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Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 676-683, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940906


Objective: To evaluate the impact of empagliflozin on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, consecutive HFmrEF patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from September 2019 to October 2020 were screened, and randomly assigned to empagliflozin group (EG) or conventional group (CG) using a random number table. The enrolled patients were treated according to the guidelines, and patients in the empagliflozin group received additional empagliflozin (10 mg, once a day, orally) on top of the conventional treatment. The primary end points were VO2peak at 6 months after treatment, and the secondary end points included other parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), 6-minute walking distance, N-terminal B-type pro-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score. Results: A total of 112 patients were included (mean age 69 (57, 78) years, 84 male (75.0%)). There were 55 cases in CG group and 57 cases in EG group. There were no significant differences in baseline data including age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, NT-proBNP, daily dose of tolasemi, combined medication, CPET parameters, the proportion of New York Heart Association heart function Ⅲ/Ⅳ, history of coronary heart disease, history of hypertension, history of diabetes (all P>0.05). At 6 months after treatment, VO2peak was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.023). VE/VCO2 slope was significantly lower in EG group than in CG group(P=0.034). Oxygen uptake efficiency slope was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.038). The level of NT-proBNP was significantly lower in EG group than in CG group(P=0.020). Six-minute walking distance was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.037). KCCQ score was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.048). Exercise oscillatory ventilation decreased in both groups (1 case in each group, P>0.05). Conclusion: Empagliflozin can significantly improve VO2peak in patients with HFmrEF.

Aged , Humans , Male , Benzhydryl Compounds , Glucosides , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Function, Left
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939909


Although anti-thrombotic therapy has been successful for prevention of deaths from acute myocardial infarction (MI), by far, there are few preventive and therapeutic options for ischemic heart failure (IHF) after MI. Qi-Tai-Suan (QTS) is an oleanolic acid (OA) derivative which once underwent a clinical trial for treating hepatitis. In this study, we investigated the potential cardioprotective effect of QTS on IHF. IHF mouse model was constructed by coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6J mice, and the protective effects of QTS on IHF were examined by echocardiography measurement, histological and TUNEL analysis, etc. We found that QTS exhibited promising cardioprotective effect on IHF. QTS treatment significantly improved cardiac function of IHF mice and the symptoms of heart failure. Notably, QTS had much better oral bioavailability (F = 41.91%) in mice than its parent drug OA, and took effects mainly as its original form. Mechanistically, QTS ameliorated ischemic heart failure likely through suppression of cardiac apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, QTS holds great promise as a preventive and therapeutic agent for ischemic heart failure and related diseases.

Animals , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , Fibrosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myocardial Ischemia/pathology , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939796


OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the medication rules of Chinese herbs to treat heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) based on data mining and to provide references for clinical utilization.@*METHODS@#The China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database (Wanfang), VIP database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to October 2021 to identify relevant literature on treating HFPEF with Chinese herbs. Microsoft Excel 2019 was used to set up a database, and then, association rule analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed by using apriori algorithm and hclust function respectively in R-Studio (Version 4.0.3).@*RESULTS@#A total of 182 qualified papers were included, involving a total of 92 prescriptions, 130 Chinese herbs, and 872 individual herbs prescribed, with an average of 9.5 herbs per prescription. The six most frequently prescribed herbs were Astragali Radix (Huangqi), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma (Danshen), Poria (Fuling), Glycyrrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma (Gancao), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Guizhi), and Ginseng Radix Et Rhizoma (Renshen). There were 35 herbs used more than 5 times, involving 11 efficacy categories. The top three categories were deficiency-tonifying herbs, blood-activating and stasis-removing herbs, and dampness-draining diuretic herbs. The most commonly used herbs were mainly warm and sweet. The primary meridian tropisms were Lung Meridian, Heart Meridian and Spleen Meridian. Association rule analysis yielded 26 association rules, such as Astragali Radix (Huangqi) & Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma (Danshen), Poria (Fuling), Cinnamomi Ramulus (Guizhi) & Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (Baizhu). Hierarchical cluster analysis yielded four herb classes, and their functions were mainly qi-replenishing and yang-warming, blood-activating and diuresis-inducing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HFPEF is the syndrome of root vacuity and tip repletion, and its core pathogenesis is "deficiency", "stasis", and "water", with "deficiency" being the most principal, which is closely related to Xin (heart), Fei (Lung), and Pi (Spleen). The treatment of this disease occurs by improving qi, warming yang, activating blood and inducing diuresis. Astragali Radix (Huangqi) with Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma (Danshen) is the basic combination of herbs applied.

Humans , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Stroke Volume
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928948


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Shenmai Injection (SMI) on the long-term prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).@*METHODS@#The Hospital Information System was used to extract data of CHF patients, and the retrospective cohort study was conducted for analysis. In non-exposed group, standardized Western medicine treatment and Chinese patent medicine or decoction were applied without combination of SMI while in the exposed group, SMI were applied for more than 7 days. Evaluation indicators are followed with New York Heart Association functional classification (NYHA classification), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-ProBNP), cardiogenic death and heart failure (HF) readmission. Statistical analysis includes Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression which are used to explore the relationship between SMI and outcome events.@*RESULTS@#A total of 1,211 eligible CHF patients were involved and finally 1,047 patients were followed up successfully. After treatment, the cases of NYHA classification decline in the exposed and non-exposed groups accounted for 64.30% and 43.45%, respectively; the improvement values of LVEF were 8.89% and 7.91%, respectively; the improvement values of NT-ProBNP were 909 pg/mL and 735 pg/mL, respectively. After exposure on SMI, the rates of cardiogenic death and HF readmission reduced from 15.43% to 10.18% and 38.93% to 32.37%. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the log-rank P value of SMI and cardiogenic death was 0.014, while the counterpart of SMI and HF readmission was 0.025. Cox regression analysis indicated that for cardiogenic death, age, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, and NYHA classification were risk factors while β-blockers, aldosterone receptor antagonists, Chinese patent medicine/decoction and SMI were protective factors. Likewise, for HF readmission, age, cardiomyopathy, and NYHA classification were risk factors while SMI was a protective factor.@*CONCLUSION@#Combination with SMI on the standardized Western medicine treatment can effectively reduce cardiogenic mortality and readmission rate in CHF patients, and thereby improve the long-term prognosis.

Humans , Biomarkers , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928937


OBJECTIVE@#To confirm the improvement of cardiac function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) via Chinese medicine (CM) Qishen Taohong Granule (, QTG).@*METHODS@#This study was a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Seventy-six patients from 27 to 84 years old diagnosed with CHF New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III in stage C were enrolled and randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive QTG or trimetazidine (TMZ), in addition to their standard medications for the treatment of CHF. The study period was 4 weeks. The primary outcomes included cardiac function evaluated by NYHA classification and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as QOL evaluated by CHF Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Survival Scale (CHFQLS). The secondary outcomes included 6-min walking test (6MWT), CM syndrome score, symptom and sign scores and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). All indices were measured at baseline and the end of the trial.@*RESULTS@#At the 4-week follow-up period, the effective rate according to NYHA classification in the QTG group was better than that in the TMZ group (74.29% vs. 54.29%, P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in post-treatment level of LVEF between the two groups (P>0.05). The CHFQLS scores improved by 13.82±6.04 vs. 7.49±2.28 in the QTG and TMZ groups, respectively (P<0.05). Subgroup analysis of the CHFQLS results showed that physiological function, role limitation and vitality were significantly higher in the QTG group than in the TMZ group (15.76±7.85 vs. 7.40±3.36, P<0.05; 16.00±8.35 vs. 10.53±4.64, P<0.05; 15.31±8.09 vs. 7.89±4.60, P<0.05). Compared with TMZ group, treatment with QTG also demonstrated superior performance with respect to 6MWT, CM syndrome, shortness of breath, fatigue, gasping, general edema and NT-proBNP level. No significant adverse reactions or adverse cardiac events occurred during treatment in either group.@*CONCLUSION@#In addition to conventional treatments, the use of QTG as an adjuvant therapy significantly improved cardiac function and QOL in patients with CHF class II or III in stage C. [Registration No. ChiCTR1900022036 (retrospectively registered)].

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Chronic Disease , Double-Blind Method , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928185


Angong Niuhuang Pills(AGNHP) are effective in clearing heat, removing the toxin, and eliminating phlegm for resuscitation. Clinically, it is widely used to treat various diseases such as febrile convulsion due to heat attacking pericardium, but its therapeutic effects on heart failure(HF) have not been well recognized. In this study, the profiles of differential metabolites regulated by AGNHP were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The underlying mechanism of AGNHP against HF was illustrated based on the integrated analysis of pharmacological data and metabolic molecular network. The HF model was induced by isoproterenol in mice. After oral administration of AGNHP for one week, cardiac functions in HF mice were evaluated by echocardiography, and serum samples of mice were collected for metabolomics analysis. Eight differential metabolites of AGNHP against HF were screened out through partial least square discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and input into MetaboAnalyst for the analysis of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the critical metabolic pathways regulated by AGNHP were enriched according to the potential targets of major compounds in AGNHP. After AGNHP treatment, the recovered index of relative content of some metabolites underwent cross-scale fusion analysis with therapeutic efficacy data, followed by "compound-reaction-enzyme-gene" network analysis. It is inferred that the anti-HF effects of AGNHP may be attributed to the metabolism of arachidonic acid, amino acid, glycerophospholipid, and linoleic acid. The cross-scale polypharmacological analysis method developed in this study provides a new method to interpret scientific principles of AGNHP against HF with modern technologies.

Animals , Mice , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Metabolomics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928111


The present study systematically collected, analyzed, and evaluated randomized controlled trial(RCT) of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of heart failure to provide references for follow-up clinical research design, guideline update, and policy formulation, and promote the improvement of clinical evidence quality. On the basis of the collection in the Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) Clinical Evidence Database System(EVDS), CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for RCTs of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of heart failure from database inception to December 31, 2020. The di-sease type, publication time, sample size, intervention/control setting, course of treatment, evaluation indexes, and methodological quality were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 1 631 RCTs were included, including 1 622 in Chinese and 9 in English. It was first published in 1995, with the largest number of publications in 2016. There were only 56 RCTs(3.43%) with a sample size≥200. Seventy-eight types of Chinese patent medicines were involved, including 49 types of oral drugs and 29 types of injections. There were 34 intervention/control protocols, which were dominated by Chinese patent medicine+conventional treatment vs conventional treatment, accounting for 28.51%(n=465). About 94.0% of RCTs reported the course of treatment, mainly 14-56 days. The evaluation indexes were mainly physical and chemical tests and symptoms/signs, and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) was the most frequently used measurement index. In enumeration indexes, clinical efficacy(response rate) was used the most frequently. Methodologically, 92.0% of the research subjects were rated as high risk of blindness. There were only 13 RCTs(0.80%) reporting registered information. It is necessary to further standardize the design, implementation, and quality control of clinical studies in order to improve the quality of evidence and avoid research waste.

Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 639-647, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345247


Resumo Fundamento: A fração de ejeção (FE) tem sido utilizada em análises fenotípicas e na tomada de decisões sobre o tratamento de insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Assim, a FE tornou-se parte fundamental da prática clínica diária. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar características, preditores e desfechos associados a alterações da FE em pacientes com diferentes tipos de IC grave. Métodos: Foram incluídos neste estudo 626 pacientes com IC grave e classe III-IV da New York Heart Association (NYHA). Os pacientes foram classificados em três grupos de acordo com as alterações da FE, ou seja, FE aumentada (FE-A), definida como aumento da FE ≥10%, FE diminuída (FE-D), definida como diminuição da FE ≥10%, e FE estável (FE-E), definida como alteração da FE <10%. Valores p inferiores a 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Dos 377 pacientes com IC grave, 23,3% apresentaram FE-A, 59,5% apresentaram FE-E e 17,2% apresentaram FE-D. Os resultados mostraram ainda 68,2% de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr) no grupo FE-A e 64,6% de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEp) no grupo FE-D. Os preditores de FE-A identificados foram faixa etária mais jovem, ausência de diabetes e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) menor. Já os preditores de FE-D encontrados foram ausência de fibrilação atrial, baixos níveis de ácido úrico e maior FEVE. Em um seguimento mediano de 40 meses, 44,8% dos pacientes foram vítimas de morte por todas as causas. Conclusão: Na IC grave, a ICFEr apresentou maior percentual no grupo FE-A e a ICFEp foi mais comum no grupo FE-D.

Abstract Background: Ejection fraction (EF) has been used in phenotype analyses and to make treatment decisions regarding heart failure (HF). Thus, EF has become a fundamental part of daily clinical practice. Objective: This study aims to investigate the characteristics, predictors, and outcomes associated with EF changes in patients with different types of severe HF. Methods: A total of 626 severe HF patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV were enrolled in this study. The patients were classified into three groups according to EF changes, namely, increased EF (EF-I), defined as an EF increase ≥10%, decreased EF (EF-D), defined as an EF decrease ≥10%, and stable EF (EF-S), defined as an EF change <10%. A p-value lower than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 377 severe HF patients, 23.3% presented EF-I, 59.5% presented EF-S, and 17.2% presented EF-D. The results further showed 68.2% of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the EF-I group and 64.6% of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the EF-D group. The predictors of EF-I included younger age, absence of diabetes, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The predictors of EF-D were absence of atrial fibrillation, lower uric acid level, and higher LVEF. Within a median follow-up of 40 months, 44.8% of patients suffered from all-cause death. Conclusion: In severe HF, HFrEF presented the highest percentage in the EF-I group, and HFpEF was most common in the EF-D group.

Humans , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Heart Ventricles
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(2): e401, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1289997


La diabetes mellitus, la insuficiencia cardíaca y la enfermedad renal crónica tienen alta prevalencia en la población. Asimismo, estas patologías están comprendidas en un "círculo vicioso" porque comparten mecanismos fisiopatológicos que predisponen a su coexistencia en un mismo paciente, incrementando significativamente el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares. Recientemente se han agregado al arsenal terapéutico las gliflozinas, un grupo de fármacos con beneficios en las tres enfermedades mencionadas. Saber cómo se desarrolló la investigación con estos fármacos y sus mecanismos de acción es fundamental para optimizar el tratamiento de los pacientes.

Diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease are highly prevalent in the population. Likewise, these pathologies are included in a "vicious circle" because they share pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to their coexistence in the same patient, significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Gliflozins, a group of drugs with benefits in the three mentioned pathologies, have recently been added to the therapeutic arsenal. Knowing how research with these drugs and its mechanisms of action is essential to optimize the treatment of patients.

Diabetes mellitus, insuficiência cardíaca e doença renal crônica são altamente prevalentes na população. Estas patologias fazem parte de um "círculo vicioso", compartilhando mecanismos fisiopatológicos que predispõem à coexistência no mesmo paciente, e aumentando significativamente o risco de eventos cardiovasculares. As gliflozinas, são un grupo de drogas com benefícios das três patologias citadas, foram adicionadas recentemente ao arsenal terapêutico. Saber como foram desenvolvidas as pesquisas com esses medicamentos e seus mecanismos de ação é essencial para otimizar o tratamento dos pacientes.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 23(1)jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1389028


Resumen La insuficiencia cardíaca aguda descompensada (ICAD) es una causa común de hospitalización, con repercusiones significativas en los sistemas de salud. El manejo agudo se basa en la reducción de la volemia con diuréticos de asa, sin embargo, un porcentaje de pacientes presenta resistencia o no logra la respuesta clínica esperada con este tratamiento. Una de las medidas que ha comprobado ser efectiva en este contexto, es el uso de solución salina hipertónica (SSH) en conjunto con dosis altas de diuréticos de asa, como medida terapéutica temida por sus posibles repercusiones sobre la función renal y posible sobrecarga de sodio. Objetivos: Determinar si el uso de solución salina hipertónica en pacientes con falla cardiaca aguda e hipervolemia genera un deterioro de la función renal. Determinar la respuesta del Pro-BNP ante el uso de la solución salina hipertónica en pacientes con falla cardiaca aguda como marcador de respuesta terapéutica. Determinar si el uso de solución salina hipertónica aumenta la diuresis sin generar cambios importantes en el sodio. Se muestran datos de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda descompensada, que tras no presentar mejoría con altas dosis de diurético de asa en bolo, se les aplicó la solución hipertónica como adyuvante a este tratamiento. Se toma un total de 26 pacientes analizando datos generales clínicos y de laboratorio, se valoran curvas con la respuesta diurética y por parámetros de laboratorio a las 48 y 72 horas. El uso de solución salina hipertónica consigue un aumento de más de un 200% de la diuresis en 24 horas, con un descenso del Pro BNP de más de un 60% a las 48 horas, sin mostrar un cambio importante en los niveles de creatinina, nitrógeno ureico y sodio. Se requirió reposición de potasio en la totalidad de los pacientes. Se concluye que la infusión de furosemida más solución hipertónica es efectiva tanto en disminuir niveles de NT Pro-BNP en los pacientes, como en generar un aumento en el volumen de diuresis. La principal complicación fue la hipokalemia, sin cambios considerables en el valor de sodio, creatinina y nitrógeno ureico séricos.

Abstract Uso de Solución Hipertónica en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca aguda como terapia adyuvante a altas dosis de diuréticos Acute decompensated heart failure (AHF) is a common cause of hospitalization, with significant repercussions on health systems. Acute management is based on the reduction of blood volume with loop diuretics; however, a percentage of patients show resistance or do not achieve the expected clinical response with this treatment. One of the measures that has proven to be effective in this context is the use of hypertonic saline (HSS) in conjunction with high doses of loop diuretics, as a therapeutic measure feared due to its possible repercussions on kidney function and possible sodium overload. Objetives: To determine if the use of hypertonic saline in patients with acute heart failure and hypervolemia leads to a deterioration in renal function. To determine the response of Pro-BNP to the use of hypertonic saline in patients with acute heart failure as a marker of therapeutic response. Determine if the use of hypertonic saline increases urine output without causing significant changes in sodium. Data are shown from patients with acute decompensated heart failure, who after not presenting improvement with high doses of bolus loop diuretic, the hypertonic solution was applied as an adjunct to this treatment. A total of 26 patients are taken analyzing general clinical and laboratory data, curves with the diuretic response and by laboratory parameters are evaluated at 48 and 72 hours. The use of hypertonic saline solution achieves an increase of more than 200% in diuresis in 24 hours, with a decrease in Pro BNP of more than 60% at 48 hours, without showing a significant change in creatinine levels, urea nitrogen and sodium. Potassium replacement was required in all patients. It is concluded that the infusion of furosemide plus hypertonic solution is effective both in reducing levels of NT Pro-BNP in patients, and in generating an increase in the volume of diuresis. The main complication was hypokalemia, without significant changes in serum sodium, creatinine, and urea nitrogen.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypertonic Solutions/therapeutic use , Costa Rica
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 28(1): 27-34, 10 març. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367846


A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) permanece como uma das maiores causas de hospitalização e mortalidade dentre todas as doenças, sendo a hipertensão arterial um dos mais importantes fatores de risco para o seu desenvolvimento. Em virtude da relevância e prevalência dessa doença, um número recorde de estudos comparativos, além de novas classes terapêuticas, tem sido desenvolvido nos últimos anos para garantir ao médico maior flexibilidade no tratamento do seu paciente, com a finalidade de frear a progressão do remodelamento ventricular e reduzir a internação hospitalar, bem como os desfechos cardiovasculares. Nesse intuito, o presente artigo avalia diversas meta-análises recentemente publicadas, as quais comparam IECAs aos BRAs e indicam um melhor prognóstico associado aos IECAs na redução de mortalidade total e cardiovascular, provavelmente devido ao efeito adjuvante da bradicinina como cardioprotetor. No entanto, os BRAs ganharam novo destaque a partir de sua associação ao sacubitril, reduzindo eventos cardiovasculares como reinternação por IC e morte cardíaca quando comparados a um IECA. Este artigo de revisão busca realizar uma análise crítica todas as classes de anti-hipertensivos com função na IC, com base na evidência científica mais recente, discorrendo sobre seus mecanismos de proteção cardiovascular e de seus resultados na redução da morbimortalidade cardíaca

Heart Failure (HF) remains as one of the most important causes of both hospitalization and mortality among all diseases, with hypertension being one of the major factors of risk for its development. As a result of the relevance and prevalence of this disease, a record number of comparative studies, apart from new pharmacological classes, have been developed in the last few years to provide more flexibility to physicians on the process of choosing a proper treatment for patients, for the purpose of slowing ventricular remodeling and reducing hospitalization, as well as cardiovascular outbreaks. Within this context, the present study has examined recently published meta- analysis, which compared ACEi and ARBs, and indicates better prognosis of ACEi in the reduction of all- -cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, probably due to the effect of bradykinin as a cardioprotector. However, it is important to acknowledge that ARBs have gained new emphasis since it was associated with sacubitril, reducing cardiovascular events such as hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular death when compared to ACEi. This current revision article seeks to accomplish a critical analysis of all classes of antihypertensives that act on heart failure by analyzing the most recent scientific evidence, discoursing about its mechanisms of cardiovascular protection and its results in the reduction of cardiovascular mortality

Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 129-139, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152979


Resumo A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia sustentada mais comum na prática clínica com predileção pelas faixas etárias mais avançadas. Com o envelhecimento populacional, as projeções para as próximas décadas são alarmantes. Além de sua importância epidemiológica, a fibrilação atrial é destacada por suas repercussões clínicas, incluindo fenômenos tromboembólicos, hospitalizações e maior taxa de mortalidade. Seu mecanismo fisiopatológico é complexo, envolvendo uma associação de fatores hemodinâmicos, estruturais, eletrofisiológicos e autonômicos. Desde os anos 1990, o estudo Framingham em análises multivariadas já demonstrou que, além da idade, a presença de hipertensão, diabetes, insuficiência cardíaca e doença valvar é preditor independente dessa normalidade do ritmo. Entretanto, recentemente, vários outros fatores de risco estão sendo implicados no aumento do número de casos de fibrilação atrial, tais como sedentarismo, obesidade, anormalidades do sono, tabagismo e uso excessivo de álcool. Além disso, as mudanças na qualidade de vida apontam para uma redução na recorrência de fibrilação atrial, tornando-se uma nova estratégia para o tratamento de excelência dessa arritmia cardíaca. A abordagem terapêutica envolve um amplo conhecimento do estado de saúde e hábitos do paciente, e compreende quatro pilares principais: mudança de hábitos de vida e tratamento rigoroso de fatores de risco; prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos; controle da frequência; e controle do ritmo. Pela dimensão de fatores envolvidos no cuidado ao paciente portador de fibrilação atrial, ações integradas com equipes multiprofissionais estão associadas aos melhores resultados clínicos.

Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice, with a preference for older age groups. Considering population ageing, the projections for the next decades are alarming. In addition to its epidemiological importance, atrial fibrillation is evidenced by its clinical repercussions, including thromboembolic phenomena, hospitalizations, and a higher mortality rate. Its pathophysiological mechanism is complex and involves an association of hemodynamic, structural, electrophysiological, and autonomic factors. Since the 1990s, the Framingham study of multivariate analyses has demonstrated that hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and valvular disease are independent predictors of this rhythm abnormality along with age. However, various other risk factors have been recently implicated in an increase of atrial fibrillation cases, such as sedentary behavior, obesity, sleep disorders, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Moreover, changes in quality of life indicate a reduction in atrial fibrillation recurrence, thus representing a new strategy for excellence in the treatment of this cardiac arrhythmia. Therapeutic management involves a broad knowledge of the patient's health state and habits, comprehending 4 main pillars: lifestyle changes and rigorous treatment of risk factors; prevention of thromboembolic events; rate control; and rhythm control. Due to the dimension of factors involved in the care of patients with atrial fibrillation, integrated actions performed by interprofessional teams are associated with the best clinical results.

Humans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921733


Zhenwu Decoction(ZWD) has a history of more than 1 800 years in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), which is used to treat various diseases characterized by Yangqi deficiency and exuberant water and dampness. It is currently the classic prescription for the treatment of chronic heart failure(CHF). This study provides a basis for the treatment of CHF with ZWD by elaborating the traditional efficacy, theoretical basis, and underlying mechanism of the prescription. Based on the research methods and judgment basis of quality markers(Q-markers) of Chinese medicine, the Q-markers of ZWD in the treatment of CHF were predicted from the aspects of transfer and traceability, specificity, effectiveness, compatibility environment, measurability, and processing. Demethyl-coclaurine,benzoylaconine, atractylenolide Ⅲ, paeoniflorin, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, pachymic acid, and dehydrotumulosic acid can be used as Q-markers of ZWD for treating CHF. The result provides a reference for exploring the pharmacodynamic substances of ZWD in the treatment of CHF.

Humans , Biomarkers , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921644


Compound Renshen Buqi Granules have been widely used to treat chronic heart failure(CHF) due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. This paper explored the pathogenesis of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis and the intervention mechanism of Compound Renshen Buqi Granules based on quantitative proteomics for uncovering the biological basis. SD rats were divided into the normal control(N) group, normal+Compound Renshen Buqi Granules(ND) group, model(M) group, model+Compound Renshen Buqi Granules(D) group, and positive control(Y) group. The rat model of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis was established by ligation of the left anterior descending(LAD) coronary artery and chronic sleep deprivation. The rats in the ND group and D group were provided with Compound Renshen Buqi Granules, while those in the Y group received valsartan. Six weeks later, the serum was sampled and the data-dependent acquisition(DDA) was employed for the non-targeted quantitative proteomics analysis of the differences in protein expression among groups, followed by the targeted analysis of differentially expressed proteins(DEPs) generated by data-independent acquisition(DIA). Compared with the N group, the rats in the M group pre-sented with decreased body weight, grip strength, and pulse amplitude and increased RGB value on the tongue surface. The pathomorphological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltration, cell degeneration and necrosis, tissue fibrosis, etc. After the intervention with Compound Renshen Buqi Granules, multiple indicators were reversed. As demonstrated by proteomics results, there were 144 and 111 DEPs found in the M group and ND group in comparison with the N group. Compared with the M group, 107 and 194 DEPs were found in the D group and the Y group, respectively. Compared with the ND group, 119 DEPs were detected in the D group. As illustrated by DIA-based verification, the quantitative results of six proteins in each group were consistent with those by DDA. The syndrome indicators and pathomorphological examination results demonstrated that the protein expression profile of rats with CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis changed obviously. However, Compound Renshen Buqi Granules were able to reverse the differential expression of immune proteins to regulate CHF of Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome, which has provided clues for figuring out the pathogenesis of CHF due to Qi deficiency and blood stasis and the intervention mechanism of Compound Renshen Buqi Granules.

Animals , Rats , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Panax , Proteomics , Qi , Rats, Sprague-Dawley