Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the novel Prizvalve® system in treating severe aortic stenosis. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, single-arm, observational study. A total of 11 patients with severe aortic stenosis with high risk or inappropriate for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) were included, and TAVI was achieved with the Prizvalve® system between March 2021 and May 2021 in West China Hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed immediately after prosthesis implantation to evaluate mean transaortic gradient and maximal transaortic velocity. The device success rate was calculated, which was defined as (1) the device being delivered via the access, deployed, implanted and withdrawn, (2) mean transaortic gradient<20 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) or a maximal transaortic velocity<3 m/s post TAVI, and without severe aortic regurgitation or paravalvular leak post TAVI. TTE was performed at 30 days after the surgery, and all-cause mortality as well as the major cardiovascular adverse events (including acute myocardial infarction, disabling hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke) up to 30 days post TAVI were analyzed. Results: The age of 11 included patients were (78.1±6.3) years, with 8 males. A total of 10 patients were with NYHA functional class Ⅲ or Ⅳ. Devices were delivered via the access, deployed, implanted and withdrawn successfully in all patients. Post-implant mean transaortic gradient was (7.55±4.08) mmHg and maximal transaortic velocity was (1.78±0.44) m/s, and both decreased significantly as compared to baseline levels (both P<0.05). No severe aortic regurgitation or paravalvular leak was observed post TAVI. Device success was achieved in all the 11 patients. No patient died or experienced major cardiovascular adverse events up to 30 days post TAVI. Mean transaortic gradient was (9.45±5.07) mmHg and maximal transaortic velocity was (2.05±0.42) m/s at 30 days post TAVI, which were similar as the values measured immediately post TAVI (both P>0.05). Conclusions: TAVI with the Prizvalve® system is a feasible and relatively safe procedure for patients with severe aortic stenosis and at high risk or inappropriate for SAVR. Further clinical studies could be launched to obtain more clinical experience with Prizvalve® system.
Subject(s)Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Treatment Outcome
OBJECTIVES@#Due to the lack of large-sized pulmonary valved conduit products in clinical practice, hand-sewn expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) valved conduit has been used for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction in many heart centers around the world. This study aims to summarize the early results of the ePTFE valved conduit and the sewing technology of the conduit in combination with the latest progress, and to provide a reference for the application of ePTFE valved conduit.@*METHODS@#A total of 21 patients using ePTFE valved conduit for RVOT reconstruction in the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from October 2018 to October 2020 were prospectively enrolled in this study. The age at the implantation of the conduit was 4.3 to 43.8 (median 15.1) years old, with weight of (38.9±4.1) kg. In this cohort, 14 patients underwent re-reconstruction of RVOT, including 12 patients with pulmonary regurgitation at 6.3 to 31.0 (median 13.8) years after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair, and 2 patients with failed bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC). Seven patients underwent Ross operations. Among them, 3 were for aortic valve stenosis, 2 were for aortic regurgitation, and 2 were for both stenosis and regurgitation. The ePTFE valved conduits were standard hand-sewn during the surgery. The 3 leaflets were equal in size with arc-shaped lower edge of the valve sinus. The free edge of the valve leaflets was straight with the length of about 1 mm longer than the diameter. The height of the valve sinus was 4/5 of the diameter. The junction of the valve leaflet was 3/4 of the height of the sinus. The designed leaflets were then continuous non-penetrating sutured into the inner surface of Gore-Tex vessel to make a valved conduit. Valved conduits with diameter of 18, 20, and 22 mm were used in 2, 9, and 10 cases, respectively. The surgical results, postoperative recovery time, and serious complications were summarized, and the changes of postoperative cardiac function status and hemodynamic status of the conduits were investigated.@*RESULTS@#During the implantation of ePTFE valved conduit for RVOT reconstruction, 2 patients underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement with Ross operation, 2 patients with pulmonary regurgitation with repaired TOF underwent left and right pulmonary artery angioplasty, and 1 patient with failed BJVC underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty. The cardiopulmonary bypassing time for patients underwent re-reconstruction of RVOT was (130.9±16.9) min, with aorta clamping for 1 patient to repair the residual defect of the ventricular septum. The cardiopulmonary bypassing and aorta clamping time for Ross operation were (242.7±20.6) min and (145.6±10.5) min, respectively. The duration of postoperative ventilator assistance, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay were 3.5 h to 7.7 d (median 17.1 h),11.2 h to 29.5 d (median 1.9 d), and 6.0 to 56.0 (median 13.0) d, respectively. All patients survived after discharge from hospital. The follow-up rate after discharge was 100% with median time at 15.0 (13.0 to 39.0) months. No death happened during the follow-up. One patient underwent stent implantation due to right coronary stenosis 2 months after Ross operation. One patient underwent balloon dilation due to right pulmonary artery ostium stenosis 1 year after re-reconstruction of RVOT. The cardiac function of all patients recovered to NYHA class I 6 months after operation. The peak pressure gradient across the valve measured by transthoracic echocardiography before discharge was (9.4±2.6) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), and (18.3±6.1) mmHg at the last follow-up. There was no significant increase in the gradient during the follow-up (P=0.134). No patient suffered from mild or more pulmonary regurgitation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hand-sewn ePTFE valved conduit is feasible for RVOT reconstruction. It is a promising material for RVOT reconstruction which can effectively meet clinical need. In our experience, the ePTFE valved conduit is simple to manufacture with satisfactory early outcomes.In the application of ePTFE valved conduit, attention should be paid to implantation indications and postoperative anticoagulation management, especially to the preparation details of the valved conduit, to obtain better function and durability of the conduit after implantation.
Subject(s)Adolescent , Animals , Cattle , Constriction, Pathologic/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Humans , Infant , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Prosthesis Design , Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Outflow Obstruction/surgery
Currently, as the key raw material of artificial biological heart valve, bovine pericardium is mainly depend on import and has become a "bottleneck" challenge, greatly limiting the development of domestic biological heart valve. Therefore, the localization of bovine pericardium is extremely urgent. In this study, the pericardium of Sichuan yak was compared with that of Australian cattle in terms of fundamental properties and anti-calcification performance. The results demonstrated that the appearance and thickness of yak pericardium were more advantageous than the Australian one. Sichuan yak pericardium and Australian cattle pericardium had comparable performance in shrinkage temperature, mechanical test and anti-calcification test. This study preliminarily verifies the feasibility of substitution of Australian cattle pericardium by Sichuan yak pericardium and promotes the progression of bovine pericardium localization with data support.
Subject(s)Animals , Australia , Bioprosthesis , Cattle , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Pericardium
Objectives: To explore the efficacy and safety of emergency transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods: Data of patients who underwent emergency TAVR in eight centers, namely Fuwai Hospital, Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital, Xijing Hospital, Union Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May 2017 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The use of mechanical circulatory support system (MCS) and the results of laboratory tests (N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)) and echocardiography (mean aortic valve cross valve pressure difference and left ventricular ejection fraction) before and after operation were collected. The primary endpoint was all-cause death, and the secondary endpoints were stroke, major bleeding, major vascular complications, myocardial infarction, permanent pacemaker implantation, and acute renal injury. Device success was caculated, which refered to absence of procedural mortality and correct positioning of a single prosthetic heart valve into the proper anatomical location and intended performance of the prosthetic heart valve (mean aortic valve gradient<20 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) or peak velocity<3 m/s, with no moderate or severe prosthetic valve regurgitation). Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate the survival rate of patients during follow-up. Results: This study included 48 patients. The age was (72.5±8.1) years, and 34 patients were males (70.8%). Device success rate was 91.7% (44/48). The mean aortic valve transvalvular pressure was significantly decreased after operation ((12.3±6.4)mmHg vs. (60.2±23.8)mmHg, P<0.000 1). Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly increased ((41.5±11.7)% vs. (31.0±11.3)%, P<0.000 1). NT-proBNP significantly decreased (3 492.0 (1 638.8, 7 165.5) ng/L vs. 12 418.5 (6 693.8, 35 000.0) ng/L, P<0.000 1). In-hospital all-cause mortality was 8.3% (4/48). During hospitalization, the rate of stroke was 2.1% (1/48), major bleeding was 6.3% (3/48), major vascular complications was 10.4% (5/48), myocardial infarction was 4.2% (2/48), permanent pacemaker implantation was 6.3% (3/48), and the rate of acute renal injury was 12.5% (6/48). MCS was used in 20 patients (41.7%). The median follow-up time was 196 days. During the follow-up, one patient died (due to systemic metastasis of pancreatic cancer), two cases suffered new myocardial infarction and one case received permanent pacemaker implantation. The survival rate of 30 days, 1 year and 2 years after the operation were 91.7% (44/48), 89.6% (43/48), 89.6% (43/48), respectively. Conclusion: Emergency TAVR may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with severe decompensated aortic valve stenosis.
Subject(s)Acute Kidney Injury , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke , Stroke Volume , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
Abstract Introduction: Reoperations in cardiac surgery represent a clinical challenge, particularly because of the higher rate of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve reoperation owing to bioprosthesis dysfunction, transcatheter treatment with a prosthesis implantation over the prosthesis has emerged as an alternative, especially for patients with a previous approach. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodynamic behavior of transcatheter prosthesis implantation in conventional mitral bioprostheses through hydrodynamic tests and produced a recommendation for the size of transcatheter valve most adequate for valve-in-valve procedure. Methods: Mitral bioprostheses were attached to a flow duplicator and different combinations of transcatheter prostheses were implanted inside. The equipment simulates the hydrodynamic behavior of the valves submitted in vitro and determines transvalvular pressures and flow parameters. Results: All tests could be performed. Better hydrodynamic performance occurred for transcatheter prostheses 1 mm smaller than bioprostheses, except for the 27-mm bioprostheses. Effective valve areas (cm²) and transvalvular gradients (mmHg) were, respectively: Bioprosthesis × Inovare: 27 × 28 mm: 1.65 and 5.95/29 × 28 mm and 31 × 30 mm: 2.15 and 3.6. Conclusion: The mitral valve-in-valve implantation proved to be feasible in vitro. The use of 27-mm bioprostheses should be judicious, with preference for a 26-mm transcatheter valve. In the 29 and 31-mm bioprostheses, the implantation was very satisfactory, with good effective valve areas and transvalvular gradients, with preference for smaller transcatheter valves.
Subject(s)Humans , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Prosthesis Design , Brazil , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Treatment Outcome , Hydrodynamics , Mitral Valve/surgery
Resumen La melioidosis es endémica en varias regiones, con predominio en el Sudeste Asiático, norte de Australia, sur de Asia, China y Taiwán. En Sudamérica, Colombia ocupa el segundo lugar de casos de melioidosis, después de Brasil. Su manifestación clínica es variable, desde una infección asintomática hasta un compromiso multiorgánico con formación de abscesos múltiples y choque séptico. El compromiso cardiaco es inusual, con una incidencia menor del 1%. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 51 años, colombiano, con antecedente de una valvula aórtica mecánica, quien presentó un absceso en la pierna derecha y en la válvula cardiaca protésica, aislándose Burkholderia pseudomallei en hemocultivos y en el cultivo de secreción de la pierna. Fue tratado con meropenem y cotrimoxazol, con una adecuada respuesta clínica, requiriendo un reemplazo valvular aórtico.
Abstract Melioidosis is an endemic disease to several regions and occurs predominantly in Southern Asia, Northern Australia, China and Taiwan. In South America, Colombia is second after Brazil in number of melioidosis cases reported. Clinical manifestation varies from asymptomatic infection to multiorgan compromise involving multiple abscesses and septic shock. Cardiac compromise is infrequent, with an incidence of <1%. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient from Colombia with a mechanical aortic valve who had an abscess in right leg and in the prosthetic valve. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in blood cultures and drained pus from the leg cultures. Patient was treated with meropenem and cotrimoxazole and required aortic valve replacement, resulting in adequate improvement in clinical symptoms.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Melioidosis/complications , Melioidosis/diagnosis , Melioidosis/drug therapy , Abscess/drug therapy , Endocarditis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Resumen Se presenta un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, en un paciente masculino de 38 años, sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni otros antecedentes previos. La sospecha diagnóstica comienza por síndrome febril prolongado, astenia y pérdida de peso, confirmada con rescate de gonococo en los hemocultivos. Cumplió tratamiento antibiótico con ceftriaxona por 29 días. Evoluciona con insu ficiencia aórtica grave por lo cual se realiza cirugía de reemplazo valvular por prótesis mecánica bidisco exitosa, con una evolución favorable.
Abstract We report a case of infectious endocarditis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a 38-year-old male patient with no cardiovascular risk factors or past medical history who presented with prolonged febrile illness, asthenia and weight loss. The blood cultures were positive for gonococcus. He received antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone for 29 days. The patient developed severe aortic regurgitation and underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis, with favorable outcome.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Abstract Introduction: Destructive aortic root endocarditis is associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical and microbiological profiles of these patients, especially concerning an already implanted aortic valve prosthesis. We also focused on prognostic factors. Methods: Eighty patients underwent aortic root replacement due to destructive endocarditis from 1999 to 2018 in our institution. We analyzed their pre, intra, and postoperative data, outcomes, and predictors of mortality. Results: Thirty-one patients had native valve endocarditis (NVE), eight patients had early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), and 41 patients had late-onset PVE. Streptococcus was found in 19.4% of NVE cases and no PVE case. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was responsible for 62.5% of the cases of early-onset PVE. Thirty-four (42.5%) patients had received inappropriate antibiotics before admission. No microorganism was associated with higher risk of mortality. Aortoventricular dehiscence was identified as an independent risk factor of mortality along with PVE, concomitant bypass surgery, and delayed diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative complications was similar in all three groups. Rates of long-term survival (P=0.044) and freedom from the composite endpoint (P=0.024) defined as death, stroke, aortic valve reinfection, and aortic valve reoperation were the lowest within the NVE group and the highest among the PVE patients. Conclusion: In endocarditis, prolonged diagnostics, inadequate antimicrobial treatment, and late surgery led to destructive local complications and worsened the prognosis. PVE is associated with higher mortality than NVE.
Subject(s)Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve
Abstract Multivalve redo procedures carry a high surgical risk. We describe an alternative surgical treatment for patients presenting with severely degenerated aortic and mitral valve prostheses who have to undergo open surgery due to endocarditis. Open transcatheter multivalve implantation is a feasible bailout strategy in high-risk patients to save cross-clamp and procedural times to reduce morbidity and mortality.
Subject(s)Humans , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Endocarditis/surgery , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Aortic Valve/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Treatment Outcome , Mitral Valve/surgery
Abstract Objective: Isolated aortic valve replacement is a safe and frequently performed cardiac surgical procedure. Although minimal access approaches including right anterior thoracotomy and partial sternotomy have been adopted by some surgeons in recent years, concerns about additional procedural morbidity and mortality during the early phase of the learning curve persist. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the learning curve on outcomes for a single surgeon implementing a new minimal access aortic valve replacement service. Methods: Ninety-three patients undergoing minimal access aortic valve replacement performed by a single surgeon in our institution between October 2014 and March 2019 were analysed. Patients were divided into tertiles according to procedure order. Endpoints included peri-operative mortality and post-operative complications, and these were compared across tertiles to assess the impact of the learning curve on procedural outcomes. Results: Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.15% (n=2). Despite significantly longer cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp duration in the early tertile, there was no significant difference in the rate of post-operative complications, post-operative length of stay or in-hospital mortality between tertiles. Conclusions: Although our results have demonstrated a significant learning curve effect associated with the introduction of this minimally invasive approach to aortic valve replacement, as demonstrated by the significant reduction in cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp duration over time, our findings suggest that a minimal access aortic valve replacement service can be safely commenced by an experienced surgeon without concerns about the learning curve significantly affecting post-operative morbidity and mortality.
Subject(s)Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thoracotomy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sternotomy , Learning Curve
SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: According to recent studies, the rate of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing in patients following transcatheter aortic valve implantation varied between 5.7% and 42.5%. Fragmented QRS is a useful marker of myocardial scar and can predict adverse cardiac events. In this study, we examined association between f ragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined association between fragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation' sentence is enough for it. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed standard 12-lead electrocardiographic recordings of 124 consecutive patients in whom a CoreValve prosthesis was implanted. We examined 12-lead electrocardiogram before and after procedure along with one- and six-month follow-up. We documented QRS fragmentation and postprocedural rhythm disturbances. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the frequency of left bundle branch block, (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) and the incidence of atrioventricular blocks requiring permanent pacing (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose preprocedural electrocardiogram recordings revealed fragmented QRS compared to those without fragmented QRS. Based our collected data, the presence of QRS fragmentation in anterior derivations was the only independent factor associated with postprocedural rhythm disturbances (B-value 0.217; OR 0.805; 95%CI 0.136-4.78; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Our data showed an increased risk for the development of new-onset left bundle branch block and atrioventricular blocks following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose baseline electrocardiogram recordings demonstrated QRS fragmentation.
Subject(s)Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Pacemaker, Artificial , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Electrocardiography
Subject(s)Humans , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis
Abstract In the growing era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation, it is crucial to develop minimally invasive surgical techniques. These methods enable easier recovery from surgical trauma, especially in elderly and frail patients. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is frequently performed via upper hemisternotomy. We describe MIAVR via right anterior thoracotomy, which is associated with less trauma, rapid mobilization, lower blood transfusion rates, and lower risk of postoperative wound infections. As minimally invasive procedures tend to take longer operative times, we suggest using rapid-deployment valve prostheses to overcome this limitation. This description focuses on the technical aspects and preoperative assessment.
Subject(s)Humans , Aged , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thoracotomy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Abstract Introduction: This study aims to test the effect of phenytoin as an inhibitor of the process of dystrophic calcification in bovine pericardium and porcine leaflets implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Methods: Isolated segments of biomaterials were implanted subcutaneously in young rats. The study groups received 500 mg phenytoin per kilogram of diet per day. After 90 days, samples were collected and quantitative calcification assessment by optical microscopy, radiological studies with mammography, and atomic emission spectrometry were performed. Results: Inflammatory reaction was a frequent finding in all groups when analyzed by optical microscopy. The calcium level assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was significantly lower in the study groups using phenytoin compared to the control groups (control bovine pericardium group X=0.254±0.280 µg/mg; study bovine pericardium group X=0.063±0.025 µg/mg; control porcine aortic leaflets group X=0.640±0.226 µg/mg; study porcine aortic leaflets group X=0.056±0.021 µg/mg; P<0.05). Radiologic studies revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups treated with and without phenytoin (not only regarding the bovine pericardium but also the porcine leaflets). Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that phenytoin reduces the calcification process of bovine pericardium segments and porcine aortic leaflets in subdermal implants in rats; also, the incidence of calcification in bovine pericardium grafts was similar to that of porcine aortic leaflets.
Subject(s)Animals , Cattle , Rats , Bioprosthesis , Calcinosis/prevention & control , Aorta , Pericardium , Phenytoin , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Glutaral
Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad de alta mortalidad, caracterizada por una infección endocárdica y frecuentes complicaciones multiorgánicas, que requiere un diagnóstico rápido y preciso, y un manejo agresivo, ya sea médico o quirúrgico. Su diagnóstico se realiza tomando en cuenta criterios bacteriológicos, clínicos y ecocardiográficos. Es objetivo de este artículo realizar una actualización del estudio imagenológico en paciente con EI, con especial énfasis en aquellos exámenes no ecocardiográficos disponibles en nuestro medio. En los últimos años, estudios de imagen avanzados han adquirido un rol creciente en su estudio inicial, particularmente la tomografía computada multicorte (TCMC) cardiaca y el positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), y han sido recomendados como criterios diagnósticos en las guías recientes para el manejo de esta entidad. La TCMC cardiaca proporciona información anatómica detallada de las válvulas cardiacas y tejido perivalvular, identificando pseudoaneurismas, abscesos y dehiscencias valvulares. El PET/CT con F18-fluorodeoxiglucosa (F18-FDG) permite aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de EI, y pesquisar con alta eficiencia fenómenos embólicos sistémicos, de elevada frecuencia en esta población. Ambos métodos prestan particular utilidad en EI de válvula protésica, donde la ecocardiografía presenta menor rendimiento diagnóstico. La resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral es el mejor método de imagen para descartar eventos isquémicos/embólicos del sistema nervioso central.
Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is an entity characterized by endocardial infection and frequent multiorgan complications, resulting in high mortality. It requires a rapid and accurate diagnosis, and a medical or surgical aggressive treatment. Currently, IE diagnosis rests on bacterial, clinical and ultrasonographic criteria. The objective of this article is to update the imaging study in patients with IE, with special emphasis on those non-echocardiographic examinations available in our environment. Last years, advanced imaging had achieved a growing role in IE diagnosis, especially cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which have been recommended in recent clinical guidelines to be included as part of diagnostic criteria. Cardiac MSCT provides detailed anatomic information of cardiac valves and perivalve tissue, allowing identification of pseudoaneurysm, abscess and valve dehiscence. F18-FDG PET/CT increases sensitivity for IE detection and shows high accuracy in searching for extracranial systemic embolic events. Both MSCT and PET/CT have particular utility in cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis, where cardiac ultrasonography shows lower performance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging method for evaluating ischemic/embolic events of central nervous system.