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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929010


OBJECTIVES@#Due to the lack of large-sized pulmonary valved conduit products in clinical practice, hand-sewn expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) valved conduit has been used for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction in many heart centers around the world. This study aims to summarize the early results of the ePTFE valved conduit and the sewing technology of the conduit in combination with the latest progress, and to provide a reference for the application of ePTFE valved conduit.@*METHODS@#A total of 21 patients using ePTFE valved conduit for RVOT reconstruction in the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from October 2018 to October 2020 were prospectively enrolled in this study. The age at the implantation of the conduit was 4.3 to 43.8 (median 15.1) years old, with weight of (38.9±4.1) kg. In this cohort, 14 patients underwent re-reconstruction of RVOT, including 12 patients with pulmonary regurgitation at 6.3 to 31.0 (median 13.8) years after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair, and 2 patients with failed bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC). Seven patients underwent Ross operations. Among them, 3 were for aortic valve stenosis, 2 were for aortic regurgitation, and 2 were for both stenosis and regurgitation. The ePTFE valved conduits were standard hand-sewn during the surgery. The 3 leaflets were equal in size with arc-shaped lower edge of the valve sinus. The free edge of the valve leaflets was straight with the length of about 1 mm longer than the diameter. The height of the valve sinus was 4/5 of the diameter. The junction of the valve leaflet was 3/4 of the height of the sinus. The designed leaflets were then continuous non-penetrating sutured into the inner surface of Gore-Tex vessel to make a valved conduit. Valved conduits with diameter of 18, 20, and 22 mm were used in 2, 9, and 10 cases, respectively. The surgical results, postoperative recovery time, and serious complications were summarized, and the changes of postoperative cardiac function status and hemodynamic status of the conduits were investigated.@*RESULTS@#During the implantation of ePTFE valved conduit for RVOT reconstruction, 2 patients underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement with Ross operation, 2 patients with pulmonary regurgitation with repaired TOF underwent left and right pulmonary artery angioplasty, and 1 patient with failed BJVC underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty. The cardiopulmonary bypassing time for patients underwent re-reconstruction of RVOT was (130.9±16.9) min, with aorta clamping for 1 patient to repair the residual defect of the ventricular septum. The cardiopulmonary bypassing and aorta clamping time for Ross operation were (242.7±20.6) min and (145.6±10.5) min, respectively. The duration of postoperative ventilator assistance, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay were 3.5 h to 7.7 d (median 17.1 h),11.2 h to 29.5 d (median 1.9 d), and 6.0 to 56.0 (median 13.0) d, respectively. All patients survived after discharge from hospital. The follow-up rate after discharge was 100% with median time at 15.0 (13.0 to 39.0) months. No death happened during the follow-up. One patient underwent stent implantation due to right coronary stenosis 2 months after Ross operation. One patient underwent balloon dilation due to right pulmonary artery ostium stenosis 1 year after re-reconstruction of RVOT. The cardiac function of all patients recovered to NYHA class I 6 months after operation. The peak pressure gradient across the valve measured by transthoracic echocardiography before discharge was (9.4±2.6) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), and (18.3±6.1) mmHg at the last follow-up. There was no significant increase in the gradient during the follow-up (P=0.134). No patient suffered from mild or more pulmonary regurgitation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hand-sewn ePTFE valved conduit is feasible for RVOT reconstruction. It is a promising material for RVOT reconstruction which can effectively meet clinical need. In our experience, the ePTFE valved conduit is simple to manufacture with satisfactory early outcomes.In the application of ePTFE valved conduit, attention should be paid to implantation indications and postoperative anticoagulation management, especially to the preparation details of the valved conduit, to obtain better function and durability of the conduit after implantation.

Adolescent , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Infant , Constriction, Pathologic/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Prosthesis Design , Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Outflow Obstruction/surgery
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(6): 816-819, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388311


Resumen La melioidosis es endémica en varias regiones, con predominio en el Sudeste Asiático, norte de Australia, sur de Asia, China y Taiwán. En Sudamérica, Colombia ocupa el segundo lugar de casos de melioidosis, después de Brasil. Su manifestación clínica es variable, desde una infección asintomática hasta un compromiso multiorgánico con formación de abscesos múltiples y choque séptico. El compromiso cardiaco es inusual, con una incidencia menor del 1%. Se presenta el caso de un varón de 51 años, colombiano, con antecedente de una valvula aórtica mecánica, quien presentó un absceso en la pierna derecha y en la válvula cardiaca protésica, aislándose Burkholderia pseudomallei en hemocultivos y en el cultivo de secreción de la pierna. Fue tratado con meropenem y cotrimoxazol, con una adecuada respuesta clínica, requiriendo un reemplazo valvular aórtico.

Abstract Melioidosis is an endemic disease to several regions and occurs predominantly in Southern Asia, Northern Australia, China and Taiwan. In South America, Colombia is second after Brazil in number of melioidosis cases reported. Clinical manifestation varies from asymptomatic infection to multiorgan compromise involving multiple abscesses and septic shock. Cardiac compromise is infrequent, with an incidence of <1%. We report the case of a 51-year-old patient from Colombia with a mechanical aortic valve who had an abscess in right leg and in the prosthetic valve. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in blood cultures and drained pus from the leg cultures. Patient was treated with meropenem and cotrimoxazole and required aortic valve replacement, resulting in adequate improvement in clinical symptoms.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Melioidosis/complications , Melioidosis/diagnosis , Melioidosis/drug therapy , Abscess/drug therapy , Endocarditis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 861-864, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351063


Resumen Se presenta un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, en un paciente masculino de 38 años, sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular ni otros antecedentes previos. La sospecha diagnóstica comienza por síndrome febril prolongado, astenia y pérdida de peso, confirmada con rescate de gonococo en los hemocultivos. Cumplió tratamiento antibiótico con ceftriaxona por 29 días. Evoluciona con insu ficiencia aórtica grave por lo cual se realiza cirugía de reemplazo valvular por prótesis mecánica bidisco exitosa, con una evolución favorable.

Abstract We report a case of infectious endocarditis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a 38-year-old male patient with no cardiovascular risk factors or past medical history who presented with prolonged febrile illness, asthenia and weight loss. The blood cultures were positive for gonococcus. He received antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone for 29 days. The patient developed severe aortic regurgitation and underwent surgical aortic valve replacement with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis, with favorable outcome.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aortic Valve Insufficiency , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(5): 614-622, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351650


Abstract Introduction: Destructive aortic root endocarditis is associated with high mortality rates. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical and microbiological profiles of these patients, especially concerning an already implanted aortic valve prosthesis. We also focused on prognostic factors. Methods: Eighty patients underwent aortic root replacement due to destructive endocarditis from 1999 to 2018 in our institution. We analyzed their pre, intra, and postoperative data, outcomes, and predictors of mortality. Results: Thirty-one patients had native valve endocarditis (NVE), eight patients had early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), and 41 patients had late-onset PVE. Streptococcus was found in 19.4% of NVE cases and no PVE case. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was responsible for 62.5% of the cases of early-onset PVE. Thirty-four (42.5%) patients had received inappropriate antibiotics before admission. No microorganism was associated with higher risk of mortality. Aortoventricular dehiscence was identified as an independent risk factor of mortality along with PVE, concomitant bypass surgery, and delayed diagnosis. The incidence of postoperative complications was similar in all three groups. Rates of long-term survival (P=0.044) and freedom from the composite endpoint (P=0.024) defined as death, stroke, aortic valve reinfection, and aortic valve reoperation were the lowest within the NVE group and the highest among the PVE patients. Conclusion: In endocarditis, prolonged diagnostics, inadequate antimicrobial treatment, and late surgery led to destructive local complications and worsened the prognosis. PVE is associated with higher mortality than NVE.

Humans , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Prosthesis-Related Infections/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1311-1316, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351458


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: According to recent studies, the rate of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing in patients following transcatheter aortic valve implantation varied between 5.7% and 42.5%. Fragmented QRS is a useful marker of myocardial scar and can predict adverse cardiac events. In this study, we examined association between f ragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined association between fragmented QRS and postprocedural rhythm disturbances and the need for permanent pacing in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation' sentence is enough for it. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed standard 12-lead electrocardiographic recordings of 124 consecutive patients in whom a CoreValve prosthesis was implanted. We examined 12-lead electrocardiogram before and after procedure along with one- and six-month follow-up. We documented QRS fragmentation and postprocedural rhythm disturbances. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the frequency of left bundle branch block, (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) and the incidence of atrioventricular blocks requiring permanent pacing (21.1 versus 0%, p<0.05) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose preprocedural electrocardiogram recordings revealed fragmented QRS compared to those without fragmented QRS. Based our collected data, the presence of QRS fragmentation in anterior derivations was the only independent factor associated with postprocedural rhythm disturbances (B-value 0.217; OR 0.805; 95%CI 0.136-4.78; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Our data showed an increased risk for the development of new-onset left bundle branch block and atrioventricular blocks following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients whose baseline electrocardiogram recordings demonstrated QRS fragmentation.

Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Pacemaker, Artificial , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Electrocardiography
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 260-270, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388227


Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad de alta mortalidad, caracterizada por una infección endocárdica y frecuentes complicaciones multiorgánicas, que requiere un diagnóstico rápido y preciso, y un manejo agresivo, ya sea médico o quirúrgico. Su diagnóstico se realiza tomando en cuenta criterios bacteriológicos, clínicos y ecocardiográficos. Es objetivo de este artículo realizar una actualización del estudio imagenológico en paciente con EI, con especial énfasis en aquellos exámenes no ecocardiográficos disponibles en nuestro medio. En los últimos años, estudios de imagen avanzados han adquirido un rol creciente en su estudio inicial, particularmente la tomografía computada multicorte (TCMC) cardiaca y el positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), y han sido recomendados como criterios diagnósticos en las guías recientes para el manejo de esta entidad. La TCMC cardiaca proporciona información anatómica detallada de las válvulas cardiacas y tejido perivalvular, identificando pseudoaneurismas, abscesos y dehiscencias valvulares. El PET/CT con F18-fluorodeoxiglucosa (F18-FDG) permite aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de EI, y pesquisar con alta eficiencia fenómenos embólicos sistémicos, de elevada frecuencia en esta población. Ambos métodos prestan particular utilidad en EI de válvula protésica, donde la ecocardiografía presenta menor rendimiento diagnóstico. La resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral es el mejor método de imagen para descartar eventos isquémicos/embólicos del sistema nervioso central.

Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is an entity characterized by endocardial infection and frequent multiorgan complications, resulting in high mortality. It requires a rapid and accurate diagnosis, and a medical or surgical aggressive treatment. Currently, IE diagnosis rests on bacterial, clinical and ultrasonographic criteria. The objective of this article is to update the imaging study in patients with IE, with special emphasis on those non-echocardiographic examinations available in our environment. Last years, advanced imaging had achieved a growing role in IE diagnosis, especially cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which have been recommended in recent clinical guidelines to be included as part of diagnostic criteria. Cardiac MSCT provides detailed anatomic information of cardiac valves and perivalve tissue, allowing identification of pseudoaneurysm, abscess and valve dehiscence. F18-FDG PET/CT increases sensitivity for IE detection and shows high accuracy in searching for extracranial systemic embolic events. Both MSCT and PET/CT have particular utility in cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis, where cardiac ultrasonography shows lower performance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging method for evaluating ischemic/embolic events of central nervous system.

Humans , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Ultrasonography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880645


Anticoagulation drugs should be used for patients with mechanical heart valve (MHV) in case of potential risk of thrombosis. Pregnant women with MHV have to change therapies due to teratogenic effect of some anti-coagulation drugs. European Society of Cardiology clinical guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy gives specific suggestions for anticoagulation therapy.We have treated 2 patients with mechanical heart valve thrombosis (MVT) during pregnancy: One received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) throughout the pregnancy and developed MVT at the third trimester of pregnancy; one developed MVT at the first trimester when replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKA) with LMWH. These patients raised secondary reflection on the balance between clinical guideline and personalized medicine. During LMWH therapy, we should dynamically monitor patients' anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) level to evaluate coagulation function during pregnancy. When a pregnant woman with MHV develops symptoms of acute heart failure, stuck mechanical valve should be paid attention to and surgery should be promptly performed if necessary.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valves , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(3): 256-260, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388062


Resumen: Un hombre de 66 años portador de una prótesis valvular aórtica SJM Biocor® (Saint Jude Medical, St Paul, Minn), instalada 6 años antes, se presentó con disnea severa de rápida instalación. Mediante ecocardiografía de superficie y transesofágica se demostró insuficiencia aórtica masiva y el paciente fue reintervenido con éxito. En la operación se observó un desprendimiento parcial de la inserción del velo coronario izquierdo al anillo protésico. No había endocarditis. Se implantó una nueva prótesis biológica Trifecta® (Saint Jude Inc, St Paul, Minn) N°27. La evolución precoz y a 2 años de la intervención es muy satisfactoria.

Abstract A 66 year-old man with a SJM Biocor® (Saint Jude Medical, St Paul, Minn) implanted 6 years before developed unexpected severe dyspnea. Surface and transesophageal echocardiograms confirmed severe aortic regurgitation. The patient was rapidly re operated on. There was a partial detachment of the left coronary leaflet form the valve annulus. There was no evidence of endocarditis. A new valve (Trifecta® (Saint Jude Inc, St Paul, Minn) N°27). was inserted. Clinical course has been uneventful up to two years post surgery.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Rupture, Spontaneous/complications , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Reoperation , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 411-419, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137311


Abstract Introduction: People with aortic/prosthetic valve endocarditis are a high-risk cohort of patients who present a challenge for all medically involved disciplines and who can be treated by various surgical techniques. Methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of root endocarditis with Medtronic Freestyle® in full-root technique over 19 years (1999-2018) and compared them against treatment with other tissue valves. Comparison was made with propensity score matching, using the nearest neighbor method. Various tests were performed as suited for adequate analyses. Results: Fifty-four patients in the Medtronic Freestyle group (FS group) were matched against 54 complex root endocarditis patients treated with other tissue valves (Tissue group). Hospital mortality was 9/54 (16.7%) in the FS group vs. 14/54 (25.6%) in the Tissue group (P=0.24). Cox regression performed for early results demonstrated coronary heart disease (P=0.004, odds ratio 2.3), among others, influencing early mortality. Recurrent infection was low (1.8% for FS and Tissue patients) and freedom from reoperation was 97.2% at a total of 367 patient-years of follow-up (median of 2.7 years). Conclusion: The stentless xenograft is a viable alternative for treatment of valve/root/prosthetic endocarditis, demonstrating a low rate of reinfection. The design of the bioroot allows for complex reconstructive procedures at the outflow tract and the annular level with at an acceptable operative risk. Endocarditis patients can be treated excluding infective tissue from the bloodstream, possibly with benefits, concerning bacteremia and recurrent infection. Furthermore, the use of the stentless bioroot offers varying treatment options in case of future valve degeneration.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Aortic Valve/surgery , Prosthesis Design , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 307-313, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137277


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in aortic valve replacement (AVR) patients with aortic bioprosthesis under oral anticoagulation (OA). Methods: Patients who underwent AVR with bioprosthesiswere prospectively enrolled. They were classified based on postoperative use of OA. Clinical and operative variables were collected. Echocardiographic and clinical follow-ups were performed two years after surgery. The primary outcome evaluated was change in transprosthetic gradient. Secondary outcomes analyzed were change in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, major bleeding episodes, hospitalization, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Results: We included 103 patients (61 without OA and 42 with OA). Clinical characteristics were similar among groups, except for younger age (76±6.3 vs. 72.4±8.1 years, P=0.016) and higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (0% vs. 23.8%, P<0.001) in the OA group. Mean (21.4±10 mmHg vs. 16.8±7.7 mmHg, P=0.037) and maximum (33.4±13.7 mmHg vs. 28.4±10.2 mmHg, P=0.05) transprosthetic gradients were higher in patients without OA. Improvement in NYHA class was more frequent in patients with OA (73% vs. 45.3%, P=0.032). Major bleeding, stroke, and hospitalization were similar among groups. OA was the only independent predictor for improvement of NYHA class after multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-29.4; P=0.028). Stratification by prosthesis size showed that patients with ≤ 21 mm prosthesis benefited from OA. Conclusion: Early anticoagulation after AVR with bioprosthesis was associated with significant decrease of transprosthesis gradient and improvement in NYHA class. These associations were seen mainly in patients with ≤ 21 mm prosthesis.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/drug therapy , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , Prosthesis Design , Treatment Outcome , Hemodynamics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 17-22, feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125033


La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad grave y potencialmente letal. La capacidad diagnóstica de los criterios de Duke modificados es alta para válvulas nativas, pero decae en el caso de EI de válvulas protésicas o EI asociadas a dispositivos. El ecocardiograma y los hallazgos microbiológicos son fundamentales para el diagnóstico, pero pueden resultar insuficientes en este grupo de pacientes. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la utilidad de la tomografía por emisión de positrones y fusión con tomografía computarizada (PET/TC) en pacientes con sospecha de EI, portadores de válvulas protésicas o dispositivos intracardiacos. Se estudiaron 32 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizó un PET/CT con 18F-Flúor desoxiglucosa (18F-FDG). Se consideraron sugestivos de infección aquellos con captación intensa de tipo focal y/o heterogénea con un punto de corte de Standard Uptake Value (SUV) mayor o igual a 3.7. Los diagnósticos iniciales según los criterios de Duke modificados, se compararon con el diagnóstico final establecido por la Unidad de Endocarditis institucional. El agregado del PET/CT a esos criterios, proporcionó un diagnóstico concluyente en 22 de los 32 casos iniciales, reclasificando a 11 casos en EI definitivas y a otros 5 casos como negativos para ese diagnóstico. La EI continúa siendo un grave problema clínico. En aquellos casos donde los criterios de Duke no son suficientes para establecer el diagnóstico y la sospecha clínica persiste, el PET/CT puede ser una herramienta complementaria útil para aumentar la sensibilidad diagnóstica.

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially lethal condition. The diagnostic capacity of the modified Duke criteria is high for native valves, but it declines in the case of EI of prosthetic valves or EI associated with devices. Echocardiography and microbiological findings are essential for diagnosis but may be insufficient in this group of patients. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of positron emission tomography and fusion with computed tomography (PET / CT) in patients with suspected IE, carriers of prosthetic valves or intracardiac devices; 32 patients were studied, who underwent PET / CT with 18F-Fluorine deoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Those with intense focal and/or heterogeneous uptake with a Standard Uptake Value (SUV) cut-off point greater than or equal to 3.7 were considered suggestive of infection. The initial diagnoses according to the modified Duke criteria were compared with the final diagnosis established by the Institutional Endocarditis Unit. The addition of PET / CT to these criteria, provided a conclusive diagnosis in 22 of the 32 initial cases reclassifying 11 cases in definitive EI; another 5 cases were negative for that diagnosis. EI continues to be a serious clinical problem. In those cases where the Duke criteria are not sufficient to establish the diagnosis and clinical suspicion persists, PET / CT can be a useful complementary tool to increase the diagnostic sensitivity.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Pacemaker, Artificial/microbiology , Reference Values , Heart Valve Prosthesis/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Prosthesis-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Defibrillators, Implantable/microbiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 12-22, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055099


Abstract Background: Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is associated with worse outcomes. Objective: Determine the frequency and evaluate preoperatory variables independently associated with severe PPM in a tertiary hospital focused on Public Health Care. Methods: A total of 316 patients submitted to aortic valve replacement, who had echocardiography performed within the first 30 days after surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. The indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) of the prosthesis was used to classify the patients into three groups, according to PPM, considering body mass index (BMI): severe PPM (iEOA) < 0.65 cm2/m2), mild to moderate PPM (iEOA, 0.65 cm2/m2 - 0.85 cm2/m2) and without PPM (iEOA > 0.85 cm2/m2) for a BMI < 30 kg/m2 and severe PPM (iEOA) < 0.55 cm2/m2), mild to moderate (iEOA, 0.55 cm2/m2- 0.70 cm2/m2) and without PPM (iEOA > 0.7 cm2/m2) for a BMI > 30 kg/m2. Statistical significance was considered when p < 0.05. Results: iEOA was obtained in 176 patients. The frequency of severe and moderate PPM was 33.4% and 36.2%, respectively. Severe PPM patients were younger and had larger BMI, but smaller left ventricular outflow tract diameter (LVOTD). The independent variables used to predict severe PPM were male gender, BMI > 25 kg/m2, age < 60 years, LVOTD < 21 mm, and rheumatic etiology with an area under the ROC curve of 0.82. Conclusion: The frequency of severe PPM is high in a Brazilian population representative of the Public Health System, and it is possible to predict PPM from preoperative variables such as rheumatic valvular disease, gender, BMI, age and LVOTD.

Resumo Fundamento: A desproporção entre o tamanho da prótese aórtica-paciente (DPP) está associada a maior mortalidade. Objetivo: Determinar a frequência e avaliar variáveis ​​pré-operatórias associadas à DPP acentuada no cenário da saúde pública em hospital terciário. Métodos: 316 pacientes submetidos à troca valvar aórtica (TVA), com ecocardiograma realizado nos primeiros 30 dias após cirurgia, foram analisados retrospectivamente. A área de orifício efetivo indexado (AOEi) da prótese foi utilizada para classificar os pacientes em três grupos de acordo com a DPP, considerando o índice de massa corporal (IMC): DPP acentuada (AOEi) < 0,65 cm2/m2, DPP discreta a moderada (AOEi, 0,65 cm2/m2 - 0,85 cm2/m2) e sem DPP (iEOA > 0,85 cm2/m2) para IMC < 30 kg/m2 e DPP acentuada (AOEi) < 0,55 cm2/m2), discreta a moderada (AOEi, 0,55 cm2/m2 - 0,70 cm2/m2) e sem DPP (AOEi > 0,7 cm2/m2) para IMC > 30 kg/m2. Significância estatística foi considerada com p < 0,05. Resultados: A AOEi foi obtida em 176 pacientes. A frequência de DPP acentuada foi de 33,4% e moderada de 36,2%. Pacientes com DPP acentuada foram mais jovens e com maior IMC, mas menor diâmetro da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo (DVSVE). As variáveis independentes que podem predizer DPP acentuada são: gênero masculino, IMC > 25 kg/m2, idade < 60 anos, DVSVE < 21 mm e etiologia reumática com área sob a curva ROC de 0,82. Conclusão: A frequência de DPP acentuada é alta em uma população brasileira submetida à TVA no Sistema Público de Saúde. Os principais determinantes de DPP acentuada são: valvopatia reumática, gênero masculino, IMC alto, idade < 60 anos e menor DVSVE.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Reoperation , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Hospitals, Public
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 361-365, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013459


Abstract Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is an issue that has been overlooked (not to say neglected). Cardiac surgeons must bear in mind that this is a real problem that we must tackle. The purpose of this paper is to be a wake-up call to the surgical community by giving a brief overview of what PPM is, its incidence and impact on the outcomes. We also discuss the increasing role played by imaging for predicting and assessing PPM after SAVR (with which surgeons must become more acquainted) and, finally, we present some options to avoid PPM after the surgical procedure.

Humans , Prosthesis Failure/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure , Risk Assessment , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/mortality
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 318-326, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013462


Abstract Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on the risk of early-term mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: Databases (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], Excerpta Medica dataBASE [EMBASE], Cochrane Controlled Trials Register [CENTRAL/CCTR],, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences [LILACS], and Google Scholar) were searched for studies published until February 2019. PPM after TAVI was defined as moderate if the indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) was between 0.85 cm2/m2 and 0.65 cm2/m2 and as severe if iEOA ≤ 0.65 cm2/m2. Results: The search yielded 1,092 studies for inclusion. Of these, 18 articles were analyzed, and their data extracted. The total number of patients included who underwent TAVI was 71,106. The incidence of PPM after TAVI was 36.3% (25,846 with PPM and 45,260 without PPM). One-year mortality was not increased in patients with any PPM (odds ratio [OR] 1.021, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.979-1.065, P=0.338) neither in those with moderate PPM (OR 0.980, 95% CI 0.933-1.029, P=0.423). Severe PPM was separately associated with high risk (OR 1.109, 95% CI 1.041-1.181, P=0.001). Conclusion: The presence of severe PPM after TAVI increased early-term mortality. Although moderate PPM seemed harmless, the findings of this study cannot not rule out the possibility of it being detrimental, since there are other registries that did not address this issue yet.

Humans , Prosthesis Failure/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Treatment Failure , Risk Assessment
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 211-213, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003395


Abstract We presented a 39-year-old female patient with life-threatening hypoxemia after tricuspid valve replacement because of Ebstein's anomaly. And the severe cyanosis is due to bioprosthetic valve stenosis and atrial septal defect. Anesthetic management of a patient with severe obstructive prosthetic valve dysfunction can be challenging. Similar considerations should be given to patients with Ebstein's anomaly to maintain the pressure equalized between the right and left atrial. Transesophageal echocardiography and cerebral oxygen saturation provided real time information in perioperative care.

Resumo Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos, com hipoxemia em risco de vida após a substituição da valva tricúspide devido à anomalia de Ebstein e cianose grave devido à estenose de valva bioprotética e comunicação interatrial. O manejo anestésico de um paciente com disfunção obstrutiva grave de prótese valvar pode ser um desafio. Os pacientes com anomalia de Ebstein também precisam de atenção especial para manter a pressão equalizada entre o átrio direito e o esquerdo. A ecocardiografia transesofágica e a saturação cerebral de oxigênio forneceram informações em tempo real nos cuidados perioperatórios.

Humans , Female , Adult , Tricuspid Valve Stenosis/surgery , Cyanosis/etiology , Ebstein Anomaly/surgery , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Bioprosthesis/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Perioperative Care/methods , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/surgery , Hypoxia/etiology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 203-212, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990564


Abstract Objective: This study sought to evaluate the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on the risk of perioperative and long-term mortality after mitral valve replacement. Methods: Databases were researched for studies published until December 2018. Main outcomes of interest were perioperative and 10-year mortality and echocardiographic parameters. Results: The research yielded 2,985 studies for inclusion. Of these, 16 articles were analyzed, and their data extracted. The total number of patients included was 10,239, who underwent mitral valve replacement. The incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement was 53.7% (5,499 with prosthesis-patient mismatch and 4,740 without prosthesis-patient mismatch). Perioperative (OR 1.519; 95%CI 1.194-1.931, P<0.001) and 10-year (OR 1.515; 95%CI 1.280-1.795, P<0.001) mortality was increased in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch. Patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure and transprosthethic gradient and lower indexed effective orifice area and left ventricle ejection fraction. Conclusion: Prosthesis-patient mismatch increases perioperative and long-term mortality. Prosthesis-patient mismatch is also associated with pulmonary hypertension and depressed left ventricle systolic function. The findings of this study support the implementation of surgical strategies to prevent prosthesis-patient mismatch in order to decrease mortality rates.

Humans , Male , Female , Prosthesis Failure , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/mortality , Mitral Valve/surgery , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Perioperative Period/mortality
São Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 287-291, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962738


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the experience of treatment of early prosthetic valve endocarditis at a heart center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective single-center study on data collected from electronic medical records covering the period from January 2009 to December 2015. METHODS: Over the study period, 1,557 consecutive valve operations were performed on adult patients. The study population comprised 32 patients (2%) who were diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis within 12 months after the index surgery. Medical records were retrieved from electronic hospital records, retrospectively. Descriptive clinical, echocardiographic, microbiological and treatment-type data were used. Risk factors for early mortality were studied through univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestation of infective endocarditis was fever, and this was present in all patients. Most of the prostheses were affected in the aortic position (40.6% of cases). The most commonly cultured microorganisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-six patients (81.3%) underwent surgical treatment and six (18.7%) underwent exclusive clinical treatment. The prevalence of postoperative complications was 31.3% and hospital mortality occurred in seven cases (21.9%). The mortality rate was 50% among the patients who underwent medical treatment and 15.4% among those who underwent surgery. There were no independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is an infrequent complication of valve replacement. Surgical treatment has mortality rates compatible with the severity of patients' conditions. Surgical indication should not be delayed when clinical treatment has been ineffective

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Endocarditis, Bacterial/etiology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis, Bacterial/mortality , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy