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Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(3): 315-320, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345170


Abstract Objective: Right ventricle (RV) function plays an important role during fetal and neonatal transitional circulation. Despite the published echocardiography guidelines in children including neonates, there is scare evidence on RV assessment using echocardiography in Mexican neonates. This study was aimed at assessing RV function and anatomical measures in healthy term newborns and defines normal values in this cohort of patients. Methods: A prospective study involving healthy term newborns in a single center were enrolled in the study to assess RV, all patients were recruited within 24-72 h after birth. The right ventricular assessment was performed as per American Society of Echocardiography's guidelines. Results: Seventy healthy term newborns with a median gestational age of 38 (38.5 ± 2.7) weeks had RV function assessment and anatomical structures measures with a predefined ten echocardiographic parameters protocol. The mean values for: tricuspid valve diameter was 13 mm ± 1.8, basal diameter of the RV 16.7 mm ± 2, RV length 27.8 mm ± 2.2, mid cavity diameter 14.3 mm ± 1.7, RV-anteroinferior basal diameter 21.5 mm ± 2.5, tricuspid regurgitation gradient 13.3 mmHg ± 5.9, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion 8.7 mm, right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) 4 chamber (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, tricuspid E/A 0.7 ± 0.5, myocardial velocities (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, myocardial performance index 0.5 ± 0.1, RVFAC 3 chamber (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, and pulmonary acceleration time mean value 58.8 ± 14.9. Flattening of interventricular septum was seen in 13% infants. Conclusions: This study describes echocardiographic parameters for anatomical structures and assessment of RV function in healthy term newborns during transitional circulation. We reported novel anatomical measures of the RV; this information can provide normal reference range values and be referenced while assessing RV function in normal and sick newborns during transitional circulation.

Resumen Objetivo: Realizar una valoración ecocardiográfica de parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del ventrículo derecho (VD) en recién nacidos de término (RNT) sanos durante el periodo transicional. Método: Estudio prospectivo en RNT sanos de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales del Hospital Español. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados en las primeras 24-72 horas de vida, con base en las guías de la American Society of Echocardiography. Resultados: Se estudiaron 70 RNT sanos con una media de edad gestacional de 38 semanas de gestación (38.5 ± 2.7); en estos pacientes se obtuvieron 10 parámetros ecocardiográficos. El valor medio obtenido para la válvula tricúspide fue de 13 ± 1.8 mm, diámetro basal del VD 16.7 ± 2 mm, longitud 27.8 ± 2.2 mm, cavidad media del VD 14.3 ± 1.7 mm, diámetro basal anteroinferior 21.5 ± 2.5 mm, gradiente de insuficiencia tricuspídea 13.3 ± 5.9 mmHg, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 8.7 mm, Fracción de acortamiento del VD (FAVD) 4 cámaras (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, E/A tricuspídeo 0.7 ± 0.5, velocidades miocárdicas (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, índice de rendimiento miocárdico 0.5 ± 0.1, FAVD 3 cámaras (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, tiempo de aceleración pulmonar 58.8 ± 14.9. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del VD en RNT sanos durante el periodo de transición. Se reportan valores de normalidad que pueden servir como referencia.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Mexico
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1842, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363595


The Bradypus variegatus species presents peculiar anatomophysiological properties and many aspects of its organic systems still need to be clarified, especially regarding the cardiovascular system, given its participation in vital activities. Disorderly anthropic action has had drastic consequences in sloth populations and the need to treat sick and injured animals is increasingly common. To this end, the importance of knowing its characteristics is emphasized. Therefore, this study proposed to describe the internal macroscopic structures of the sloth's heart, as well as to measure the ventricular walls and indicate the electrical activity of the organ. For the dissections, 15 Bradypus variegatus cadavers were used (1 young female, 9 adults females and 5 adult males) belonging to the Área de Anatomia of the Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal (DMFA), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recide, PE, Brazil. After they were fixed and preserved, the specimens received a midsagittal incision in the chest, followed by soft tissue folding and removal of ribs to access the heart. The organ was derived from the cavity and sectioned sagittal medially to identify its internal anatomy. Ventricular walls and interventricular septum were measured with a steel caliper (150 mm / 0.02 mm). An electrocardiogram was performed to determine the electrical profile on 5 healthy B. variegatus sloths, living under semi-livestock conditions at the Recife Zoo, PE, Brazil. The electrodes were taken from the regions, scapular and glutes of the animals that were called hugging a keeper during the procedure, carried out in the Zoo itself, using a portable device. Based on the data obtained, sloths have cardiac chambers separated by septa, however between atria and ventricles, in both antimeres, there are atrioventricular ostia, where valves are found, consisting of 3 valves on the right and 2 on the left. The atria are practically smooth inside and have their cavity enlarged by the atria, the right being larger than the left, these having a greater amount of pectineal muscles in relation to the atria. The ventricles have trabeculae and papillary muscles, 3 on the right and 2 on the left. These muscles hold the tendinous chords that connect the valves. The existence of trabeculae marginal septum was not evidenced. The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle, as well as that of the interventricular septum, proved to be greater than the thickness of the wall of the right ventricle, regardless of the age or sex of the animals. Based on the electrocardiographic recordings, the sloths presented sinus rhythm, with a heart rate between 67 and 100 bpm. The electrical axis ranged from -60º to -90º. The P wave is smoother than the QRS complex. While the S-T segment was classified as isoelectric. The T wave was shown to be + and predominantly > or = at 25% of the S wave, which characterized an rS type QRS deflection in both females and males. The general characteristics of the cardiac chambers in sloths are similar to those observe in other domestic and wild mammals. However, the presence of pectineal muscles associated with the atria and auricles differs from that observed in mammals such as the paca and raccoon and in birds such as the ostrich, which have trabecular structures in these cavities. The number of valves in sloths is equal to the anteater. However, it has a marginal trabeculae septum, not seen in Bradypus variegatus. According to the electrocardiographic findings, the rhythm was sinus, but much lower than that observed in the capuchin monkey, which also maintains arboreal habits.(AU)

Animals , Male , Female , Sloths/physiology , Xenarthra/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Electrocardiography
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(1): [e000AO32], 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052460


Introdução: A avaliação sistemática das dimensões e da função das câmaras direitas, de acordo com sexo, idade, superfície corporal e índice de massa corporal, não é uniformemente realizada. Objetivo: Avaliar, ao ecocardiograma transtorácico, as dimensões e a função das câmaras direitas de acordo com o sexo, superfície corporal e índice de massa corporal em uma população ambulatorial. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal. Foram selecionados 81 pacientes, 60,4 ± 13,5 anos, de ambos os sexos (57 mulheres, 70%). Foram avaliados: diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito, basal do ventrículo direito, médio e longitudinal; área do átrio direito e volume do átrio direito; espessura da parede livre do ventrículo direito; excursão sistólica do anel valvar tricúspide; e Doppler tecidual do anel tricúspide, onda S'. Resultados: O sexo feminino apresentou menores diâmetros em relação ao sexo masculino (teste t de Student) de diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito (20,6 mm ± 2,4 vs. 22,7 mm ± 2,2; p = 0,001), basal do ventrículo direito (34,4 mm ± 3,5 vs. 38,2 mm ± 4,8; p < 0,001), diâmetro médio do ventrículo direito (27 mm ± 3,3 vs. 32,4 mm ± 4,9; p < 0,001), área do átrio direito (13,7 cm² ± 2,7 vs. 16,6 cm² ± 3,9; p = 0,002) e volume do átrio direito (37 mL ± 10,6 vs. 50,7 mL ± 15,6 ; p = 0,002). O índice de massa corporal e a superfície corporal se correlacionaram positivamente com o diâmetro proximal do ventrículo direito (coeficiente de correlação - CC 0,24; p = 0,03), diâmetro basal do ventrículo direito (CC 0,22; p = 0,04), diâmetro médio do ventrículo direito (CC 0,23; p = 0,04), diâmetro longitudinal do ventrículo direito (CC 0,28; p = 0,01), área do átrio direito (CC 0,40; p = 0,001) e volume do átrio direito (CC 0,24; p = 0,0006). Conclusão: As médias dos diâmetros ventriculares, área e volume atriais direitos foram menores no sexo feminino. Foi encontrada correlação positiva destes parâmetros com o índice de massa corporal e a superfície corporal. Os valores da excursão sistólica do anel valvar tricúspide e S' não foram influenciados por sexo, índice de massa corporal e superfície corporal.

Introduction: Assessment of right chambers dimensions and function according to gender, age, body surface area and body mass index is not uniformly performed. Objective: To evaluate, by transthoracic echocardiography dimensions and function of right chambers, according to gender, body surface area and body mass index in an outpatient population. Method: Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one patients were selected, 60.4 ± 13.5 years (57 women, 70%). Parameters assessed were the following: proximal, basal, medium and longitudinal, right ventricle diameter; right atrium area and right atrium volume; right ventricle wall thickness; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; and tricuspid annulus tissue Doppler and S' wave. Results: Female sex presented lower diameters (Student's t-test) of proximal right ventricle diameter (20.6 mm ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 mm ± 2.2; p = 0.001), basal right ventricle diameter (34,4 mm ± 3,5 vs. 38,2 mm ± 4,8; p <0.001), medium right ventricle diameter (27 mm ± 3.3 vs. 32.4 mm ± 4.9; p <0.001), right atrium area (13.7 cm² ± 2.7 vs. 16.6 cm² ± 3.9; p = 0.002) and right atrium volume (37 mL ± 10.6 vs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/anatomy & histology , Heart Atria/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Body Surface Area , Echocardiography , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190136, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134924


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a associação entre massa e espessura do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e presença de hipoxemia noturna significativa em pacientes portadores de DPOC com hipoxemia diurna leve. Métodos Estudo transversal realizado em pacientes ambulatoriais, clinicamente estáveis, portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia leve (saturação de oxigênio ≥ 90 a ≤ 94%, identificados por oximetria não invasiva) em um centro clínico especializado no atendimento de doenças respiratórias em Goiânia (GO). Todos foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, espirometria, polissonografia, ecocardiografia, gasometria arterial, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e radiografia de tórax. Resultados Foram avaliados 64 pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia noturna. Pacientes com hipoxemia noturna significativa apresentaram parâmetros ecocardiográficos associados a mais quantidade de musculatura do VE quando comparados a pacientes com hipoxemia noturna leve. A relação entre volume/massa do VE foi significativamente menor no grupo com hipoxemia noturna significativa (0,64 ± 0,13 versus 0,72 ± 0,12; p = 0,04) e a espessura diastólica do septo interventricular e a espessura diastólica da parede posterior do VE foram significativamente maiores nesse grupo (9,7 ± 0,92 versus 9,1 ± 0,90; p = 0,03) (9,7 ± 1,0 versus 8,9 ± 1,0; p = 0,01). O tempo de sono REM com saturação abaixo de 85% prediz significativamente a espessura do septo (ajuste para índice de massa corporal [IMC], idade e pressão arterial média; r2 = 0,20; p = 0,046). Conclusão Em indivíduos portadores de DPOC e hipoxemia noturna significativa, foi observada associação entre hipoxemia severa no sono REM e parâmetros ecocardiográficos que indicam aumento da massa do VE. Tal fato sugere que esse subgrupo de indivíduos pode se beneficiar de uma avaliação ecocardiográfica do VE.

ABSTRACT Objective To verify association between left ventricular (LV) mass and thickness and the presence of significant nocturnal hypoxemia in patients with COPD with mild diurnal hypoxemia. Methods A cross-sectional study carried out in clinically stable outpatients with COPD and mild hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≥90 to ≤94%, identified by noninvasive oximetry) in a clinic specialized in the treatment of respiratory diseases in Goiânia-GO. All patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, spirometry, polysomnography, echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walk test and chest X-ray. Results Patients with significant nocturnal hypoxemia had echocardiographic parameters associated with increase of LV musculature when compared to patients with mild nocturnal hypoxemia. The LV volume/mass ratio was significantly lower in the group with significant nocturnal hypoxemia (ratio 0.64 ± 0.13 versus 0.72 ± 0.12, p = 0.04), the thickness diastolic diameter of the interventricular septum and the diastolic thickness of the LV posterior wall were significantly higher in this group (9.7 ± 0.92 versus 9.1 ± 0.90 p = 0.03), (9.7 ± 1.0 versus 8.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.01. The time in REM sleep with saturation below 85% significantly predicted septum thickness (adjustment for BMI, age and mean blood pressure, r2 = 0.20; p = 0.046). Conclusion We observed association between severe REM sleep hypoxemia and echocardiographic parameters indicating increased LV mass in individuals with COPD and significant nocturnal hypoxemia. This suggests that this subgroup of individuals may benefit from an echocardiographic evaluation of the left ventricle.

Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Echocardiography/methods , Polysomnography/adverse effects , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/physiopathology , Spirometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Hypoxia/etiology
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 21(1): 14-22, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042859


Resumen El ventrículo derecho, históricamente, ha sido en gran medida olvidado e y la gran mayoría de las técnicas diagnósticas,los abordajes terapéuticos y las investigaciones clínicas están dirigidas al ventrículo izquierdo. Con una anatomía y fisiologíamuy diferente a su contraparte izquierda, el ventrículo derecho dispone de limitadas opciones terapéuticas cuando éste falla, lo cual empeora enormemente el pronóstico del paciente. La presente revisión pretende hacer un análisis de la anatomía, fisiología, fisiopatología, estudios de imagen y tratamiento de la falla ventricular derecha con el fin de retomar su importancia en la cardiología actual.

Abstract The right ventricle has been, historically, largely forgotten and the vast majority of diagnostic techniques, therapeutic approaches and clinical research are directed to the left ventricle. With a very different anatomy and physiology from its left counterpart, the right ventricle has limited therapeutic options when it fails, which greatly worsens the patient's prognosis. The present review intends to analyze the anatomy, physiology, physiopathology, imaging studies and treatment of right ventricular failure in order to resume its importance in current cardiology.

Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Costa Rica , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 916-921, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976779


SUMMARY The septomarginal trabecula is a muscular structure which transmits the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle. It is usually supplied by a branch from the second anterior septal artery. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries may happen on the septomarginal trabecula. They are of great significance in order to prevent ischemia during a myocardial infarction. Surgeries such as Konno's and Ross' procedures implies in knowledge of these vessels anatomy. The coronary arteries of 50 human hearts were injected with latex and subsequentely dissected with the purpose of identifying the arterial branch that supplied the septomarginal trabecula. The trabecular branch arose from the second anterior septal artery in 38% of cases, and the branch arose from the first anterior septal artery in 26%. One of the hearts had its septomarginal trabecula supplied by the conus arteriosus arteryliterature. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries were found inside the septomarginal trabecula. The right branch of the atrioventricular bundle is subject to a great number of clinical conditions and is often manipulated during surgery, thus, the study of the septal branches of the coronary arteries and the trabecular branch is essential.

RESUMO A trabécula septomarginal é uma estrutura muscular que transmite o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular. É usualmente suprida por um ramo da segunda artéria septal anterior. Anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias direita e esquerda podem ocorrer na trabécula. São de grande significância especialmente na prevenção de isquemia durante um infarto do miocárdio. Procedimentos cirúrgicos como o de Konno's e Ross implicam conhecimento anatômico desses vasos. As artérias coronárias de 50 corações humanos foram injetadas com látex e dissecadas com o propósito de identificar o ramo arterial que supria a trabécula septomarginal. Em somente 38% dos casos o ramo foi proveniente da segunda artéria septal anterior, enquanto que em 26% dos casos a artéria se originou da primeira septal anterior. Um dos corações teve a trabécula septomarginal suprida por um ramo originário da artéria do cone arterioso. Além disso, foram encontradas anastomoses entre as artérias coronárias no interior da trabécula septomarginal. Em suma, o ramo direito do feixe atrioventricular está sujeito a inúmeras condições clínicas e é alvo de manuseio em cirurgias, logo, o estudo dos ramos septais das artérias coronárias, em especial o ramo trabecular é essencial.

Humans , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Contrast Media , Heart Conduction System , Heart Septum/anatomy & histology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 427-434, May 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896338


Summary Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers. Anthropometry was assessed by a single and experienced anthropometrist and the same technician performed the echocardiographic exams. Analysis of variance was used to study age, body size and echocardiograph parameters as well as different sport athlete's comparison. Results: Basketball players are taller (F=23.448; p<0.001; ES-r=0.553), heavier (F=6.702; p<0.001; ES-r=0.334) and have a greater body surface area (F=11.896; p<0.001; ES-r=0.427). Basketball and hockey players have larger left auricle diameters compared with judo athletes (F=3.865; p=0.011; ES-r=0.316). Interventricular end-diastolic septal thickness (F=7.287; p<0.001; ES-r=0.347) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (F=8.038; p<0.001; ES-r=0.362) of the judokas are smaller compared to the mean values of other sports participants. In addition, relative left parietal ventricular wall thickness is lower among swimmers compared with judokas (F=4.127; p=0.008; ES-r=0.268). Conclusion: The major contributors to changes in heart morphology are for the most part associated with sport-specific training and competition and the specific dynamics and adaptive mechanisms imposed by each sport.

Resumo Objetivo: Os efeitos decorrentes da prática de diferentes modalidades desportivas resultam em padrões divergentes de adaptação cardíaca. A presente pesquisa procura estudar a variação da morfologia do coração associada a um conjunto de modalidades desportivas distintas quanto à natureza do esforço e aos modelos de preparação, incluindo metodologias de treino e sistemas de competição. Método: Foram estudados 42 basquetebolistas, 73 hoquistas, 28 judocas e 21 nadadores. A antropometria foi avaliada por um único e experiente antropometrista e os exames ecocardiográficos foram realizados pelo mesmo operador. Recorreu-se à análise da variância para estudar a variação associada a idade, medidas de tamanho corporal e parâmetros ecocardiográficos, bem como para a comparação entre os atletas de diferentes modalidades desportivas. Resultados: Os basquetebolistas são os atletas mais altos (F=23,448; p<0,001; ES-r=0,553), mais pesados (F=6,702; p<0,001; ES-r=0,334), com maior superfície corporal (F=11,896; p<0,001; ES-r=0,427) e, com os hoquistas, apresentam um diâmetro da aurícula esquerda superior ao dos judocas (F=3,865; p=0,011; ES-r=0,316). A espessura telediastólica do septo interventricular (F=7,287; p<0,001; ES-r=0,347) e da parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo (F=8,038; p<0,001; ES-r=0,362) dos judocas é inferior à dos outros atletas, mesmo quando controlado para o tamanho corporal. Os nadadores apresentam uma espessura parietal relativa do ventrículo esquerdo superior à dos judocas (F=4,127; p=0,008; ES-r=0,268). Conclusão: As diferentes fontes de variação da morfologia cardíaca prendem-se com as dinâmicas do processo de treino, competição e correspondentemente com os mecanismos adaptativos, sobrepondo-se ao processo de formação desportiva a longo prazo.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Swimming/physiology , Basketball/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Martial Arts/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Athletes , Hockey/physiology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Surface Area , Algorithms , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Body Size/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(3): 783-789, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753910


Coronary dominance in swine has been poorly evaluated. The frequencies of each type of dominance have been described, but few details have been given as to the different expressions of each one. The aim of this study was to characterize coronary dominance in commercial breed swine. One hundred and fifty eight pig hearts were evaluated. The coronary arteries (CA) were infused with synthetic resin (Palatal 85% and Styrene15%) through the ostia after channeling. The coronary artery that gives origin to the posterior interventricular artery (PIA), and the site of termination of both the circumflex arteries (CXA), and left retroventricular branch (LRVB) were determined in order to establish the coronary dominance pattern. Right coronary dominance was found in 105 hearts (66.5%), and a balanced circulation in 53 specimens (33.5%). No dominance was observed for the left coronary artery in the hearts studied. The CXA ended on the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 101 samples (64%) and on the crux cordis in 55 specimens (34.8%). In two specimens (1.3%) it ended as a left marginal artery. In all cases the PIA was a branch of the RCA, and was long in 105 hearts (66%), 55% of which corresponded to males and 45% to females, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.77). The AIA ended on the apex in 126 specimens (80%), 71 of which (56%) corresponded to males and 55 (44%) to females (p=0.74)...

A dominância coronária em suínos tem sido pouco avaliada. Descreveram-se as frequências de cada um dos tipos, mas não detalharam as diferentes expressões de cada um deles. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a dominância coronária em suínos de raças comerciais. Avaliaram-se 158 corações de suínos. As artérias coronárias (AC) foram infundidas através da canalização dos seus ostium com resina sintética (Palatal 85% e Estireno15%). Para estabelecer o tipo de dominância coronária, determinou-se de qual coronária desprendia-se a artéria interventricular posterior (AIP) e o lugar de finalização das artérias circunflexa (ACX) e do ramo retro ventricular esquerdo (RRVI). Encontrou-se dominância coronária direita em 105 corações (66%) e circulação balanceada em 53 exemplares (34%). Não foi observada a dominância coronária esquerda nos corações estudados. O calibre proximal e médio da ACD nos casos de dominância coronária direita foi de 3,84 ± 0,80 mm. Por outro lado, encontrou-se que este mesmo calibre nos corações com dominância coronária balanceada foi de 3,97 + 0,79 mm. (p=0,88). A ACX finalizou-se na face posterior do ventrículo esquerdo em 101 amostras (64%) e na crux cordis em 55 exemplares (34,8%). A AIP emergiu em todos os casos da ACD sendo comprida em 105 corações (66%) dos quais 55% correspondia a machos e 45% a fêmeas, sem que esta diferença fosse estatisticamente significativa (p=0,77). A AIA finalizou-se no ápice em 126 exemplares (80%), dos quais 71 (56%) corresponderam a machos e 55 (44%) a fêmeas (p=0,74)...

Humans , Animals , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Swine/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular/veterinary , Heart/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(4): 478-486, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-741724


Introdução: A cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática (CMDId) é causadora de grande impacto, porém aspectos de sua fisiopatologia são desconhecidos. Objetivo: Avaliar aspectos anatomo-histológicos de corações com CMDId comparando-os a corações normais, com medidas perimetrais dos anéis atrioventriculares direito (AVD) e esquerdo (AVE) e dos ventrículos direito (VD) e esquerdo (VE) e a porcentagem de fibras colágenas e elásticas dos anéis. Métodos: Foram avaliados 13 corações de cadáveres portadores de CMDId e 13 corações normais, que foram dissecados mantendo-se os anéis atrioventriculares e a massa ventricular, com laminação em segmentos correspondentes a 20%, 50% e 80% da distância entre o sulco atrioventricular e o ápice ventricular. Os cortes foram submetidos à digitalização fotográfica, sendo comparadas as medidas. Os anéis foram dissecados, medidos e enviados ao laboratório de anatomia patológica, sendo realizadas colorações por meio de hematoxilina-eosina, picrossírius e resorcina fuccina oxidada. Resultados: Com relação aos ventrículos, no grupo CMDId ocorre dilatação nos segmentos apical, equatorial e basal. A medida do AVD foi maior no grupo CMDId, não havendo diferença no AVE entre os grupos. Com relação ao percentual de fibras colágenas, há diminuição no grupo CMDId em relação ao grupo normal. Com relação às fibras elásticas, não houve diferença entre os grupos. Conclusão: Ocorre alteração da geometria ventricular com dilatação no grupo CMDId. Na CMDId observou-se aumento no perímetro do AVD. Não se observou aumento do perímetro do AVE. Houve diminuição percentual na área total de colágeno tanto no AVD quanto no AVE em corações com CMDId. .

Introduction: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy causes great impact but many aspects of its pathophysiology remain unknown. Objective: To evaluate anatomical and histological aspects of hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and compare them to a control group, evaluating the behavior of the perimeters of the atrioventricular rings and ventricles and to compare the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers of the atrioventricular rings. Methods: Thirteen hearts with cardiomyopathy and 13 normal hearts were analysed. They were dissected keeping the ventricular mass and atrioventricular rings, with lamination of segments 20%, 50% and 80% of the distance between the atrioventricular groove and the ventricular apex. The sections were subjected to photo scanning, with measurement of perimeters. The atrioventricular rings were dissected and measured digitally to evaluate their perimeters, later being sent to the pathology laboratory, and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius and oxidized resorcin fuccin. Results: Regarding to ventricles, dilation occurs in all segments in the pathological group, and the right atrioventricular ring measurement was higher in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy group, with no difference in the left side. With respect to collagen, both sides had lower percentage of fibers in the pathological group. With respect to the elastic fibers, there was no difference between the groups. Conclusion: There is a change in ventricular geometry in cardiomyopathy group. The left atrioventricular ring does not dilate, in spite of the fact that in both ventricles there is lowering of collagen. .

Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Heart Valves/pathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Ventricular Remodeling , Analysis of Variance , Collagen/analysis , Elastic Tissue/anatomy & histology , Elastic Tissue/pathology , Heart Valves/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162169


Objective: High load of regularly vigorous exercise leads to multiple physiological adaptations. The major cardiovascular effects are hypertrophy and dilation, predominantly of the left ventricle, and bradycardia. However, there are no reports on an athlete’s heart in a systemic right ventricle. Subject: We report on a 23 year old male endurance athlete (177cm, 69kg) with a systemic subaortic right ventricle after atrial redirection (Senning procedure) for simple transposition of the great arteries in infancy. Albeit medical doctors had imposed activity restriction to him, he has lead an active lifestyle from early childhood on, intensifying his sport activities over the years especially in cycling and running to a training volume of about 10 hours per week in winter and about 15 hours per week in summer. In 2009 he performed 1:50h on the half marathon distance. In 2013 he finished his first Marathon in 4:34h. Results: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing revealed a maximum oxygen uptake of 52.3ml/min/kg and a peak work load of 353 Watt, corresponding to 5.1Watt per kilogram body mass. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance showed a cardiac index of 2.9ml/min/m², a tricuspid regurgitation fraction of 4%, and a systemic right ventricle enddiastolic volume of 109ml/m² with an ejection fraction of 53%. Conclusions: With regular exercise training a systemic right ventricle can become very efficient comparable to healthy amateur athletes.

Athletes , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Physical Endurance , Physical Exertion , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Young Adult
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 349-355, set.-out. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742406


As doenças cardiovasculares representam a principal causa de mortalidade e incapacidade no Brasil e no mundo. O infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) é uma das afecções coronarianas mais comuns, e reflete a morte dos cardiomiócitos causada por um desequilíbrio entre a oferta e demanda de nutrientes ao tecido, consequente à obstrução do fluxo coronariano,podendo ser transitório ou permanente. Com base nessas informações, foi realizada revisão da literatura em bancos de bases bibliográficas e acervos de livros, objetivando um estudo das alterações morfológicas do IAM e as variações morfológicas que favorecem o acometimento dessa doença. Observa-se que há vários trabalhos relacionados ao assunto, porém poucos estão relacionados às alterações morfofuncionais do sistema cardiovascular. São encontrados estudos que relatam a melhora da função cardíaca, remodelamento cardíaco e redução das placas de ateroma.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil and worldwide, with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) being one of the most common coronary diseases. This reflects cardiac myocyte death caused by an imbalance between the supply and demand of nutrients to the tissue caused by obstruction of the coronary flow, which may be atransient or permanent condition. Based on this information, a review of the literature was conducted in bibliographical databases and book collections,providing input for a study of morphological changes in AMI and morphological variations that may lead to the appearance of this pathology. There a reseveral works on this subject, although few explore morpho-functional alterations to the cardiovascular system. Some studies reported improved cardiac function and remodeling, together with a decrease in atherosclerotic plaque, among patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation.

Humans , Exercise , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Rehabilitation/methods , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Anatomy , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Ischemia/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/pathology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 214-220, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719419


Introduction: In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective: To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods: We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo(r)). Results: The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion: Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models. .

Introdução: Apesar de sua importância como modelo experimental, a informação sobre a artéria coronária esquerda em suínos é escassa. Objetivo: Determinar as características morfológicas da artéria coronária esquerda em suínos. Métodos: Foram avaliados 158 corações de porcos. A artéria coronária esquerda foram perfundidos com resina sintética após a sua óstios foram cateterizados. Diâmetros e cursos dos leitos vasculares foram medidos com um paquímetro eletrônico (Mitutoyo(r)). Resultados: O diâmetro da artéria coronária esquerda foi 6,98±1,56 mm e seu comprimento era de 3,51±0,99 mm. Verificou-se que acabam bifurcando-se no interior da artéria descendente anterior e da artéria circunflexa em 79 % dos casos, e dividindo-se em três em 21% dos casos, com a presença da artéria diagonal. A artéria interventricular anterior acabou no ápice em 79,7% dos casos, sendo a artéria marginal na face posterior do ventrículo esquerdo em 64% dos casos, esta artéria nunca chegou ao sulco interventricular posterior. Uma anastomose entre os ramos terminais da artéria interventricular anterior e artéria interventricular posterior foi encontrado em 7,6% das amostras. O ramo ântero-superior da artéria interventricular anterior ocorreu em 89,9% dos corações. Um ramo marginal esquerda foi observado em 87,9% dos casos, com diâmetro de 2,25±0,55 mm. Conclusão: Em comparação com os seres humanos, os porcos têm troncos das artérias coronárias esquerdas mais curtos e ramos; até a artéria circunflexa nunca atinge o sulco interventricular posterior. Nossos resultados são úteis para a concepção de hemodinâmica experimental e modelos processuais. .

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Models, Animal , Coronary Circulation , Cross-Over Studies , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Organ Size , Swine
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(1): 68-77, jul. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681830


FUNDAMENTO: Medidas ainda hoje utilizadas como referência na ressonância magnética cardíaca foram obtidas principalmente de estudos realizados em populações norte-americanas e europeias. OBJETIVO: Obter medidas do diâmetro diastólico, diâmetro sistólico, volume diastólico final, volume sistólico final, fração de ejeção e massa miocárdica dos ventrículos esquerdo e direito em brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à ressonância magnética cardíaca, utilizando técnica de precessão livre em estado de equilíbrio, 54 homens e 53 mulheres, com idade média de 43,4 ± 13,1 anos, assintomáticos, sem cardiopatias. RESULTADOS: As médias e os desvios padrão dos parâmetros do ventrículo esquerdo foram: diâmetro diastólico = 4,8 ± 0,5 cm; diâmetro sistólico = 3,0 ± 0,6 cm; volume diastólico final = 128,4 ± 29,6 mL; volume sistólico final = 45,2 ± 16,6 mL; fração de ejeção = 65,5 ± 6,3%; massa = 95,2 ± 30,8 g. Para o ventrículo direito, foram: diâmetro diastólico = 3,9 ± 1,3 cm; diâmetro sistólico = 2,5 ± 0,5 cm; volume diastólico final = 126,5 ± 30,7 mL; volume sistólico final = 53,6 ± 18,4 mL; fração de ejeção = 58,3 ± 8,0% e massa = 26,1 ± 6,1 g. As massas e os volumes foram significativamente maiores nos homens, exceto para o volume sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo direito foi significativamente maior nas mulheres. Houve correlação significativa e inversa do volume sistólico do volume direito com o aumento da idade. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo descreveu, pela primeira vez, medidas cardíacas obtidas pela ressonância magnética cardíaca em brasileiros assintomáticos, sem cardiopatias, mostrando diferenças de acordo com o gênero e a idade.

BACKGROUND: Still today, measurements used as a reference in the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have been obtained mainly from studies carried out in North-American and European populations. OBJECTIVE: To obtain measurements of the diastolic diameter, systolic diameter, end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass of the left and right ventricles in Brazilians. METHODS: 54 men and 53 women, with mean age of 43.4 ± 13.1 years, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, have been subjected to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, using a balanced steady state free precession technique. RESULTS: The averages and the standard deviations of the parameters for the left ventricle have been: diastolic diameter = 4.8 ± 0.5 cm; systolic diameter = 3.0 ± 0.6 cm; end diastolic volume = 128.4 ± 29.6 mL; end systolic volume = 45.2 ± 16.6 mL; ejection fraction = 65.5 ± 6.3%; mass = 95.2 ± 30.8 g. For the right ventricle, they have been: diastolic diameter = 3.9 ± 1.3 cm; systolic diameter = 2.5 ± 0.5 cm; end diastolic volume = 126.5 ± 30.7 mL; end systolic volume = 53.6 ± 18.4 mL; ejection fraction = 58.3 ± 8.0%, and mass = 26.1 ± 6.1 g. The masses and the volumes were significantly greater in the men, except for the end systolic volume of the left ventricle. The ejection fraction of the right ventricle has been significantly greater in the women. There has been a significant and inverted correlation of the systolic volume of the right volume with the progression of the age. CONCLUSION: This study has described, for the first time, cardiac measurements obtained through the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Brazilians, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, showing differences in accordance with gender and age.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function/physiology , Brazil , Diastole/physiology , Observer Variation , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Systole/physiology
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 111(3): 206-212, jun. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694627


Introducción. El estudio de los factores de riesgo para padecer hipertensión arterial en los niños garantiza establecer políticas de salud a fin de evitar futuras complicaciones asociadas a esta enfermedad. Los mayores valores de dispersión de la onda P, mientras el paciente está en ritmo sinusal, se señalan como predictores de fibrilación auricular en el adulto, ya que existe una asociación entre la hipertensión arterial, la dispersión de la onda P y la hipertrofia ventricular izquierda. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre la tensión arterial, el índice de masa ventricular izquierda y la dispersión de la onda P en pediatría. Población y métodos. Se estudiaron, en el marco del proyecto PROCDEC II, niños de 8 a 11 años, sin cardiopatías conocidas. En todos se midió la tensión arterial y se realizó un electrocardiograma de superficie de 12 derivaciones y un ecocardiograma. Resultados. Los valores de la media del índice de masa ventricular izquierda para normotensos (25,21 ± 5,96 g/m²) e hipertensos (30,38 ± 7,39 g/m²) mostraron diferencias significativas (p= 0,000). La media del área auricular izquierda mostró diferencias significativas (p= 0,000) al comparar los prehipertensos (10,98 ± 2,23 cm²) e hipertensos (12,21 ± 1,27 cm²) con los normotensos (10,66 ± 2,38 cm²). La correlación entre la dispersión de la onda P y el índice de masa ventricular izquierda mostró r= 0,87 y p= 0,000. Conclusiones. La dispersión de la onda P está incrementada en los prehipertensos e hipertensos en relación con los normotensos. Se encontró una dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P del índice de masa ventricular izquierda en los hipertensos.

Introduction. The study of arterial hypertension risk factors in children guarantees the establishment of health policies to avoid complications associated with this illness in the future. The highest values of P-wave dispersion during sinus rhythm are pointed as predictors of atrial fibrillation in adulthood since there is an association between arterial hypertension, P-wave dispersion and left ventricular hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between blood pressure, left ventricular mass index and P-wave dispersion in the pediatric population. Population and methods. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface ECG and an echocardiogram were done as well. Results. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.21 ± 5.96 g/m²) and hypertensive (30.38 ± 7.39 g/m²) children showed significant differences (p= 0.000). The mean value of the left atrial area was significantly different (p= 0.000) when comparing prehypertensive (10.98 ± 2.23 cm2) and hypertensive (12.21 ± 1.27 cm²) children to normotensive ones (10.66 ± 2.38 cm²). The correlation of P-wave dispersion and the left ventricular mass index showed an r= 0.87 and p= 0.000. Conclusions. P-wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive ones. A dependence of the P-wave dispersion of the left ventricular mass index was found in hypertensive children.

Child , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Electrocardiography , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Organ Size
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 724-728, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687130


The use of animals in scientific research is not recent. The rat has been used in experiments since before Christ and, in the XIX century, with the intensification of the research reports, the use of this species increased considerably. Although this fact happens, the literature regarding the heart of these animals is not very detailed and descriptive. The objective of this research is to study the macroscopic morphometric of several parameters that have not been described yet regarding the hearth of Wistar rats in different phases of their lives. Thirty-six adult male and female rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 150-770 g were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups: 6 animals of the group I male-weighting 150-249g (I-M); 6 animals of the group I female-weighting 150-249g (I-F); 6 animals of the group II male-weighting 250-350g (II-M); 6 animals of the group II-female­weighting (II-F); 6 animals of the group III-male weighting more than 35 g (III-M); 6 animals of the group III-female weighting more than 351g (III-F). The heart was then carefully dissected and removed from the chest. After this process, the heart had their weight measured on a precision scale HELMAC HM100, and for each front section of the heart were taken related measures through a semi-automatic image analysis of Kontron Build Analyse (Minimop). The percentage ratio between the relative heart weight to body weight was between 0.5 and 0.7 por ciento in the animals with body weight up to 650g, moreover, the wall thickness of the non-septal left ventricle was always lower for the females in all groups, while the interatrial septum have similar action in males and females and the thickness of the interventricular septum demonstrated to be similar to the wall thickness of the non-septal left ventricle.

El uso de animales en la investigación científica no es reciente. La rata se ha utilizado en experimentos desde antes de Cristo y, en el siglo XIX, con la intensificación de los trabajos de investigación, el uso de esta especie ha aumentado considerablemente. Aunque se produce lo anterior, literatura sobre el corazón de estos animales no es muy detallada y descriptiva. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la morfometría macroscópica de varios parámetros no descritos en relación con el corazón de ratas Wistar en diferentes etapas de la vida. Treinta y seis ratas adultas machos y hembras (Rattus norvegicus) con peso entre 150-770 g se dividieron al azar en 6 grupos experimentales: 6 animales del grupo I machos de ponderación 150-249g (IM), 6 animales del grupo I hembra de ponderación 150-249g (SI); 6 animales del grupo II macho de ponderación de 250-350g (II-M); 6 animales de la II-hembra-ponderación grupo (II-F); 6 animales de la ponderación III-grupo macho más de 35 g (III-M); 6 animales del grupo de ponderación III-hembra más de 351G (III-C). Posteriormente, el corazón se diseccionó cuidadosamente y se retiró del tórax. Después de este proceso, el corazón fue pesado en una balanza de precisión Helmac HM100. Para cada sección frontal del corazón se tomaron medidas relacionadas a través de un análisis de imágenes semi-automática de Kontron Build Analizar (Minimop). La relación porcentual entre el peso del corazón respecto al peso corporal fue entre 0,5 y 0,7 percent en los animales con peso corporal de hasta 650 g, por otra parte, el espesor de la pared del ventrículo izquierdo no fue siempre menor para las hembras de todos los grupos, mientras el tabique interatrial tienen acción similar en machos y hembras y el espesor del septo interventricular demostró ser similar a la del espesor de la pared del ventrículo izquierdo no septal.

Male , Animals , Female , Rats , Heart Atria/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(1): 111-114, Jan. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668102


Utilizamos nesta pesquisa 40 corações de cães adultos, machos e fêmeas, de idades variadas, que não portavam nenhuma afecção cardíaca. Os corações tiveram as artérias coronárias injetadas, separadamente, com Neoprene Látex 450, corado com pigmento vermelho, e posteriormente dissecados. Em todas estas preparações verificamos que na vascularização dos ventrículos predominava a artéria coronária esquerda que fornecia os ramos interventriculares paraconal e subsinuoso. Já, a região ocupada pelo nó sinoatrial ficava mais frequentemente (17 vezes, 42,5%) na dependência do ramo proximal atrial esquerdo ou de colateral deste vaso, oriundo do ramo circunflexo esquerdo, ou deste vaso associado ao ramo distal atrial direito (8 vezes, 20%), procedente do ramo circunflexo direito. Com menor frequência (14 vezes, 30%), a área tomada pelo nó sinoatrial, encontramos apenas colaterais do ramo circunflexo direito, mais exatamente somente o ramo distal atrial direito (10 vezes, 25%), apenas o ramo proximal atrial direito (3 vezes, 7,5%) ou ainda exclusivamente o ramo intermédio atrial direito (1 vez, 2,5%). Em um único caso (1 vez, 2,5%) no território do nó sinoatrial observamos apenas colateral do ramo circunflexo esquerdo, isto é o ramo distal atrial esquerdo. A análise destes resultados permite concluir, que nesta espécie não existe qualquer tipo de relação entre o tipo de vascularização dos ventrículos e a irrigação do nó sinoatrial. Sendo assim, considerar os ramos ventriculares isoladamente não é suficiente para um entendimento clínico-cirúrgico aplicado, uma vez que os ramos atriais apresentam uma importante contribuição para a vascularização do nó sinoatrial.

We analyzed 40 hearts of adult dogs, males and females of different ages, without cardiac disease. The hearts had the coronary arteries inject using Neoprene Latex 450, colored with red pigment, and which was then dissected. In the ventricular vascularization the left coronary artery was predominant and gave rise to the paraconal interventricular and subsinuous branches. The region occupied by the sinoatrial node was most frequently (17 times, 42.5%) in dependence of the left atrial proximal branch or in the collateral branch of that vessel, coming from the left circumflex branch, or this vessel was associated with the right atrial distal branch (8 times, 20%). With less frequency (14 times, 30%), in the area occupied by the sinoatrial node we found only the collaterals of the right circumflex branch, only the right atrial distal branch (10 times, 25%), only the right atrial proximal branch (3 times, 7.5%) or exclusively the right atrial intermediary branch (once, 2.5%). In just one case (once, 2.5%) in the area of the sinoatrial node we observed only the collateral of the left circumflex branch, i.e. the left atrial distal branch. According to our results we concluded that in this specie there is no relationship between the type of ventricular vascularization and irrigation of the sinoatrial node. In doing so, to consider just the ventricular branches is not sufficient for a clinical and surgical applied understanding, since the atrial branches make an important contribution to the sinoatrial node vascularization.

Animals , Adult , Dogs , Coronary Vessels , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Sinoatrial Node , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Dissection/veterinary , Neoprene/administration & dosage