica do IHA. O valor-p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Foram analisados dados de 463 pacientes com IC com fração de ejeção reduzida a partir do registro BREATHE. A mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 9%. A mediana do IHA foi considerada o valor de corte (4 mmHg⋅bpm). Um baixo IHA (≤ 4 mmHg⋅bpm) foi encontrado em 80% dos pacientes falecidos. O risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar em pacientes com baixo IHA foi 2,5 vezes maior que aquele para pacientes com IHA > 4 mmHg⋅bpm. O IHA foi capaz de predizer independentemente a mortalidade intra-hospitalar na IC aguda descompensada [sensibilidade: 0,786; especificidade: 0,429; AUC (área sob a curva): 0,607 (0,540-0,674), p = 0,010] mesmo depois dos ajustes para comorbidades e uso de medicamentos [razão de chances (RC): 0,061 (0,007-0,114), p = 0,025]. Conclusões O IHA é capaz de predizer independentemente a mortalidade intra-hospitalar na IC aguda descompensada. Esse índice simples e realizado à beira do leito pode se mostrar útil em serviços de emergência. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):77-86)


Abstract Background The physical examination enables prognostic evaluation of patients with decompensated heart failure (HF), but lacks reliability and relies on the professional's clinical experience. Considering hemodynamic responses to "fight or flight" situations, such as the moment of admission to the emergency room, we proposed the calculation of the acute hemodynamic index (AHI) from values of heart rate and pulse pressure. Objective To evaluate the in-hospital prognostic ability of AHI in decompensated HF. Methods A prospective, multicenter, registry-based observational study including data from the BREATHE registry, with information from public and private hospitals in Brazil. The prognostic ability of the AHI was tested by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, C-statistics, Akaike's information criteria, and multivariate regression analyses. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results We analyzed data from 463 patients with heart failure with low ejection fraction. In-hospital mortality was 9%. The median AHI value was used as cut-off (4 mmHg⋅bpm). A low AHI (≤ 4 mmHg⋅bpm) was found in 80% of deceased patients. The risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with low AHI was 2.5 times that in patients with AHI > 4 mmHg⋅bpm. AHI independently predicted in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF (sensitivity: 0.786; specificity: 0.429; AUC: 0.607 [0.540-0.674]; p = 0.010) even after adjusting for comorbidities and medication use [OR: 0.061 (0.007-0.114); p = 0.025). Conclusions The AHI independently predicts in-hospital mortality in acute decompensated HF. This simple bed-side index could be useful in an emergency setting. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):77-86)


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Prognosis , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Hospital Mortality , Hemodynamics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Epidemiological evidence has shown that serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations, a diagnostic biomarker for heart failure, are positively associated with cardiovascular risk. Since NT-proBNP in serum is excreted in urine, it is hypothesized that urinary NT-proBNP concentrations are correlated with serum concentrations and linked with cardiovascular risk in the general population.@*METHODS@#A total of 3060 community-dwelling residents aged ≥ 40 years without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were followed up for a median of 8.3 years (2007-2015). Serum and urinary concentrations of NT-proBNP at baseline were compared. The hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between NT-proBNP concentrations and the risk of developing CVD were computed using the Cox proportional hazards model.@*RESULTS@#The median values (interquartile ranges) of serum and urinary NT-proBNP concentrations at baseline were 56 (32-104) pg/mL and 20 (18-25) pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong quadratic correlation between the serum and urinary concentrations of NT-proBNP (coefficient of determination [R@*CONCLUSIONS@#The present study demonstrated that urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were well-correlated with serum concentrations and were positively associated with cardiovascular risk. Given that urine sampling is noninvasive and does not require specially trained personnel, urinary NT-proBNP concentrations have the potential to be an easy and useful biomarker for detecting people at higher cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/urine , Cardiovascular Diseases/urine , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/urine , Peptide Fragments/urine , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment
9.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(4): eabc220, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361783

ABSTRACT

Fístulas de artérias coronárias têm incidência baixa, sendo diagnosticadas mais frequentemente pelo ecocardiograma ou angiotomografia coronariana, embora a cineangiocoronariografia seja o método padrão-ouro. Têm origem mais comumente na artéria coronária direita, sendo a drenagem para câmaras de baixa pressão o mais habitual. O tratamento pode ser expectante, cirúrgico ou percutâneo. Este relato descreve o caso de uma rara apresentação de insuficiência cardíaca, dada por fístula da coronária circunflexa com drenagem para o átrio esquerdo. (AU)


Coronary artery fistulas have a low incidence and are often diagnosed by echocardiography or coronary computed tomography angiography, although coronary angiography is the gold standard. They commonly originate in the right coronary artery, with drainage to low-pressure chambers being the most frequent finding. Treatment can be expectant, surgical, or percutaneous. This report describes a case of a rare presentation of heart failure due to a fistula of the circumflex coronary artery with drainage into the left atrium. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/diagnosis , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/etiology , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Heart Atria/abnormalities , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/congenital , Cineangiography/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/therapeutic use , Echocardiography, Doppler , Arterio-Arterial Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10514, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285648

ABSTRACT

Exercise intolerance is the hallmark consequence of advanced chronic heart failure (HF). The six-minute step test (6MST) has been considered an option for the six-minute walk test because it is safe, inexpensive, and can be applied in small places. However, its reliability and concurrent validity has still not been investigated in participants with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Clinically stable HFrEF participants were included. Reliability and error measurement were calculated by comparing the first with the second 6MST result. Forty-eight hours after participants underwent the 6MST, they were invited to perform a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlation between number of steps and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) at CPET. Twenty-seven participants with HFrEF (60±8 years old and left ventricle ejection fraction of 41±6%) undertook a mean of 94±30 steps in the 6MST. Intra-rater reliability was excellent for 6MST (ICC=0.9), with mean error of 4.85 steps and superior and inferior limits of agreement of 30.6 and -20.9 steps, respectively. In addition, strong correlations between number of steps and CPET workload (r=0.76, P<0.01) and peak V̇O2 (r=0.71, P<0.01) were observed. From simple linear regression the following predictive equations were obtained with 6MST results: V̇O2 peak (mL/min) = 350.22 + (7.333 × number of steps), with R2=0.51, and peak workload (W) = 4.044 + (0.772 × number of steps), with R2=0.58. The 6MST was a reliable and valid tool to assess functional capacity in HFrEF participants and may moderately predict peak workload and oxygen uptake of a CPET.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise Test , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Oxygen Consumption , Stroke Volume , Reproducibility of Results , Exercise Tolerance , Walk Test
12.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(6): 548-559, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289271

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las concentraciones de los péptidos natriuréticos en el plasma se han propuesto como un método de tamización para disfunción ventricular temprana. Objetivo: Comparar las características operativas del péptido natriurético tipo B (BNP) y de la fracción N-terminal (NT-proBNP) en población con factores de riesgo. Método: Metaanálisis de pruebas diagnósticas. Resultados: Se aplicó una estrategia de búsqueda mediante la cual se encontraron 86 referencias, de las cuales se seleccionaron 12 por criterios de inclusión. En 8 de estos estudios se evaluó el desempeño del BNP, en 3 el NT-proBNP y en uno ambas pruebas. Los puntos de corte para el BNP oscilaron entre 8 y 169,5 pg/ml, con una sensibilidad agrupada de 82,1% (IC 95%, 76,7-86,4%), una especificidad agrupada de 69% (IC 95%, 61,5-75,6%), un LR+ 2,65 (IC 95%, 2,17-3,23) y un LR( 0,26 (IC 95%, 0,21-0,32). Cuando solo se analizaron los datos para puntos de corte por debajo de 50 pg/ml la sensibilidad agrupada mejoró a 89,2% (IC 95%, 82,6-94%) y el LR( fue 0,23 (IC 95%, 0,14-0,40). Solo se analizaron 3 estudios sobre NT-proBNP, con puntos de corte entre 125 y 902 pg/ml, con sensibilidad agrupada del 97,2% (IC 95%, 90,2-99,7%), especificidad agrupada del 76,9% (IC 95%, 74,5-79,1%), LR+ 3,39 (IC 95%, 1,67-6,85) y LR( 0,07 (IC 95%, 0,02-0,23). Conclusión: El BNP y el NT-proBNP pueden ser útiles para descartar disfunción ventricular izquierda asintomática en pacientes en riesgo.


Abstract Introduction: The concentration of natriuretic peptides in plasma has been proposed as a screening method for early ventricular dysfunction. Objective: To compare the operative characteristics of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) fraction in a population with risk factors. Method: A meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. Results: A search strategy was applied that found 86 references, of which 12 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. The role of BNP was evaluated in 8 of these studies, that of NT-proBNP in 3, and both tests in one of them. The cut-off points for BNP varied between 8 and 169.5 pg/mL, with a grouped sensitivity of 82.1% (95% CI; 76.7-86.4%), a grouped specificity of 69% (95%CI; 61.5-75.6%), a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 2.65 (95% CI; 2.17-3.23) and a negative likelihood ratio (LR() of 0.26 (95% CI; 0.21-0.32). When the data were only analysed for cut-off points below 50 pg/mL, the grouped sensitivity improved to 89.2% (95% CI; 82.6-94%), and the LR( was 0.23 (95% CI; 0.14-0.40). Only 3 studies on NT-proBNP were analysed, with cut-off points between 125 and 902 pg/mL, a grouped specificity of 97.2% (95% CI; 90.2-99.7%), a grouped sensitivity of 76.9% (95% CI; 74.5-79.1%), LR+ 3.39 (95% CI; 1.67-6.85), and LR( 0.07 (95% CI; 0.02-0.23). Conclusion: BNP and NT-proBNP can be useful in ruling out asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in patients at risk.


Subject(s)
Peptides , Meta-Analysis , Natriuretic Agents , Heart Failure/diagnosis
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 127-133, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131249

ABSTRACT

Resumo A indefinição de critérios diagnósticos para síndrome cardiorrenal aguda (SCRA) impacta em diferentes resultados prognósticos. Objetivou-se avaliar os critérios diagnósticos da SCRA e o impacto no prognóstico. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. A pesquisa incluiu artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e meta-análises publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2018. Não foi encontrada na literatura nem nas diretrizes de insuficiência cardíaca uma definição clara dos critérios diagnósticos da SCRA. O critério diagnóstico mais comumente utilizado é o aumento da creatinina sérica de pelo menos 0,3 mg/dl em relação à basal. Entretanto, existem controvérsias na definição de creatinina basal e de qual deveria ser a creatinina sérica de referência dos pacientes críticos. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que os critérios de SCRA devem ser revistos para que se inclua o diagnóstico de SCRA na admissão hospitalar. A creatinina sérica de referência deve refletir a função renal basal antes do início da injúria renal aguda.


Abstract The absence of a consensus about the diagnostic criteria for acute cardiorenal syndrome (ACRS) affects its prognosis. This study aimed at assessing the diagnostic criteria for ACRS and their impact on prognosis. A systematic review was conducted using PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The search included original publications, such as clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analyses, issued from January 1998 to June 2018. Neither literature nor heart failure guidelines provided a clear definition of the diagnostic criteria for ACRS. The serum creatinine increase by at least 0.3 mg/dL from baseline creatinine is the most used diagnostic criterion. However, the definition of baseline creatinine, as well as which serum creatinine should be used as reference for critical patients, is still controversial. This systematic review suggests that ACRS criteria should be revised to include the diagnosis of ACRS on hospital admission. Reference serum creatinine should reflect baseline renal function before the beginning of acute kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Cardio-Renal Syndrome/diagnosis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Prognosis , Creatinine
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 173-176, Apr.-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131027

ABSTRACT

Abstract Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an inflammatory disease that involves cartilaginous structures predominantly in the nose, ears, and respiratory tract. Cardiovascular involvement is not common. Despite this, they are the second cause of death in patients with RP. The structures usually affected by this disease are the heart valves, with regurgitation being the most common valvulopathy. We present the case of a patient without the previous diagnosis of RP who was referred to our institute with heart failure secondary to aortic regurgitation, initially attributed to endocarditis.


Resumen La policondritis recurrente (PR) es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta a estructuras cartilaginosas, predominantemente las que se encuentran en nariz, pabellones auriculares y vías respiratorias. Las manifestaciones cardiovasculares son poco comunes; sin embargo, son la segunda causa de mortalidad en pacientes con PR. Unas de las estructuras afectadas casi siempre en la PR son las estructuras valvulares y la valvulopatía más común es la insuficiencia aórtica (IA). A continuación se presenta el caso de una paciente sin diagnóstico previo de PR a quien se refirió a este instituto por insuficiencia cardíaca secundaria a IA, atribuida en un principio a endocarditis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Polychondritis, Relapsing/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Polychondritis, Relapsing/diagnosis , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology
15.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(1): 21-27, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223317

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son muy frecuentes en la población anciana (pacientes mayores de 75 años). El enfrentamiento y manejo de ellas es distinto al indicado en pacientes jóvenes. Son escasos los estudios que incluyen población mayor de 75 años, con evidencia acerca de las diferencias que existen en la respuesta terapéutica en comparación al paciente joven. El anciano tiene mayor fragilidad y múltiples comorbilidades, con reserva cardiaca disminuida, lo que obliga a un manejo integral y acucioso. Los cambios propios de la edad repercuten tanto en riñón, cerebro, hígado, musculatura y corazón, lo que los hace pacientes más proclives a presentar complicaciones de la terapia farmacológica o intervencional. El objetivo de este artículo es resumir las recomendaciones sobre el manejo de las cardiopatías más frecuentes en el anciano, incluyendo insuficiencia cardiaca crónica, cardiopatía coronaria, hipertensión arterial, estenosis aórtica valvular y fibrilación auricular no valvular.


Cardiovascular diseases are very common in the elderly population, and their management is different. There are few studies that include population older than 75 years, with little evidence about the differences in the therapeutic response compared to the young patient. The elderly have greater fragility and multiple comorbidities, with diminished cardiac reserve, which requires a comprehensive and careful management. Changes due to advanced age, in kidney, brain, liver and musculature (among others), make them more vulnerable to complications of the pharmacological or interventional treatment. The objective of this article is to summarize the recommendations on the management of the most frequent heart diseases in the elderly, including chronic heart failure, coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, valvular aortic stenosis, and non-valvular atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Pacemaker, Artificial , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrial Fibrillation , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/therapy , Defibrillators , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9646, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132528

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome in which patients have symptoms and signs of HF with normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥50%). Roughly half of all patients with HF worldwide have an LVEF ≥50% and nearly half have an LVEF <50%. Thanks to the increased scientific attention about the condition and improved characterization and diagnostic tools, the incidence of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) dropped while that of HFpEF has increased by 45%. HFpEF has no single guideline for diagnosis or treatment, the patient population is heterogeneously and inconsistently described, and longitudinal studies are lacking. To better understand and overcome the disease, in this review, we updated the latest knowledge of HFpEF pathophysiology, introduced the existing promising diagnostic methods and treatments, and summarized its prognosis by reviewing the most recent cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Prognosis
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 360-368, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149094

ABSTRACT

Resumen La insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es un problema de salud pública global con más de 37 millones de individuos afectados en el mundo. La insuficiencia cardíaca con fracción de expulsión preservada (ICFEp) representa una categoría cada vez más frecuente en la práctica clínica, constituye hasta el 60% de los casos y presenta diferencias importantes en el diagnóstico y tratamiento en comparación con la insuficiencia cardíaca y la fracción de expulsión reducida. Esta revisión de ICFEp expone la epidemiología, delimita los principales factores de riesgo y mecanismos fisiopatológicos, identifica las características clínicas/paraclínicas y los criterios diagnósticos, y finaliza con un llamado para realizar investigación en este país.


Abstract Heart failure is a global public health problem, with more than 37 million patients living with heart failure around the world. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is an increasingly common category (approximately 60% of the cases) and shows remarkable differences in diagnosis and treatment when compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The current review covers epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical and paraclinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and concludes with a plea for original research in our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Public Health , Global Health , Risk Factors , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 889-898, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094096

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad constituye un importante problema de salud a nivel global, en Cuba es la cuarta causa de muerte. Los índices pronósticos ayudan a detectar tempranamente los pacientes de alto riesgo, pero esto tiene baja sensibilidad y especificidad. Objetivo: determinar durante la anamnesis factores pronósticos de mortalidad en la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Materiales y métodos: estudio analítico longitudinal retrospectivo con un grupo donde se aplicaron pruebas no paramétricas y cálculo de riesgo relativo. Resultados: edad de 78 ± 10 años con 53 % femeninas. La mortalidad global de 57 % antecedentes de diabetes mellitus, 53 % enfermedad cerebro vascular anterior 34 %, el 42 % estaba encamados. El 38 % tenían más de cinco días enfermos y el 69 % estaba consumiendo antimicrobianos antes del ingreso. El 23 % padecían de insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva y el 73 % de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. El síndrome confusional fue un buen predictor de mortalidad (x2=0,05) (RR=2,8). El encamamiento prolongado no predijo mortalidad a los cinco días (x2=0,43). El uso de antimicrobianos previos incremento el riesgo en (RR=0,8) con (x2=0,05). La insuficiencia cardiaca fue el mejor predictor (x2=0,006) (RR=1,2). La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica predijo con(x2=0,019) y (RR=1,47). Conclusiones: se considera como factores fuertemente predictivos el antecedente de insuficiencia cardiaca, de enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el paciente que acude con síndrome confusional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: community acquired pneumonia is an important health problem around the world, and in Cuba it is the fourth cause of death. Prognostic indexes help to detect early the patients at high risk, but they have low sensibility and specificity. Objective: to determine the mortality prognostic factors in the community acquired pneumonia during the anamnesis. Material and methods: analytic, retrospective, longitudinal study in a group applying non-parametric tests and relative risk calculation. Results: age: 78 ± 10 years; 53 % of women. Global mortality of 57 %; 53 % had antecedents of diabetes mellitus; 34 % had previous cerebro-vascular disease, and 42 % were bedridden patients. 38 % was sick more than five days and 69 % took antimicrobials before being admitted. 23 % suffered congestive heart failure and 73 % chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Confusional syndrome was a good predictor of mortality (x2=0.05) (RR=2.8). Long confinement to bed did not predict mortality at the fifth day (x2=0.43). The previous use of antimicrobials increased the risk (RR=0.8) con (x2=0.05). Heart failure was the best predictor (x2=0.006) (RR=1.2). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease predicted with (x2=0.019) y (RR=1.47). Conclusions: antecedents of heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the patient arriving with confusional syndrome are considered strongly predictive factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Prognosis , Mortality , Patient Acuity , Medical History Taking , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services , Analytical Epidemiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis
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