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3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 907-913, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142270

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Não há estudos avaliando o intervalo Tpico-Tfim (Tpe), a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc para avaliar arritmias cardíacas em pacientes com COVID-19. Objetivo: Visamos investigar se há alterações nos intervalos QT, QTc e Tpe e nas relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 90 pacientes com infecção por COVID-19 e 30 controles saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade. Foram aferidos os intervalos QT, QTc e Tpe e as relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Os participantes incluídos no estudo foram divididos nos seguintes 4 grupos: controles saudáveis (grupo I), pacientes com COVID-19 sem pneumonia (grupo II), pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia leve (grupo III) e pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia grave (grupo IV). Significância estatística foi definida por valor p < 0,05. Resultados: Verificou-se que a frequência cardíaca basal, a presença de hipertensão e diabetes, a contagem de leucócitos, o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, a creatinina, o potássio, o aspartato aminotransferase, a alanina aminotransferase, o NT-proBNP, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade, o dímero-D, a TncI-as, o intervalo Tpe, a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc aumentaram do grupo I para o grupo IV e foram significativamente mais altos em todos os pacientes do grupo IV (p < 0,05). A pressão arterial sistólica, a hemoglobina e os níveis de cálcio eram menores no grupo IV e significativamente menores em comparação com os demais grupos (< 0,05). Os intervalos QT e QTc eram semelhantes entre grupos. Determinou-se que os níveis elevados de frequência cardíaca, cálcio, dímero-D, NT-proBNP e PCR-as eram significativamente relacionados a Tpe, Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Conclusões: Em pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia grave, o intervalo Tpe, a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc, que estão entre os parâmetros de repolarização ventricular, foram aumentados, sem prolongação dos intervalos QT e QTc. A partir deste estudo, não podemos definitivamente concluir que as alterações eletrocardiográficas observadas estão diretamente relacionadas à infecção por COVID-19 ou à inflamação, mas sim associadas a cenários graves de COVID-19, que podem envolver outras causas de inflamação e comorbidades.


Abstract Background: There is no study evaluating the Tpeak-Tend (Tpe) interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio to assess cardiac arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19. Objective: We aimed to examine whether there is a change in QT, QTc, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The study included 90 patients with COVID-19 infection and 30 age-and-sex-matched healthy controls. QT, QTc, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio were measured. The participants included in the study were divided into the following 4 groups: healthy controls (group I), patients with COVID-19 without pneumonia (group II), patients with COVID-19 and mild pneumonia (group III), and patients with COVID-19 and severe pneumonia (group IV). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: It was found that baseline heart rate, presence of hypertension and diabetes, white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, high sensitive C reactive protein, D-dimer, hs-cTnI, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc increased from group I to group IV, and they were significantly higher in all patients in group IV (p < 0.05). Systolic-diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were found to be lowest in group IV and significantly lower than in other groups (< 0.05). QT and QTc intervals were similar between groups. It was determined that increased heart rate, calcium, D-dimer, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels were significantly related to Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and severe pneumonia, Tpe, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio, which are among ventricular repolarization parameters, were found to be increased, without prolonged QT and QTc intervals. In this study, we cannot definitively conclude that the ECG changes observed are directly related to COVID-19 infection or inflammation, but rather associated with severe COVID-19 scenarios, which might involve other causes of inflammation and comorbidities. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):907-913)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Electrocardiography , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 285-288, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125081

ABSTRACT

La tromboembolia pulmonar aguda (TEPA) sigue siendo una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Su diagnóstico, estratificación de riesgo y tratamiento precoz son fundamentales, siendo su pilar la anticoagulación. En pacientes de bajo riesgo cardiovascular, el pronóstico es excelente y solo basta con la administración de anticoagulantes. No obstante, debido al pobre pronóstico de los pacientes con riesgo elevado (descompensación hemodinámica), el enfoque terapéutico es más agresivo, utilizándose trombolíticos sistémicos que disminuyen la mortalidad pero incrementan el riesgo de complicaciones hemorrágicas mayores. En el TEPA de riesgo intermedio (evidencia de falla de ventrículo derecho, sin descompensación hemodinámica), la relación riesgo-beneficio del tratamiento con trombolíticos es más equilibrada por lo que la decisión es controvertida. La fragmentación mecánica con trombólisis dirigida por catéter es una alternativa con potenciales beneficios. Presentamos dos casos de TEPA de riesgo intermedio, en los que se realizó fragmentación mecánica y trombólisis dirigida por catéter.


Acute pulmonary thromboembolism remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its diagnosis, risk stratification and early treatment are essential. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulation. In patients with low cardiovascular risk, the prognosis is excellent and the treatment consists only of the administration of anticoagulants. Due to the poor prognosis of patients with high risk (hemodynamic decompensation), the approach is more aggressive using systemic thrombolytics, which reduce mortality but increase the risk of major hemorrhagic complications. In the intermediate-risk patients (evidence of right ventricular failure, without hemodynamic decompensation), the risk-benefit relationship of thrombolytic treatment is more balanced, so the choice is controversial. Mechanical fragmentation with catheter-directed thrombolysis is an alternative with potential benefits. We present two cases of intermediate-risk acute pulmonary thromboembolism to whom mechanical fragmentation and catheter-directed thrombolysis was applied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Catheterization, Swan-Ganz/methods , Mechanical Thrombolysis/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Acute Disease , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Risk Assessment , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
5.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 12-16, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131000

ABSTRACT

Abstract Complete heart block (CHB) results from dysfunction of the cardiac conduction system, which results in complete electrical dissociation. The ventricular escape rhythm can have its origin anywhere from the atrioventricular node to the bundle branch-Purkinje system. CHB typically results in bradycardia, hypotension, fatigue, hemodynamic instability, syncope, or even Stokes-Adams syndrome. Escape rhythm originating above the bifurcation of the His bundle (HB) produces narrow QRSs with relatively rapid heart rate (HR) (except in cases of His system disease). We present a middle-aged man with an HR of 34 bpm, progressive fatigue, in whom a temporary pacemaker was implanted in the subtricuspid region. The post-intervention electrocardiogram had unusual features.


Resumen El bloqueo cardíaco completo (BCC) resulta de la disfunción del sistema de conducción cardíaco, lo que ocasiona una disociación eléctrica completa entre aurículas y ventrículos. El ritmo de escape resultante puede tener su origen en cualquier lugar desde el nodo auriculoventricular hasta el sistema His Purkinje. El BCC generalmente produce bradicardia, hipotensión, fatiga, inestabilidad hemodinámica, síncope o incluso el síndrome de Stokes-Adams. El ritmo de escape que se origina por encima de la bifurcación del haz de His produce intervalos QRS estrechos con frecuencia cardíaca no muy lenta (excepto en casos de enfermedad del sistema Hisiano). Presentamos a un hombre de mediana edad con una frecuencia cardíaca de 34 lpm, fatiga progresiva, en el que se implantó un marcapasos temporario en la región subtricuspídea. El electrocardiograma resultante a la intervención presentó características inusuales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/adverse effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Electrocardiography , Fatigue/physiopathology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 76-91, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099147

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La adaptación del corazón humano al acondicionamiento físico ha sido un tema de interés médico-científico, pues el remodelado cardíaco que comprende variación en el tamaño, forma, grosor de las paredes, y masa ventricular responde al tipo de actividad física. Objetivo: Determinar las modificaciones anatómicas del ventrículo izquierdo en kayacistas y canoístas femeninos y masculinos de alto rendimiento. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo de corte transversal en deportistas de canotaje de alto rendimiento que acudieron al Instituto de Medicina del Deporte durante la preparación especial con vistas a participar en los Juegos Olímpicos de Rio de Janeiro 2016. La muestra se conformó con 20 deportistas que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión establecidos, se recogieron los resultados de los diferentes parámetros ecocardiográficos que fueron estudiados para comprobar si existía modificación anatómica del ventrículo izquierdo (MAVI). Se empleó la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: Edad promedio 20,9 ± 1,18 años, predominio del sexo masculino (65 por ciento); kayak (60 por ciento) y velocidad (55 por ciento) fueron las disciplinas deportivas y modalidades competitivas predominantes , fue frecuente la hipertrofia concéntrica en ambos sexos (65 por ciento), la edad deportiva de igual o menos de 10 años (60 por ciento), espesor relativo de la pared aumentado (65 por ciento), el índice AKS mayor se encontró en la hipertrofia excéntrica (1,3 por ciento) y el porciento de grasa predominante fue en la hipertrofia concéntrica para un (7,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: El espesor relativo de la pared ventricular tuvo una relación significativa con la modalidad competitiva(AU)


Introduction: The adaptation of the human heart to physical conditioning has been a medical and scientific topic of interest where cardiac remodeling involving changes in size, form, thickness of the walls and ventricular mass responds to the type of physical activity. Objective: To determine the anatomical modifications of the left ventricle in high performance male and female canoeing and kayaking athletes. Material and methods: A prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in high performance canoeing athletes that attended the Instituto de Medicina del Deporte during the special training in view of the preparation for the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, 2016. The sample was composed of 20 athletes that fulfilled the established inclusion criteria. The results of the different echocardiographic parameters were collected and analyzed in order to check whether there were anatomical modifications of the left ventricle (AMLV). Differential and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The average age was 20, 9 ± 1, 18 years, the male sex predominated in the study (65 percent), kayak (60 percent) and velocity (55 percent) were the predominant sports disciplines and competitive modalities, respectively. Concentric hypertrophy in both sexes (65 percent), sporting age of 10 years or less (60 percent), and increase in relative wall thickness (65 percent) were frequent; the highest AKS index was found in eccentric hypertrophy (1,3 percent) and predominant fat percentage was observed in concentric hypertrophy (7,9 percent). Conclusions: The relative thickness of the ventricular wall had a significant relationship with the competitive modalities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Water Sports/injuries , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
8.
Clinics ; 75: e1293, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055882

ABSTRACT

Exercising prior to experimental infarction may have beneficial effects on the heart. The objective of this study was to analyze studies on animals that had exercised prior to myocardial infarction and to examine any benefits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were consulted. We analyzed articles published between January 1978 and November 2018. From a total of 858 articles, 13 manuscripts were selected in this review. When animals exercised before experimental infarction, there was a reduction in mortality, a reduction in infarct size, improvements in cardiac function, and a better molecular balance between genes and proteins that exhibit cardiac protective effects. Analyzing heart weight/body weight, we observed the following results - Mean difference 95% CI - -0.02 [-0.61,0.57]. Meta-analysis of the infarct size (% of the left ventricle) revealed a statistically significant decrease in the size of the infarction in animals that exercised before myocardial infarction, in comparison with the sedentary animals -5.05 [-7.68, -2.40]. Analysis of the ejection fraction, measured by echo (%), revealed that animals that exercised before myocardial infarction exhibited higher and statistically significant measures, compared with sedentary animals 8.77 [3.87,13.66]. We conclude that exercise performed prior to experimental myocardial infarction confers cardiac benefits to animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Ventricular Function/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Rats, Wistar , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Heart , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Models, Cardiovascular
10.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 21(1): 14-22, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042859

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ventrículo derecho, históricamente, ha sido en gran medida olvidado e y la gran mayoría de las técnicas diagnósticas,los abordajes terapéuticos y las investigaciones clínicas están dirigidas al ventrículo izquierdo. Con una anatomía y fisiologíamuy diferente a su contraparte izquierda, el ventrículo derecho dispone de limitadas opciones terapéuticas cuando éste falla, lo cual empeora enormemente el pronóstico del paciente. La presente revisión pretende hacer un análisis de la anatomía, fisiología, fisiopatología, estudios de imagen y tratamiento de la falla ventricular derecha con el fin de retomar su importancia en la cardiología actual.


Abstract The right ventricle has been, historically, largely forgotten and the vast majority of diagnostic techniques, therapeutic approaches and clinical research are directed to the left ventricle. With a very different anatomy and physiology from its left counterpart, the right ventricle has limited therapeutic options when it fails, which greatly worsens the patient's prognosis. The present review intends to analyze the anatomy, physiology, physiopathology, imaging studies and treatment of right ventricular failure in order to resume its importance in current cardiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Costa Rica , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 410-421, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001291

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Considering the potential deleterious effects of right ventricular (RV) pacing, the hypothesis of this study is that isolated left ventricular (LV) pacing through the coronary sinus is safe and may provide better clinical and echocardiographic benefits to patients with bradyarrhythmias and normal ventricular function requiring heart rate correction alone. Objective: To assess the safety, efficacy, and effects of LV pacing using an active-fixation coronary sinus lead in comparison with RV pacing, in patients eligible for conventional pacemaker (PM) implantation. Methods: Randomized, controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial in adult patients submitted to PM implantation due to bradyarrhythmias and systolic ventricular function ≥ 0.40. Randomization (RV vs. LV) occurred before PM implantation. The main results of the study were procedural success, safety, and efficacy. Secondary results were clinical and echocardiographic changes. Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: From June 2012 to January 2014, 91 patients were included, 36 in the RV Group and 55 in the LV Group. Baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. PM implantation was performed successfully and without any complications in all patients in the RV group. Of the 55 patients initially allocated into the LV group, active-fixation coronary sinus lead implantation was not possible in 20 (36.4%) patients. The most frequent complication was phrenic nerve stimulation, detected in 9 (25.7%) patients in the LV group. During the follow-up period, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. Reductions of more than 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction were observed in 23.5% of patients in the RV group and 20.6% of those in the LV group (p = 0.767). Tissue Doppler analysis showed that 91.2% of subjects in the RV group and 68.8% of those in the LV group had interventricular dyssynchrony (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The procedural success rate of LV implant was low, and the safety of the procedure was influenced mainly by the high rate of phrenic nerve stimulation in the postoperative period.


Resumo Fundamento: Considerando-se os potenciais efeitos deletérios da estimulação do ventrículo direito (VD), a hipótese desse estudo é que a estimulação unifocal ventricular esquerda pelo seio coronário é segura e pode proporcionar melhores benefícios clínicos e ecocardiográficos aos pacientes com bradiarritmias que apresentam função ventricular normal, necessitando apenas da correção da frequência cardíaca. Objetivos: Avaliar a segurança, a eficácia e os efeitos da estimulação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), utilizando um cabo-eletrodo com fixação ativa, em comparação à estimulação do VD. Métodos: Estudo clínico, randomizado, simples-cego em pacientes adultos com indicação de marca-passo (MP) devido a bradiarritmias e função ventricular sistólica ≥ 0,40. A randomização aleatória (VD vs VE) ocorreu antes do procedimento. Os desfechos primários do estudo foram: o sucesso, a segurança e a eficácia do procedimento proposto. Os desfechos secundários foram: a evolução clínica e alterações ecocardiográficas. Empregou-se os testes Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t de Student, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: De junho de 2012 a janeiro de 2014 foram incluídos 91 pacientes, sendo 36 no grupo VD e 55 no grupo VE. As características basais dos pacientes dos dois grupos foram similares. O implante de MP foi realizado com sucesso e sem nenhuma intercorrência em todos os pacientes do grupo VD. Dos 55 pacientes inicialmente alocados para o grupo VE, o implante do cabo-eletrodo em veias coronárias não foi possível em 20 (36,4%) pacientes. Dentre os 35 pacientes que permaneceram com o cabo-eletrodo no VE, a estimulação frênica foi a complicação mais frequente e foi detectada em 9 (25,7%) pacientes. Na fase de seguimento clínico, não houve hospitalizações por insuficiência cardíaca. Reduções superiores a 10% na fração de ejeção do VE foram observadas em 23,5% dos pacientes do grupo VD e em 20,6% dos pacientes do grupo VE (p = 0,767). A análise feita pelo Doppler tecidual mostrou que 91,2% dos indivíduos do grupo VD e 68,8% dos do grupo VE apresentaram dissincronia interventricular (p = 0,022). Conclusões: A taxa de sucesso do implante no VE foi baixa e a segurança do procedimento foi influenciada, principalmente, pela alta taxa de estimulação frênica no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects , Bradycardia/therapy , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Bradycardia/physiopathology , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/adverse effects , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology
12.
Clinics ; 74: e1077, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether tissue Doppler imaging parameters, especially the peak systolic velocity of the left ventricular lead-implanted segment (Ss), affect cardiac resynchronization therapy response. METHODS: In this case-control study, 110 enrolled patients were divided into cases (responder group, n=65) and controls (nonresponder group, n=45) based on whether their left ventricular end-systolic volume was reduced by ≥15% at 6 months after surgery. Preoperative clinical and echocardiographic data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the factors affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy, and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate their diagnostic values. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with left bundle branch block in the case group was higher than that in the control group. The control group showed a higher left atrial volume index, E/A ratio and E/Em ratio but lower Ss than that of the case group. A multivariate regression analysis showed that left bundle branch block, Ss, and an E/Em ratio>14 were independent risk factors affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Ss=4.1 cm/s was the best diagnostic threshold according to the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS: Ss is an important factor affecting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients with heart failure associated with Ss<4.1 cm/s have a higher risk of nonresponse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Treatment Outcome , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900807, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods Pressure overload-induced heart failure model (abdominal aortic coarctation) was established in 40 rats, which were divided into model and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups. Ten rats receiving laparotomy excepting abdominal aortic coarctation were enrolled in sham-operated group. The 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg TIIA group the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±maximum left ventricular pressure rising and dropping rate, and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 protein levels were increased, respectively (P<0.05), and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart weight index, left ventricular weight index, serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein level were decreased, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion TIIA may alleviate ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure heart by reducing inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Abietanes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Ventricular Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(4): 353-361, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958436

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Ebstein's anomaly remains a relatively ignored disease. Lying in the 'No Man's land' between congenital and valve surgeons, it largely remains inadequately studied. We report our short-term results of treating it as a 'one and a half ventricle heart' and propose that the true tricuspid annulus (TTA) 'Z' score be used as an objective criterion for estimation of 'functional' right ventricle (RV). Methods: 22 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for Ebstein's anomaly were studied. Echocardiography was performed to assess the type and severity of the disease, tricuspid annular dimension and its 'Z' score. Patients were operated by a modification of the cone repair, with addition of annuloplasty, bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) and right reduction atrioplasty to provide a comprehensive repair. TTA 'Z' score was correlated later with postplication indexed residual RV volume. Results: There was one (4.5%) early and no late postoperative death. There was a significant reduction in tricuspid regurgitation grading (3.40±0.65 to 1.22±0.42, P<0.001). Residual RV volume reduced to 71.96±3.8% of the expected volume and there was a significant negative correlation (rho −0.83) between TTA 'Z' score and indexed residual RV volume. During the follow-up of 20.54±7.62 months, the functional class improved from 2.59±0.7 to 1.34±0.52 (P<0.001). Conclusion: In Ebstein's anomaly, a higher TTA 'Z' score correlates with a lower postplication indexed residual RV volume. Hence, a complete trileaflet repair with offloading of RV by BCPS (when the TTA 'Z' score is >2) is recommended. The short-term outcomes of our technique are promising.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Fontan Procedure/methods , Ebstein Anomaly/surgery , Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty/methods , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Fontan Procedure/mortality , Recovery of Function , Ebstein Anomaly/mortality , Ebstein Anomaly/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty/mortality , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Medical Illustration
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(4): 392-398, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950084

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH), especially the mild form of ScH, is controversial because thyroid hormones influence cardiac function. We investigate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in ScH and evaluate the effect of 5-month levothyroxine treatment. Subjects and methods: Fifty-four patients with newly diagnosed mild ScH (4.2 <TSH < 10.0 mU/L) and 30 euthyroid subjects matched by age were analysed. Laboratory analyses and an echocardiography study were done at the first visit and after 5 months in euthyroid stage in patients with ScH. Results: Compared to healthy controls, patients with ScH had a lower E/A ratio (1.03 ± 0.29 vs. 1.26 ± 0.36, p < 0.01), higher E/e' sep. ratio (762 ± 2.29 vs. 6.04 ± 1.64, p < 0.01), higher myocardial performance index (MPI) (0.47 ± 0.08 vs. 0.43 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), lower global longitudinal strain (GLS) (-19.5 ± 2.3 vs. −20.9 ± 1.7%, p < 0.05), and lower S wave derived by tissue Doppler imaging (0.077 ± 0.013 vs. 0.092 ± 0.011 m/s, p < 0.01). Levothyroxine treatment in patients with ScH contributed to higher EF (62.9 ± 3.9 vs. 61.6 ± 4.4%, p < 0.05), lower E/e' sep. ratio (6.60 ± 2.06 vs. 762 ± 2.29, p < 0.01), lower MPI (0.43 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.08%, p < 0.01), and improved GLS (-20.07 ± 2.7 vs. −19.55 ± 2.3%, p < 0.05) compared to values in ScH patients at baseline. Furthermore, in all study populations (ScH patients before and after levothyroxine therapy and controls), TSH levels significantly negatively correlated with EF (r = −0.15, p < 0.05), E/A (r = −0.14, p < 0.05), GLS (r = −0.26, p < 0.001), and S/TDI (r = −0.22, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with E/e' sep. (r = 0.14, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism versus healthy individuals had subtle changes in certain parameters that indicate involvement of systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Although the values of the parameters were in normal range, they were significantly different compared to ScH and the control group at baseline, as well as to the ScH groups before and after treatment.The results of our study suggest that patients with ScH must be followed up during treatment to assess improvement of the disease. Some of the echocardiography obtained parameters were reversible after levothyroxine therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Systole/drug effects , Thyroxine/pharmacology , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Diastole/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Systole/physiology , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Thyroxine/blood , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed , Diastole/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 534-541, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950176

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Ventricular premature contractions (VPCs) may trigger lethal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with structural heart disease. However, this role of VPCs in healthy people remains controversial once that not enough clinical trials are available. Recently, some myocardial repolarization markers, such as Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc ratios, have been reported to be useful for predicting lethal ventricular arrhythmias in various clinical disorders without structural heart disease. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between VPC frequent and myocardial repolarization markers in individuals without structural heart disease. Methods: This study included 100 patients who had complaints of dizziness and palpitations. Twelve-lead electrocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory Holter recordings were obtained from all patients. VPC burden was calculated as the total number of VPCs divided by the number of all QRS complexes in the total recording time. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio were significantly higher in patients with higher VPC burden than in patients with lower VPC burden, and a positive correlation was found between these markers and VPC burden. Tp-e (β = 1.318, p = 0.043) and Tp-e/QTc (β = -405.136, p = 0.024) in the lead V5 were identified as independent predictors of increased VPC burden. Conclusions: Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio increased in patients with high VPC number. Our study showed that VPCs may have a negative effect on myocardial repolarization. This interaction may lead to an increased risk of malignant arrhythmias.


Resumo Fundamento: As contrações ventriculares prematuras (CVPs) podem provocar arritmias ventriculares letais em pacientes com doença cardíaca estrutural, no entanto o papel das CVPs em indivíduos saudáveis permanece controverso, já que não há muitos estudos clínicos disponíveis. Recentemente, alguns marcadores de repolarização do miocárdio, tais como o intervalo Tp-e e as relações Tp-e/QT e Tp-e/QTc, foram relatados como úteis para prognosticar arritmias ventriculares letais em diversos transtornos clínicos sem doença cardíaca estrutural. Objetivo: Neste estudo, o objetivo foi investigar a relação entre os marcadores de repolarização do miocárdio e as CVPs frequentes em indivíduos sem doença cardíaca estrutural. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 100 pacientes com queixas de tonturas e palpitações. Eletrocardiografia de 12 derivações e registros de Holter ambulatorial de 24 horas foram obtidos de todos os pacientes. A carga de CVP foi calculada como o número total de CVPs dividido pelo número de todos os complexos de QRS no tempo de registro total. Foram considerados significativos valores p < 0,05. Resultados: O intervalo Tp-e e a relação Tp-e/QTc foram significativamente mais altos em pacientes com carga de CVP mais alta do que nos pacientes com carga de CVP inferior, e encontrou-se correlação positiva entre esses marcadores e a carga de CVP. Tp-e (β = 1,318, p = 0,043) e Tp-e/QTc (β = -405,136, p = 0,024) na derivação V5 foram identificados como preditores independentes da carga de CVP aumentada. Conclusões: O intervalo Tp-e e a razão Tp-e/QTc foram mais altos em pacientes com um valor mais alto de CVP. Nosso estudo mostrou que CVPs podem ter um efeito negativo na repolarização do miocárdio. Essa interação pode resultar em risco aumentado de arritmias malignas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Ventricular Premature Complexes/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 135-142, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate early clinical outcomes and echocardiographic measurements of the left ventricle in patients who underwent left ventricular aneurysm repair using two different techniques associated to myocardial revascularization. Methods: Eighty-nine patients (74 males, 15 females; mean age 58±8.4 years; range: 41 to 80 years) underwent post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm repair and myocardial revascularization performed between 1996 and 2016. Ventricular reconstruction was performed using endoventricular circular patch plasty (Dor procedure) (n=48; group A) or linear repair technique (n=41; group B). Results: Multi-vessel disease in 55 (61.7%) and isolated left anterior descending (LAD) disease in 34 (38.2%) patients were identified. Five (5.6%) patients underwent aneurysmectomy alone, while the remaining 84 (94.3%) patients had aneurysmectomy with bypass. The mean number of grafts per patient was 2.1±1.2 with the Dor procedure and 2.9±1.3 with the linear repair technique. In-hospital mortality occurred in 4.1% and 7.3% in group A and group B, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate that post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm repair can be performed with both techniques with acceptable surgical risk and with satisfactory hemodynamic improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Heart Ventricles/surgery , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/radiation effects , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Risk Assessment , Heart Aneurysm/mortality , Heart Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 383-387, Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038530

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of myocardial contractility, based on the new anatomical concepts that govern cardiac mechanics, represents a promising strategy of analysis of myocardial adaptations related to physical training in the context of post-infarction. We investigated the influence of aerobic training on physical capacity and on the evaluation parameters of left ventricular contraction mechanics in patients with myocardial infarction. Thirty-one patients (55.1 ± 8.9 years) who had myocardial infarction in the anterior wall were prospectively investigated in three groups: interval training group (ITG) (n = 10), moderate training group (MTG) n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). Before and after 12 weeks of clinical follow-up, patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The trained groups performed supervised aerobic training on treadmill, in two different intensities. A statistically significant increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) was observed in the ITG (19.2 ± 5.1 at 21.9 ± 5.6 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01) and in the MTG 18.8 ± 3.7 to 21.6 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01). The GC did not present a statistically significant change in peak VO2. A statistically significant increase in radial strain (STRAD) was observed in the CG: basal STRAD (57.4 ± 16.6 to 84.1 ± 30.9%, p < 0.05), medial STRAD (57.8 ± 27, 9 to 74.3 ± 36.1%, p < 0.05) and apical STRAD (38.2 ± 26.0 to 52.4 ± 29.8%, p < 0.01). The trained groups did not present a statistically significant change of the radial strain. The present study points to a potential clinical application of the parameters of ventricular contraction mechanics analysis, especially radial strain, to discriminate post-infarction myocardial adaptations between patients submitted or not to aerobic training programs.


Resumo O estudo da contratilidade miocárdica, baseado nos novos conceitos anatômicos que regem a mecânica cardíaca, representa uma estratégia promissora de análise das adaptações do miocárdio relacionadas ao treinamento físico no contexto do pós-infarto. Nós investigamos a influência do treinamento aeróbico na capacidade física e nos parâmetros de avaliação da mecânica de contração do ventrículo esquerdo em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio. Foram prospectivamente investigados 30 pacientes, 55,1 ± 8,9 anos, acometidos por infarto do miocárdio de parede anterior, aleatorizados em três grupos: grupo treinamento intervalado (GTI) (n = 10), grupo treinamento moderado (GTM) (n=10) e grupo controle (GC) (n = 10). Antes e após as 12 semanas de seguimento clínico, os pacientes realizaram teste cardiopulmonar de exercício e ressonância magnética cardíaca. Os grupos treinados realizaram treinamento aeróbico supervisionado, em esteira ergométrica, aplicando-se duas intensidades distintas. Observou-se aumento estatisticamente significante do consumo de oxigênio (VO2) pico no GTI (19,2 ± 5,1 para 21,9 ± 5,6 ml/kg/min, p < 0,01) e no GTM (18,8 ± 3,7 para 21,6 ± 4,5 ml/kg/min, p < 0,01). O GC não apresentou mudança estatisticamente significante no VO2 pico. Houve aumento estatisticamente significante do strain radial (STRAD) somente no GC: STRAD basal (57,4 ± 16,6 para 84,1 ± 30,9%, p < 0,05), STRAD medial (57,8 ± 27,9 para 74,3 ± 36,1%, p < 0,05) e STRAD apical (38,2 ± 26,0 para 52,4 ± 29,8%, p < 0,01). Os grupos treinados não apresentaram mudança estatisticamente significante do strain radial. Os achados do presente estudo apontam para uma potencial aplicação clínica dos parâmetros de análise da mecânica de contração ventricular, notadamente do strain radial, em discriminar adaptações do miocárdio pós-infarto entre pacientes submetidos ou não a programas de treinamento aeróbico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): 211-216, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875344

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), incluindo a embolia pulmonar (EP) e a trombose venosa profunda (TVP), é a terceira causa de mortalidade em todo o mundo. O diagnóstico ainda é subestimado nas emergências. Os fatores desencadeantes são bem definidos, o que auxilia a estratificação de risco e o diagnóstico de TEV provocada ou não e influenciará muito o tempo de tratamento. O aumento do ventrículo direito e de marcadores biológicos tem desempenhado grande papel no prognóstico. O quadro clínico é bem definido e tem várias ferramentas, tanto para o diagnóstico como para a estratificação de risco, tais como os critérios de Wells e de Genebra, além de outros. Os exames complementares atualmente estão bem definidos, com a angiografia pulmonar sendo o padrão de referência; porém, com a melhora da tecnologia e a alta sensibilidade e especificidade, a angiotomografia computadorizada ocupou um lugar de destaque. Outros exames ainda são importantes em várias situações, como o D-dímero e outros biomarcadores, a radiografia de tórax, a cintilografia de perfusão/ventilação, eletrocardiograma, ecocardiografia e doppler venoso de membros inferiores. Método: Neste artigo, revisamos aspectos básicos de epidemiologia, diagnóstico e estratificação de risco. O foco principal foi o tratamento com a terapia anticoagulante, sobre a qual revisamos os seis estudos clínicos descritos entre 2009 e 2013, que abordam os novos anticoagulantes orais, hoje denominados anticoagulantes orais diretos. Esses estudos têm desenhos diferentes, com três deles começando com anticoagulantes orais desde o início do quadro agudo de TVP e EP (rivaroxabana e edoxabana). Os outros três iniciaram com enoxaparina e varfarina durante os primeiros dias e depois seguiram com a medicação do grupo em avaliação (dabigatrana e apixabana). Resultados: Nos estudos analisados, todos obtiveram uma redução (valor de p de não inferioridade) dos eventos de recorrência de TEV com relação à varfarina. Nos desfechos de segurança, definidos como sangramento fatal, clinicamente relevante e outros, os novos anticoagulantes orais obtiveram uma diminuição significativa. Conclusões: Os anticoagulantes orais diretos tiveram redução da recorrência de eventos tromboembólicos (periférico e pulmonar), com redução significativa dos índices de sangramentos fatais ou não. A segurança coloca-os como opção segura e eficaz para o tratamento desses pacientes com risco baixo e intermediário de TEV


Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the third leading cause of death worldwide. The diagnosis is still underestimated in emergencies. The triggering factors are well defined, which assists in the stratification of risk and in the diagnosis of VTE, whether provoked or not, and will greatly influence the treatment time. Increased right ventricle and biological markers have played a large role in the prognosis. The clinical features are well defined, and there are various tools for diagnosis and for risk stratification, such as the Wells and Geneva criteria, among others. Complementary exams are now well defined, with pulmonary angiography being the gold standard, but with improved technology and high sensitivity and specificity, computerized angiotomography has played a prominent role. Other exams are still important in certain situations, such as D-dimer and other biomarkers, chest radiography, perfusion/ventilation scintigraphy, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and lower limb venous Doppler. Method: In this article we review basic aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, and risk stratification. The main focus was treatment with anticoagulant therapy, under which we reviewed the six clinical studies described between 2009 and 2013 that address the new oral anticoagulants, now called direct oral anticoagulants. These studies have different designs; three of them start with oral anticoagulants from the onset of acute DVT and PE (rivaroxaban and edoxaban), and the other three start with enoxaparin and warfarin during the first days and then with the medication of the study group being evaluated (dabigatran and apixaban). Results: In the analyzed studies, all of them obtained a reduction (non-inferiority p-value) of the events of VTE recurrence in relation to warfarin. In the safety outcomes, defined as clinically relevant fatal bleeding and others, the new oral anticoagulants achieved a significant reduction. Conclusions: Direct oral anticoagulants had a reduction in the recurrence of thromboembolic events (peripheral and pulmonary), with a significant reduction in rates of fatal or non-fatal bleeding. Their safety makes them a reliable and effective option for the treatment of these patients, with low and intermediate risk of VTE


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hemorrhage
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 131-142, abr.-jun. 2017. ilu, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847901

ABSTRACT

A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) é uma modalidade de imagem não invasiva capaz de fornecer informações precisas e, muitas vezes, únicas na investigação de cardiopatias em geral e, em especial, nas cardiomiopatias. A capacidade de caracterizar precisamente o miocárdio do ponto de vista de sua contratilidade e suas características teciduais, diferenciando precisamente o miocárdio normal da fibrose miocárdica e identificando o edema miocárdio nas situações de agressão aguda ou recente do miocárdio, tornam a RMC indispensável hoje em qualquer serviço terciário e avançado de cardiologia do mundo. Neste artigo revisamos as aplicações clássicas e mais recentes da RMC em cardiopatias não isquêmicas, dividindo o uso das técnicas de RMC em dois grandes grupos: investigação da insuficiência cardíaca e das arritmias ventriculares. Dentro destes dois grupos pontuamos as etiologias mais importantes e frequentemente envolvidas. Na síndrome da insuficiência cardíaca destacam-se a cardiomiopatia dilatada com a fibrose mesocárdica linear septal e a miocardite viral com a manifestação de fibrose multifocal e mesoepicárdica. Uma proporção das cardiomiopatias dilatadas pode ter origem em uma miocardite viral prévia. A sarcoidose cardíaca pode apresentar uma variedade de tipos de realce tardio de padrão não isquêmico e isquêmico, e ser associada tanto ao quadro clínico de IC como de arritmia. A presença de sarcoidose pulmonar ou sistêmica pode ou não estar presente. A amiloidose cardíaca é o protótipo da cardiomiopatia restritiva e pode ser identificada pela RMC pelo padrão de realce tardio miocárdico global circunferencial (tipo AL) ou difuso, poupando o ápex do ventrículo esquerdo (tipo transtirretina). Finalmente, uma entidade ainda pouco entendida, a não compactação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), em geral não apresenta realce tardio, mas tem fenótipo de trabeculação ventricular típico. No grupo das síndromes arrítmicas revisamos várias etiologias frequentemente associadas a esta apresentação clínica. Na hemossiderose cardíaca os valores de T2* abaixo de 20 ms indicam precisamente sobrecarga significativa de ferro miocárdico e associação com disfunção ventricular e arritmia ventricular. Na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, a hipertrofia assimétrica e a fibrose miocárdica difusa, heterogênea e que acomete focalmente as inserções ventriculares, constituem o padrão clássico. Quantidade de fibrose acima de 15% da massa ventricular esquerda indica risco duas vezes maior de morte súbita. Na cardiomiopatia/displasia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito (VD), os volumes e a função ventricular direita global e segmentar pela RMC são partes fundamentais dos critérios diagnósticos da displasia pelo consenso atual. A cardiomiopatia chagásica tem mostrado intensa fibrose miocárdica desde as fases iniciais, mais intensa em homens que mulheres e frequentemente associada à edema miocárdico, marcador de provável inflamação crônica. A endomiocardiofibrose apresenta imagem patognomônica no realce tardio, o sinal do duplo V, caracterizando a fibrose miocárdica e trombo/calcificação preenchendo o ápex do VE e/ou VD. Nas valvopatias, além da detecção de fibrose miocárdica, que tem valor prognóstico, a RMC é precisa em quantificar as regurgitações, sendo indicada sua realização na insuficiência mitral antes da decisão de procedimento cirúrgico de troca ou correção valvar, eliminado um número significativo de casos em que a insuficiência mitral é superestimada pela ecocardiografia. Com esta revisão, cobrimos uma vasta gama de cardiopatias para as quais as técnicas de RMC realmente importam no diagnóstico e na estratificação prognóstica


Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a noninvasive form of imaging capable of providing accurate and often unique information in the investigation of heart disease in general, and especially in cardiomyopathies. The ability to accurately characterize the myocardium in terms of its contractility and tissue characteristics, precisely differentiating normal myocardium from myocardial fibrosis and identifying myocardial edema in situations of acute or recent myocardial injury, has made CMR indispensable in any tertiary and advanced cardiology service around the World. In this paper, we review the classical and more recent applications of CMR in non-ischemic heart diseases, dividing the use of CMR techniques into two main groups: heart failure (HF) and ventricular arrhythmia investigations. Within these two groups, we highlight the most important and frequently involved etiologies. In heart failure syndrome, we focused on dilated cardiomyopathy with septal linear mesocardial fibrosis and viral myocarditis with the manifestation of multifocal and mesoepicardiac fibrosis. A proportion of dilated cardiomyopathies may have originated with an ancient viral myocarditis. Cardiac sarcoidosis may present a variety of late enhancement types of non-ischemic and ischemic patterns, and is associated with clinical signs of both HF and arrhythmia. The presence of pulmonary or systemic sarcoidosis may or may not be present. Cardiac amyloidosis is the prototype of restrictive cardiomyopathy, and can be identified in CMR by the global circumferential subendocardial (AL type) or diffuse myocardial enhancement pattern sparing the left ventricle (LV) apex (transthyretin type). Finally, a poorly understood entity, LV non-compaction generally does not present late enhancement, but has a typical ventricular trabeculation phenotype. In the group of arrhythmic syndromes, we reviewed several etiologies frequently associated with this clinical presentation. In cardiac siderosis, values of T2* below 20 ms accurately indicate a significant overload of myocardial iron and association with ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmia. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, asymmetric hypertrophy and diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is heterogeneous and focally affects the ventricular insertions, constitute the classic pattern. An amount of fibrosis above 15% of the left ventricular mass indicates a two-fold increased risk of sudden death. In arrhythmogenic right ventricle (RV) cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, global and segmental right ventricular function and volumes by CMR are fundamental parts of the diagnostic criteria of dysplasia, according to current consensus. Chagasic cardiomyopathy has shown intense myocardial fibrosis since the early stages, which is more intense in men than women, and is frequently associated with myocardial edema, a marker of probable chronic inflammation. Endomyocardial fibrosis presents a pathognomonic image in late enhancement, the double V sign, characterizing myocardial fibrosis and thrombus/calcification filling the LV and/or RV apex. In valve diseases, in addition to the detection of myocardial fibrosis that has prognostic value, CMR is precise in quantifying regurgitations, and is indicated in mitral regurgitation prior to the decision for surgical valve replacement/correction, eliminating a significant number of cases in which mitral insufficiency is overestimated by the echocardiogram. This review covers a wide range of cardiopathies in which CMR techniques are extremely important in the diagnosis and prognostic stratification


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Valve , Primary Prevention/methods , Pulmonary Valve , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Secondary Prevention/methods , Gadolinium/therapeutic use , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Mitral Valve , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/mortality
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