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Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1842, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363595


The Bradypus variegatus species presents peculiar anatomophysiological properties and many aspects of its organic systems still need to be clarified, especially regarding the cardiovascular system, given its participation in vital activities. Disorderly anthropic action has had drastic consequences in sloth populations and the need to treat sick and injured animals is increasingly common. To this end, the importance of knowing its characteristics is emphasized. Therefore, this study proposed to describe the internal macroscopic structures of the sloth's heart, as well as to measure the ventricular walls and indicate the electrical activity of the organ. For the dissections, 15 Bradypus variegatus cadavers were used (1 young female, 9 adults females and 5 adult males) belonging to the Área de Anatomia of the Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal (DMFA), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recide, PE, Brazil. After they were fixed and preserved, the specimens received a midsagittal incision in the chest, followed by soft tissue folding and removal of ribs to access the heart. The organ was derived from the cavity and sectioned sagittal medially to identify its internal anatomy. Ventricular walls and interventricular septum were measured with a steel caliper (150 mm / 0.02 mm). An electrocardiogram was performed to determine the electrical profile on 5 healthy B. variegatus sloths, living under semi-livestock conditions at the Recife Zoo, PE, Brazil. The electrodes were taken from the regions, scapular and glutes of the animals that were called hugging a keeper during the procedure, carried out in the Zoo itself, using a portable device. Based on the data obtained, sloths have cardiac chambers separated by septa, however between atria and ventricles, in both antimeres, there are atrioventricular ostia, where valves are found, consisting of 3 valves on the right and 2 on the left. The atria are practically smooth inside and have their cavity enlarged by the atria, the right being larger than the left, these having a greater amount of pectineal muscles in relation to the atria. The ventricles have trabeculae and papillary muscles, 3 on the right and 2 on the left. These muscles hold the tendinous chords that connect the valves. The existence of trabeculae marginal septum was not evidenced. The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle, as well as that of the interventricular septum, proved to be greater than the thickness of the wall of the right ventricle, regardless of the age or sex of the animals. Based on the electrocardiographic recordings, the sloths presented sinus rhythm, with a heart rate between 67 and 100 bpm. The electrical axis ranged from -60º to -90º. The P wave is smoother than the QRS complex. While the S-T segment was classified as isoelectric. The T wave was shown to be + and predominantly > or = at 25% of the S wave, which characterized an rS type QRS deflection in both females and males. The general characteristics of the cardiac chambers in sloths are similar to those observe in other domestic and wild mammals. However, the presence of pectineal muscles associated with the atria and auricles differs from that observed in mammals such as the paca and raccoon and in birds such as the ostrich, which have trabecular structures in these cavities. The number of valves in sloths is equal to the anteater. However, it has a marginal trabeculae septum, not seen in Bradypus variegatus. According to the electrocardiographic findings, the rhythm was sinus, but much lower than that observed in the capuchin monkey, which also maintains arboreal habits.(AU)

Animals , Male , Female , Sloths/physiology , Cingulata/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Electrocardiography
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1737-1741, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131558


The cutia (Dasyprocta agouti) and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ) are hystricomorphic rodents of the Brazilian fauna. The wild animal anatomy is essential to the clinic and surgery practices and conservation programs. This work aimed to evaluate the heart quantitative morphology of the cutia and the capybara. For this, three hearts of cutia and three of capybaras were used from the collection of the Anatomy Sector of Domestic and Wild Animals of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo. The hearts were weighted and measured with a pachymeter. The left ventricle volume was estimated through the Cavalieri method. The hearts' mean weight was 16.76g (cutias) and 104.2g (capybaras). The mean values for the axis, width and base dimensions were of the cutia 4.3cm, 3.3cm and 3.3cm and for the capybara were 7.6cm, 6.0cm and 6.1cm, respectively. The mean volume of the left ventricle of the cutia and the capybara was 5.03cm3 and 54.55cm3, respectively. The quantitative results of the hearts were compatible with the average body weight of the rodents. Thus, these numerical data can be applied to veterinary cardiology.(AU)

A cutia (Dasyprocta agouti) e a capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) são roedores histricomorfos da fauna brasileira. A anatomia de animais silvestres é essencial para a prática clínico-cirúrgica e programas conservacionistas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a morfologia quantitativa do coração da cutia e da capivara. Para isso, foram utilizados três corações de cutias e três de capivaras, provenientes do acervo do Setor de Anatomia dos Animais Domésticos e Silvestres da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. Os corações foram pesados e as mensurações foram realizadas com paquímetro. O volume do ventrículo esquerdo foi calculado pelo método de Cavalieri. O peso médio dos corações foi de 16,76g (cutias) e de 104,2g (capivaras). Os valores médios para as dimensões eixo, largura e base foram, para a cutia, de 4,3cm, 3,3cm e 3,3cm e para a capivara, de 7,6cm, 6,0cm e 6,1cm, respectivamente. O volume médio do ventrículo esquerdo da cutia e da capivara foi respectivamente de 5,03cm3 e de 54,55cm3. Os resultados quantitativos dos corações foram compatíveis com o peso corporal médio dos roedores. Assim, esses dados numéricos podem ser aplicados à cardiologia veterinária.(AU)

Animals , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Dasyproctidae/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 596-601, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098293


Las valvas cardíacas y especialmente la valva atrioventricular izquierda (VAVI) ha sido considerada por largo tiempo, como una estructura pasiva. Sin embargo, han surgido nuevas teorías que reconocen a esta estructura como una "valva viva", con un funcionamiento de mayor autonomía y dinámico. En esta línea, existen estudios en donde se ha concluido que la ausencia de tejidos contráctiles en una valva, generan ondulaciones no fisiológicas. Por el contrario, se ha señalado la presencia de tejido contráctil en la valva, lo que refleja una activación ondulante. Basado en lo anterior, el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de fibras musculares cardíacas en las cúspides de la VAVI. Se utilizaron 12 cúspides, 6 anteriores y 6 posteriores, de 7 cadáveres adultos (4) y lactantes (3) de distintas edades, sin patologías cardíacas. Las muestras pertenecían a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. Estas muestras fueron tratadas con procesamiento histológico de rutina. Los hallazgos morfológicos a un aumento de 4x mostraron células musculares que fueron visibles principalmente por el lado atrial en la totalidad de las cúspides, tanto inmersas en el tejido conectivo denso del anillo fibroso como en el tejido conectivo laxo. Al verificar la naturaleza de las fibras con un aumento mayor (100x), se detectaron estrías transversales en todas las muestras estudiadas, lo cual afirma la presencia de fibras musculares estríadas cardíacas en la VAVI. Los resultados obtenidos aportan al conocimiento de la microestructura y tejido contráctil de las cúspides de la VAVI. Por lo tanto, resulta de gran relevancia seguir profundizando en los conocimientos morfológicos de la VAVI, para sentar una base sólida sobre la microestructura contráctil en los diferentes estadíos del ser humano.

Cardiac valves and particularly, the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) have long been considered passive structures. Nonetheless, there are more recent hypothesis that recognize this structure as a "living valve", with greater autonomy and dynamic function. Along these lines, some studies have concluded that the absence of contractile tissues in a valve, generates non-physiological undulations. In contrast, the presence of contractile tissue in the valve has been reported, reflecting a waving activation. Based on the above, the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of cardiac muscle fibers in the cusps of the LAVV. 12 cusps, 6 anterior and 6 posterior. Therefore, 7 adult (4) and lactating (3) bodies of different ages without cardiac pathologies were used. The samples belonged to the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidade de Ciencias da Saude de Alagos, Maceió, Brazil. The samples were treated with routine histological processing. Morphological findings at an increase of 4x showed muscle cells that were visible mainly from the atrial side in all the cusps, both immersed in the dense connective tissue of the fibrous ring and in loose connective tissue. Transverse striations were detected in all samples studied, when verifying the nature of the fibers with greater increase (100x), confirming the presence of cardiac striated muscle fibers in the LAVV. The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the microstructure and contractile tissue of the LAVV cusps. Therefore it is relevant to further morphological knowledge of this valve, in order to build a solid foundation on the contractile microstructure in the different stages of the human development.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Mitral Valve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Heart/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056388


The Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) is an odontocete cetacean specie that lies in the waters of the southern hemisphere. With the aim of studying the course and distribution of Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary arteries, an exhaustive heart dissection was performed on one specimen. To the extent of our knowledge, and basing upon an extensive bibliographic research on the commersonii species, this is the first reported description of a Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy. Despite the fact that the analysis of a unique specimen does not allow to establish final conclusions, comparisons reveal broad similarities between Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary distribution and previous anatomical studies describing the heart of various marine diving mammals and the human fetus circulation. Diving mammals have developed an anastomotic system along evolution, in order to adjust their bodies to diving imposed conditions, and minimize the oxygen demand of the heart muscle. The present work begins with the identification of the patterns and similarities between Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy when compared to other odontecete species, to continue with an exhaustive description of the Commerson's dolphin coronary anatomy.

La tonina overa (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) es una especie de cetáceo odontoceto que se encuentra en las aguas del hemisferio sur. Con el objetivo de estudiar el curso y la distribución de las arterias coronarias de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, se realizó una disección exhaustiva del corazón de un ejemplar. Hasta donde sabemos, y basándonos en una extensa investigación bibliográfica sobre la especie, esta es la primera descripción informada de la anatomía de un corazón de este ejemplar. A pesar de que el análisis de una sola muestra no permite establecer conclusiones finales, las comparaciones revelan amplias similitudes entre la distribución coronaria de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, los estudios anatómicos previos que describen el corazón de varios mamíferos marinos buceadores, y la circulación del feto humano. Los mamíferos buceadores han desarrollado un sistema anastomótico a lo largo de la evolución para ajustar sus cuerpos a las condiciones impuestas por el buceo y minimizar la demanda de oxígeno del músculo cardíaco. El presente trabajo comienza con la identificación de los patrones y similitudes entre la anatomía del corazón de tonina overa en comparación con otras especies odontecetas, continuando con una descripción exhaustiva de la anatomía coronaria.

Animals , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Dolphins/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18560, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364408


The Gαq-RGS2 loop activator, 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one has demonstrated Gαq signaling inhibitor activity. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of Gαq-RGS2 loop activator on isolated heart and aorta of normal rats. Heart and aorta were isolated from the sacrificed rats (n=6) and mounted on the langendroff's and organ bath assembly, respectively. The effect of various receptor-dependent (acetylcholine, angiotensin II and adrenaline) and independent (calcium chloride and sodium nitroprusside) agonists in absence and presence of Gαq-RGS2 loop activator on left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the contractile responseswere evaluated in isolated heart and aorta, respectively. Gαq-RGS2 loop activator (100 µM) significantly attenuated the adrenaline (p<0.001,) and angiotensin II (p<0.001) induced increase in LVSP in isolated heart and contractile response of adrenaline (p<0.01) and angiotensin II (p<0.01) in the aorta. However, effect calcium chloride did not significantly alter by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator. The effect of acetylcholinewas significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05) increased by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator in isolated heart and aorta. The effect of sodium nitroprusside significantly (p<0.01) potentiated by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator (100 µM) in isolated heart while it did not significantly alters in the aorta. Ultimately, the Gαq-RGS2 loop activator modulated the action of receptor-dependent agonists in isolated heart and aorta

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/pathology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Blood Pressure , Angiotensin II , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Acetylcholine/classification
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 757-765, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002290


The aim of this study was to estimate the values of morphological traits of myocardium in American minks. The study was conducted on 342 male mink hearts and 416 female mink hearts. Mink coat coloration resulting from mutation or crossbreeding of mutational variants with each other and sex were assumed as a source of variation. Carcass, lung and heart weights, heart height, width, depth and circumference, as well as left and right ventricular wall weights and thickness at two locations were determined. The values of 10 indices characterising the relative size of the heart were estimated. The results showed no normal distribution of the heart traits examined. The greatest average heart weight was characteristic of male mutational colour variant minks (17.40 ± 2.34 g). These hearts were heavier by more than 8 % than those of male standard colour variant minks. The hearts of male mutational colour variant minks were characterised by the greatest left and right ventricle weights (P≤0.01) compared to those of male standard colour variant minks, in which in turn the greatest left and right ventricle wall thickness was larger than that in standard colour variant minks. It was found that a greater difference calculated between mean left ventricle wall thickness and mean right ventricle wall thickness in standard colour variant minks may provide more evidence of its adaptation to a greater effort, referring thus to their evolutionary history than to the occurrence of signs of multistage myocardial hypertrophy.

El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar los valores de los rasgos morfológicos del miocardio en el visón americano. El estudio se realizó en 342 corazones de visón macho y 416 corazones de visón hembra. La coloración de la capa de visón resultante de la mutación o el cruce de variantes mutacionales entre sí, y el sexo se asumieron como una fuente de variación. Se determinaron los pesos de la canal, los pulmones y el corazón, la altura del corazón, el ancho, la profundidad y la circunferencia, así como los pesos y el grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en dos ubicaciones. Se estimaron los valores de 10 índices que caracterizan el tamaño relativo del corazón. Los resultados no mostraron una distribución normal de los rasgos de los corazones examinados. El mayor peso promedio del corazón fue característico de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho (17,40 ± 2,34 g). Estos corazones eran más pesados en más de un 8 % que los de los visones con variante de color estándar machos. Los corazones de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho se caracterizaron por los mayores pesos de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho (P≤0,01) en comparación con los de los visones de color estándar machos, en los que a su vez el mayor grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho fue mayor que el de las variantes de colores estándar. Se observó que una mayor diferencia entre los grosores medio de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en las variantes de color estándar, puede proporcionar más pruebas de su adaptación a un mayor esfuerzo, refiriéndose así a su historial evolutivo, pese a la aparición de signos de hipertrofia miocárdica multietapa.

Animals , Male , Female , Heart/anatomy & histology , Mink/anatomy & histology , Mink/genetics , Organ Size/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Mutation
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1241-1245, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975690


Third coronary artery or supernumerary coronary artery is a direct branch from right aortic sinus and it supplies pulmonary conus and upper part of right ventricle. Third coronary artery is an important bridge for collateral circulation between right and left coronary system. The aim of this study was to determine the number of arteries that origin from right aortic sinus, their frequency and position. The study included 55 adult human hearts collected from Department of Anatomy. The hearts were morphologically studied by gross dissection for the prevalence and topographical anatomy of supernumerary coronary arteries. Out of 55 hearts, 26 (47.3 %) had one right coronary artery, 23 (41.8 %) had two right coronary arteries, and 6 (10.9 %) had three coronary arteries. The supernumerary arteries arises from the right aortic sinus. Right supernumerary coronary arteries may be present in about 52.7 % of the Serbian population. Interpretation of signs and symptoms of coronary occlusion should therefore consider possible contribution of this blood vessels.

La tercera arteria coronaria o arteria coronaria supernumeraria es una rama directa del seno aórtico derecho y su ministra el cono pulmonar y la parte superior del ventrículo derecho. La tercera arteria coronaria es importante para la circulación colateral entre el sistema coronario derecho e izquierdo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el número de arterias de origen del seno aórtico derecho, su frecuencia y posición. El estudio incluyó 55 corazones humanos adultos pertenecientes al Departamento de Anatomía. Los corazones se estudiaron morfológicamente mediante disección macroscópica para determinar la prevalencia y la anatomía topográfica de las arterias coronarias supernumerarias. De 55 corazones, 26 (47,3 %) tenían una arteria coronaria derecha, 23 (41,8 %) tenían dos arterias coronarias derechas, y 6 (10,9 %) tenían tres arterias coronarias. Las arterias supernumerarias surgen del seno aórtico derecho. Las arterias coronarias supernumerarias derechas pueden estar presentes en aproximadamente el 52,7 % de la población serbia. La interpretación de los signos y síntomas de la oclusión coronaria debería considerar la posible contribución de estos vasos sanguíneos.

Humans , Adult , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Heart/anatomy & histology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1622-1630, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976483


In humans, left atrial enlargement and reduced contractile functions are associated with adverse cardiovascular events and a poor prognosis in many dilatation of the left atrium occurs with the gradual evolution of chronic mitral valve disease and is well diseases. The left atrium is the most compromised cardiac chamber in dogs with chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD). Therefore, this study aimed to compare the main parameters of left atrial enlargement (left atrium/aorta ratio, left atrial diameter and volume indices) and contractile function (transmitral flow peak velocity A wave and time velocity integral, atrial fraction, and atrial ejection force) at different stages of valve disease, and correlate the left atrial diameter, volume, and contractile function indices with echocardiographic variables predictive of heart failure in dogs (transmitral flow peak velocity E wave, E wave/IVRT ratio, E wave/E´wave ratio, and E wave/A wave ratio). The results showed that progressive characterized by the left atrium/aorta ratio and left atrium volume index. The left atrial diameter and volume indices and left atrium/aorta ratio correlated positively with the transmitral flow peak velocity E wave and E wave/IVRT ratio, which are important indices of diastolic function. The left atrial contractile function indices increased as CMVD evolved. Except for the atrial fraction, the left atrial contractile function indices correlated with the left ventricular filling pressure indices.(AU)

O tamanho e a função atrial esquerda estão relacionados em humanos com eventos cardiovasculares adversos e prognóstico nas principais cardiopatias. Na doença valvar crônica de mitral (DVCM) em cães, o átrio esquerdo é a câmara cardíaca mais comprometida. Portanto, os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar os principais parâmetros de aumento atrial esquerdo (relação átrio esquerdo/aorta, índice do diâmetro atrial esquerdo e índice do volume atrial esquerdo) e função contrátil de átrio esquerdo (velocidade máxima e integral de velocidade da onda A do fluxo transvalvar mitral, fração atrial e força de ejeção atrial) nos diferentes estágios da doença valvar; correlacionar diâmetro e volume atrial esquerdo e os índices de função contrátil atrial esquerda com as variáveis ecocardiográficas preditivas de insuficiência cardíaca em cães (velocidade máxima da onda E do fluxo transvalvar mitral, relação E/TRIV, relação E/E'par e relação E/A). Os resultados mostraram que com a evolução progressiva da doença valvar crônica de mitral, ocorre dilatação progressiva do átrio esquerdo, bem caracterizada pela relação átrio esquerdo/aorta e pelo índice de volume atrial esquerdo. O índice do diâmetro atrial esquerdo, o índice de volume atrial esquerdo e a relação átrio esquerdo/aorta correlacionam-se, positivamente, com a velocidade da onda E e com a relação E/TRIV, que são importantes índices de função diastólica. Os índices de função contrátil do átrio esquerdo aumentam à medida que a DVCM evolui. Os índices de função contrátil do átrio esquerdo apresentam correlação positiva com os índices de pressão de enchimento ventricular esquerdo, exceção feita à fração atrial.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Blood Pressure , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Dogs/blood , Heart/anatomy & histology
Educ. med. super ; 32(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-989723


Introducción: en este curso inició el Plan D para la carrera Medicina, y estando inmersos en la preparación de las nuevas asignaturas rectoras que incluidas anteriormente en Morfofisiología, se propone una práctica de laboratorio con métodos de anatomía comparada. Objetivo: proponer la implementación de una práctica de laboratorio sobre la Anatomía del corazón para el segundo año de medicina, basada en métodos de anatomía comparada. Método: se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental en la Filial de Ciencias Médicas Manuel Piti Fajardo durante los cursos 2015-16 y 2016-17. Donde se impartió la actividad propuesta al total de estudiantes (104) realizándose la observación de un corazón real de cerdo en comparación con el humano, mostrando aspectos de la anatomía externa e interna, y usando la guía de estudio de la anatomía cardiaca mediante la disección de un corazón porcino. Se aplicaron métodos teóricos: histórico lógico, analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo; de los empíricos se aplicó la observación, el análisis de documentos y la técnica del PNI. Resultados: los resultados de la evaluación sistemática fueron comparados con los alcanzados por los 128 estudiantes del curso anterior, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre ellas, se amplió el porcentaje de calificaciones con calidad, se disminuyó ligeramente el porcentaje de calificados de regular y disminuyó el porcentaje de suspensos. Conclusiones: los resultados han sido superiores con la introducción de esta práctica por lo que se propone como parte del programa de la asignatura "Sistemas cardiovascular, respiratorio, digestivo y renal", Plan D, segundo año, Medicina

Introduction: A Lab Practice is proposed to give an answer to methodological problems dealing with a new Curriculum of the Medical Career called Plan D in Medicine Career. It took place in Manuel Piti Fajardo Medical School in San Cristóbal during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017academic courses, is related to a new subject called Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive and Renal systems which were taught before with the name of Morph-physiology. Objective: to offer a suggestion for a lab practice where students have to get familiar to the cardiovascular system using a pig's heart to observe its internal and external characteristics comparing it with a human heart. Methods: it consists of a quasi-experimental study based on a Lab Practice where students have to use a pig's heart to observe its internal and external characteristics comparing it with a human heart. Theoretical methods such us Inductive-Deductive method, Analytic- Synthetic method, Historical - Logical method were used and some empirical methods like observation, documentary analysis and P.N.I. were applied too. The methodology used for carrying out the study is similar to the one used by Biology students in the University of Havana. Results: Systematic evaluation results are presented comparing them, with the ones done before. The initial and final diagnoses are shown. Conclusion: the suggestion is made to work with the plan D curriculum, improving medical students' knowledge, related to a new subjecting Medicine Career called Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive and Renal systems which were taught before with the name of Morph-physiology(AU)

Animals , Students, Medical , Heart/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative/methods , Laboratories , Swine
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 235-242, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893216


RESUMEN: La información disponible sobre el aparato cardiovascular del carpincho (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) es escasa. El objetivo general de este estudio fue describir la anatomía cardíaca de esta especie. Se utilizaron 6 animales adultos y 5 neonatos, libres de patologías del aparato cardiovascular. El método de estudio de los animales fue la disección simple. El corazón del carpincho estaba ubicado desde el segundo espacio intercostal hasta la sexta costilla. El ligamento frenicopericárdico unía el pericardio fibroso al esternón y al diafragma. El tubérculo intervenoso era de escaso desarrollo. En la aurícula derecha se encontraban escasos músculos pectinados. Los músculos papilares derechos presentaban entre ellos trabéculas septomarginales. Las trabéculas carnosas presentaban un marcado desarrollo sobre la pared marginal del ventrículo derecho. También había grandes trabéculas carnosas sobre la pared septal, que sin embargo era algo más lisa. Los músculos papilares izquierdos eran dos, situados opuestos uno al otro y sobre la pared septal. Ambos eran simples y emitían cuerdas tendinosas hacia ambas cúspides de la válvula atrioventricular izquierda. Las trabéculas carnosas del ventrículo izquierdo eran menos numerosas. Entre ambos músculos papilares existía una gran trabécula carnosa que ocupaba gran parte de la extensión dorsoventral de la pared septal del ventrículo izquierdo. De ambas arterias coronarias, la arteria coronaria izquierda que surgía del seno coronario izquierdo de la aorta era la más importante, de mayor tamaño y de mayor distribución, encargándose de la irrigación de la mayoría del territorio cardíaco. La rama interventricular paraconal se dirigía por el surco interventricular paraconal y terminaba sobre el margen ventricular derecho anastomosándose con la rama interventricular subsinusal que venía por el surco del mismo nombre. Con otras técnicas, es necesario realizar estudios histológicos, semiológicos y fisiológicos en el corazón de esta especie para entender mejor su anatomía y fisiología.

SUMMARY: The available information on the cardiovascular apparatus of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is scarce. The general objective of this study was to describe the cardiac anatomy of this species. Six adult animals and five newborns were used; all were free of cardiovascular system pathologies. The method of study of the animals was simple dissection. The heart of the capybara was located from the second intercostal space to the sixth rib. The frenicopericardial ligament attached the fibrous pericardium to the sternum and the diaphragm. The intervenous tubercle was poorly developed. In the right atrium, there were few pectinated muscles. The right papillary muscles had septomarginal trabeculae among them. The carnous trabeculae showed a marked development on the marginal wall of the right ventricle. There were also large, carnous trabeculae on the septal wall, which was somewhat flatter. The left papillary muscles were two, located opposite each other and on the septal wall. Both were simple and sent tendinous cords to both cusps of the left atrioventricular valve. Carnous trabeculae of the left ventricle were less numerous. Between both papillary muscles there was a large carnous trabecula that occupied much of the dorsoventral extension of the septal wall of the left ventricle. Of both coronary arteries, the left coronary artery that emerged from the left coronary sinus of the aorta was the most important, with larger size and greater distribution. The paraconal interventricular branch was directed through the paraconal interventricular groove and terminated on the right ventricular margin anastomosing with the subsinusal interventricular branch that came through the groove of the same name. With other techniques, it is necessary to perform histological, semiological and physiological studies in the heart of this species to better understand its anatomy and physiology.

Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology
Motriz (Online) ; 24(3): e0039, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976245


We aimed to discuss a case of strength training athlete who competes in international competitions regarding cardiac (dimension and function), vascular (endothelium and vascular resistance), hemodynamic (blood pressure), given limited evidence supporting these cardiovascular adaptations as well as concerning endothelial function in long-term high-intensity strength training. Methods: We assessed heart structure and function (echocardiography); systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); endothelium-dependent vasodilation (flow-mediated dilation, FMD); maximum force tested in the squat, bench press, and deadlift; and maximum oxygen consumption (spirometry). Results: powerlifter's cardiac dimensions (interventricular septum 13 mm; posterior wall thickness 12 mm; LV diastolic diameter 57 mm; left ventricle mass 383 g; LV mass adjusted by body surface area 151.4 g/m2) are above the proposed cutoff values beyond which pathology may be considered. Moreover, cardiovascular function systolic (ejection fraction by Simpson's rule, 71%) is preserved and FMD measure is fairly close and above normal; however, a mild increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed (130/89 mmHg, respectively). Conclusion: Cardiac remodeling cannot be viewed as either pathological or harmful to the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, we showed an improvement in endothelial function.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Physical Exertion , Athletes , Heart/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(12): 1526-1530, dez. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895403


In thoracic radiographic examination, routinely used in cases which cardiac evaluation is indicated, quantitative assessment of the heart is a useful role to be used in combination with subjective analysis. Numerous studies about objective assessment of the cardiac size have been performed in several species, including sheep; however, there is scarce information regarding cardiac parameters of young Bergamasca sheep. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the average results and suggest the range of expected normal values for parameters related to the heart size of young female Bergamasca sheep by radiographic evaluation. Fifteen healty 8 months-old female Bergamasca sheep (mean weight: 41.13±4.71kg) were submitted to right lateral recumbency thoracic radiography. The length of the fourth and third to fifth thoracic vertebrae, cardiac height and width, vertebral heart size, cardiophrenic contact, caudal vena cava height, aorta caliber and tracheal angle were measured and the mean results found were, respectively: 2.46±0.11cm (95% CI 2.41-2.52), 7.53±0.30cm (95% CI 7.38-7.68), 13.83±0.57cm, (95% CI 13.54-14.12), 8.99±0.37cm (8.80-9.17), 8.99±0.27 vertebrae (95% 8.85-9.13), 4.55±0.70cm (95% CI 4.19-4.90), 1.88±0.19cm (95% CI 1.79-1.97), 2.05±0.11cm (95% CI 2.00-2.11) and 14.36±2.73° (95% CI 12.98-15.75). Cardiac height and width and the sum of these parameters were compared to the length of third to fifth thoracic vertebrae, resulting in the respective mean values: 1.84±0.08 (95% IC 1.80-1.88), 1.20±0.05 (1.17-1.22) and 3.04±0.11 (95% IC 2.98-3.09). Ratios of cardiophrenic contact to cardiac height and caudal vena cava height to length of fourth thoracic vertebra were also evaluated and the mean values obtained were 0.33±0.05 (95% IC 0.30-0.35) and 0.76±0.08 (95% IC 0.72-0.81), respectively. Authors suggest that the values available in this study may be used as reference for normal heart size in young female Bergamasca sheep and as basis for further studies.(AU)

No exame radiográfico torácico, rotineiramente utilizado em casos em que a avaliação cardíaca é indicada, a análise quantitativa do coração é um recurso útil a ser usado em combinação com a avaliação subjetiva. Diversos estudos relacionados à análise objetiva do tamanho cardíaco têm sido realizados em várias espécies, incluindo ovinos; no entanto, há pouca informação sobre os parâmetros cardíacos de ovinos jovens da raça Bergamácia. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as médias e sugerir o intervalo de valores esperados para os parâmetros relacionados ao tamanho cardíaco de borregas Bergamácia por meio da avaliação radiográfica. Quinze borregas Bergamácia de 8 meses de idade (média de peso: 41,13±4,71kg) foram submetidas à radiografia torácica em decúbito lateral direito. O comprimento do quarto e da terceira a quinta vértebras torácicas, a altura e a largura cardíaca, o tamanho do coração em relação à unidade de vértebra torácica, o contato cardiofrênico, a altura da veia cava caudal, o calibre da aorta e o ângulo traqueal foram mensurados, sendo encontrados os seguintes valores médios, respectivamente: 2,46±0,11cm (95% IC 2,41-2,52), 7,53±0,30cm (95% IC 7,38-7,68), 13,83±0,57cm, (95% IC 13,54-14,12), 8,99±0,37cm (95% IC 8,80-9,17), 8,99±0,27 vértebras (95% IC 8,85-9,13), 4,55±0,70cm (95% IC 4,19-4,90), 1,88±0,19cm (95% IC 1,79-1,97), 2,05±0,11cm (95% IC 2,00-2,11) e 14,36±2,73° (95% IC 12,98-15,75). A altura e a largura cardíaca e a soma desses parâmetros foram comparados com o comprimento da terceira a quinta vértebras torácicas, resultando nos respectivos valores médios: 1,84±0,08 (95% IC 1,80-1,88), 1,20±0,05 (1,17-1,22) e 3,04±0,11 (95% IC 2,98-3,09). Também foram avaliadas as relações entre o contato cardiofrênico e a altura cardíaca e entre a altura da veia cava caudal e o comprimento da quarta vértebra torácica, sendo determinados os valores médios de 0,33±0,05 (95% IC 0,30-0,35) e 0,76±0,08 (95% IC 0,72-0,81), respectivamente. Os autores sugerem que os valores disponíveis no presente estudo podem ser utilizados como referência na avaliação das dimensões cardíacas de borregas Bergamácia e como base para estudos futuros.(AU)

Animals , Female , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Sheep/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(3): f:207-l:218, mai.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836675


Fundamento: Embora muitas pesquisas tenham sido conduzidas com um determinado antioxidante ou mPTP individualmente, pouca atenção tem sido dada para os efeitos da co-administração de um antioxidante e um inibidor de mPTP sobre a disfunção cardíaca após a lesão de I/R. Objetivos: Este estudo objetiva determinar os efeitos do ácido gálico (como antioxidante) combinado com a ciclosporina A (CsA) (como inibidor de mPTP) na função cardíaca e endotelial na disfunção induzida por I/R (função de NO). Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram pré-tratados com ácido gálico (7,5, 15 ou 30 de peso corporal, diariamente) por um período de 10 dias. Em seguida, o coração foi isolado e exposto a isquemia de 30 minutos e perfundido por CsA (0,2 µM) 20 min durante o período de reperfusão. Resultados: Os dados mostraram que o tamanho do infarto foi significativamente diminuído por CsA e ácido gálico sozinho (p < 0,05, ANOVA unidirecional seguido de teste LSD). A combinação de ambos os fármacos, entretanto, apresentou efeitos de melhora mais significativos (p < 0,001). A combinação destes dois fármacos melhorou mais significativamente a taxa máxima de aumento e de queda da pressão ventricular (± dp.dt-1 máx), o duplo produto (DP), a pressão ventricular esquerda desenvolvida (PVED), a frequência cardíaca e o fluxo coronário quando comparada à aplicação de apenas um deles (p < 0,05, medidas repetidas ANOVA seguidas de teste de LSD). Conclusões: Em conclusão, o benefício de um antioxidante concomitante com um inibidor da mPTP poderia ter efeitos mais benéficos sobre a disfunção cardíaca induzida pela lesão I/R

Background: Although many researches have been conducted on either a certain antioxidant or mPTP individually, little attention has been drawn to the effects of co-administration of an antioxidant and mPTP inhibitor together on cardiac dysfunction after I/R injury. Objectives: This study aims at determining the effects of gallic acid (as Antioxidant) combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) (as mPTP inhibitor) on I/R induced cardiac and endothelial (role of NO) dysfunction. Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with gallic acid (7.5, 15, or body weight, daily) for a period of 10 days. Then, the heart was isolated and exposed to 30-minute ischemia and perfused by CsA (0.2 µM) 20 min during reperfusion period. Results: The data have shown that infarct size was decreased significantly by CsA and gallic acid alone (p < 0.05, one way ANOVA followed by LSD test), however the combination of both drugs had more significant improving effects (p < 0.001). The combination of these two drugs improved more significantly maximum rate of rise and fall of ventricular pressure (±dp.dt-1 max), rate pressure product (RPP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate and coronary flow rather than applying each one alone (p < 0.05, repeated measurement ANOVA followed by LSD test). Conclusion: In conclusion, benefiting from an antioxidant concomitant with an mPTP inhibitor could have more improving effects on the cardiac dysfunction induced by I/R injury

Animals , Rats , Antioxidants , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Gallic Acid/therapeutic use , Ischemia/physiopathology , Rats , Reperfusion/methods , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Heart/anatomy & histology , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Reactive Oxygen Species , Ventricular Function
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 408-414, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796971


ABSTRACT Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The combined system was characterized, determining operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, magnification, maximum acceptable target size, number of projections, and acquisition and reconstruction times. Results: Images were obtained with 0.5mm spatial resolution, with acquisition and reconstruction times between 30 and 45 minutes, using iterative reconstruction with 10 to 20 iterations and 4 projection subsets. The system was validated acquiring in vivo tomographic images of the heart, kidneys and brain of normal animals (mice and adult rats), using the radiopharmaceuticals technetium-labeled hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-Sestamibi), technetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-labeled hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Conclusion: This kind of application, which consists in the adaptation for an alternative objective of already existing instrumentation, resulted in a low-cost infrastructure option, allowing to carry out large scale in vivo studies with enhanced quality in several areas, such as neurology, nephrology, cardiology, among others.

RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar o resultado da adaptação de uma gama câmara clínica para uso dedicado na obtenção de imagens tomográficas in vivo de órgãos de pequenos animais de experimentação, e de sua aplicação na obtenção de imagens cardíacas, renais e neurológicas. Métodos: Foi construída uma versão atualizada do dispositivo de adaptação miniSPECT, composto por três subsistemas: mecânico, eletrônico e de software. O dispositivo foi montado em uma câmara Discovery VH da General Electric Healthcare, retirada do serviço clínico e instalada no Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. O sistema combinado foi caracterizado, determinando parâmetros de funcionamento como resolução espacial, magnificação, limites de tamanho dos alvos de estudo, número de projeções, tempo de registro e tempo de reconstrução das imagens tomográficas. Resultados: Foram obtidas imagens com resolução espacial de até 0,5mm, com tempos de registro e reconstrução de 30 a 45 minutos, utilizando reconstrução iterativa com 10 a 20 iterações e 4 subconjuntos de projeções. O sistema foi validado obtendo imagens tomográficas in vivo do coração, dos rins e do cérebro de animais normais (camundongos e ratos adultos), utilizando os radiofármacos hexaquis-2-metoxi-isobutil-isonitrila marcado com 99mTc (Sestamibi-99mTc), ácido dimercaptosuccínico marcado com 99mTc (DMSA-99mTc) e hexametil-propileno-amina-oxima marcada com 99mTc (HMPAO-99mTc). Conclusão: Este tipo de aplicação, que consiste na adaptação para um objetivo alternativo de instrumentação já existente, constituiu-se em uma opção de infraestrutura de baixo custo, que permite realizar estudos in vivo em larga escala, com qualidade aprimorada, em áreas diversas, como neurologia, nefrologia, cardiologia, entre outras.

Animals , Male , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/instrumentation , Molecular Imaging/instrumentation , Translational Medical Research/instrumentation , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Phantoms, Imaging , Models, Animal , Molecular Imaging/methods , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Mice
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(supl.1): 8-14, June 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-798018


Com este estudo objetivou-se descrever os aspectos anatômicos e histológicos do coração do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare), proveniente de zoocriadouro. Para tanto, estudou-se 13 exemplares da espécie, os quais foram perfundidos, conservados em solução de formaldeído a 10% e submetidos às técnicas anatômicas específicas. O coração foi separado e amostras foram colhidas e submetidas à avaliação histológica. Macroscopicamente o coração é tetracavitário, e além de dois átrios e dois ventrículos, apresenta uma estrutura denominada cone arterial, do qual emergem os vasos da base do coração. Foram identificadas duas aortas, direita e esquerda, sendo que a esquerda emerge do ventrículo direito e se comunica com o tronco sistêmico direito por meio do forame de Panizza. Histologicamente o coração possui epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio típicos. Concluímos que a histologia do coração, no jacaré-do-pantanal, é semelhante à de outras espécies de répteis. Contudo, anatomicamente apresenta particularidades importantes, as quais representam, possivelmente, adaptações que permitiram a perpetuação da espécie.(AU)

The aim of this study was to describe anatomical and histological aspects of the heart of Caiman yacare from a crocodile breeding center. For this purpose, we have chosen and further studied 13 specimens which were perfused and preserved in a 10% formaldehyde solution and they were subjected to the specific anatomical techniques. The heart was separated and samples were collected and submitted to the specific histological procedures. Macroscopically, the heart is four-chambered and besides two atria and two ventricles, has a structure called arterial cone from which the large vessels of the heart emerge. Two aortas, left and right, were identified. The left aorta emerges from the right ventricle and communicates with the systemic trunk through the Foramen of Panizza. From a histological point of view, the heart is typically composed of epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. According to these observations, it is assumed that the histology of the heart of "Jacaré-do-Pantanal" is similar to other species of reptiles. However, there are some anatomic particularities, which possibly represent the adaptations allowing the perpetuation of the species.(AU)

Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles/anatomy & histology , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Reptiles
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(6): 533-538, jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792603


Com o objetivo de determinar os valores de referência ecocardiográficos de equinos da raça Mangalarga Marchador, foram avaliados 80 equinos desta raça, machos e fêmeas, com 1,6 a 16 anos de idade, pesando entre 320 a 500 kg, divididos igualmente em 4 grupos: fêmeas de 1,6 a 4 anos de idade (G1), fêmeas com mais de 4 anos de idade (G2), machos de 1,6 a 4 anos de idade (G3), machos com mais de 4 anos de idade (G4). A avaliação constou de exame ecocardiográfico mono e bidimensional, tendo sido realizados através da janela cardíaca direita, nos modos B e M: DIVDs, DIVDd, SIVs, SIVd, DIVEs, DIVEd, PLVEs, PLVEd, Aod, FS%, EF%, AEs, Aod, Aes/ Aod, ponto E-S. Através da janela cardíaca esquerda nos modos B e M: DIVEs, DIVEd, FS%, EF%, AEs. Foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre as médias dos quatro grupos dos seguintes parâmetros: Aod, AEs, DIVDs, DIVDd, SIVs, SIVd, DIVEs, DIVEd, PLVEs, PLVEd, Vs, Vd e correlações estatísticas positivas entre Aod, AEs, SIVs, SIVd, PLVEs, PLVEd, Vd e a idade, entreAod, AEs, SIVs, SIVd, DIVEd, PLVEs, AEs/Aod e o peso e o perímetro torácico e entre Aod, AEs, SIVs, SIVd, DIVEs, PLVEs, Vd e a altura da cernelha. Houve influência tanto do sexo como da faixa etária sobre os valores de referência para equinos da raça Mangalarga Marchador, tendo os machos acima de 4 anos apresentados valores de medidas ventriculares maiores. O peso, altura e idade dos animais influenciaram da mesma forma os resultados, estando todos relacionados positivamente ao tamanho da estrutura cardíaca.(AU)

Aiming to establish the echocardiographic reference values of cardiac dimensions and indexes in horses of the Mangalarga Marchador breed, 80 horses, weighing 320 to 500 kg, that were divided in four group by gender and age, as follows: 1.6 to 4-year-old females (G1), more than 4-year-old females (G2), 1.6 to 4-year-old males (G3) and above 4-year-old males (G4), were evaluated by standardized technique. The evaluation consisted of B-mode and guided M-mode echocardiography, by which the following measurements were made: from the right cardiac window, by B- and M-mode: systolic and diastolic RVID, IVS, LVID, LVFW, Aod, FS% and EF%, by B-mode: Las, Aod, and Las/Aod, by M-mode: S-E point, from left cardiac window, by B- and M-mode: LVIDs, LVIDd, FS% and EF% and by B-mode: Las. There were statistic differences between means of the four groups for the following parameters: Aod, Las, RVIDs, RVIDd, IVSs, IVSd, LVIDs, LVIDd, LVFWs, LVFWd, Vs, Vd. There were statistic correlations between Aod, Las, IVSs, IVSd, LVFWs, LVFWd, Vd and age; Aod, Las, IVs, IVSd, LVIDd, LVFWs, Las/Aod and bodyweight and thoracic perimeter; and Aod, LAs, IVSs, IVSd, LVIDs, LVFWs, Vd and height. Sex and age group influenced the reference values for the Mangalarga Marchador horses; males above 4 years presented higher ventricular measurement values. Height, weight and age of the horses influenced in the same way the results, all being positively related to the size of the cardiac structure.(AU)

Animals , Heart/anatomy & histology , Horses/anatomy & histology , Echocardiography/veterinary , Reference Parameters
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.43-63.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971527
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.185-223.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971537
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(10): 853-858, out. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767748


The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females) from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS). Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS) and vertebral heart size (CTR). The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males) and 9.16±0.34v (females) and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05). The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males) and 0.52±0.03 (females) and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05). There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78). The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species...

Para a avaliação do VHS e ICT foram utilizadas radiografias torácicas computadorizadas de 10 macacos-prego (05 machos e 05 fêmeas) clinicamente saudáveis, oriundos do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Foram tomadas radiografias em projeções laterolaterais e dorsoventrais, para cálculo do Vertebral Heart Scale (VHS) e Índice Cardiotorácico (ICT). O VHS evidenciou valores médios de 9,34±0,32v (machos) e 9,16±0,34v (fêmeas), não ocorrendo diferença estatística entre machos e fêmeas (p>0,05). O ICT evidenciou valores médios de 0,55±0,04 (machos) e de 0,52±0,03 (fêmeas), não sendo verificada diferença estatística entre sexos (p>0,05). Verificou-se correlação positiva entre VHS e ICT (r=0,78). Os diâmetros torácico e cardíaco demonstraram valores médios de 5,70±0,48cm e 3,16±0,40cm nos machos, respectivamente. Nas fêmeas mediram 5,32±0,39cm e 2,94±0,32cm. Não houve diferença estatística entre os sexos (p>0,05). Os nossos resultados demonstraram que a alta correlação encontrada entre o VHS e o ICT permitiu verificar precisão clínica semelhante entre os dois métodos, para estimar alterações da silhueta cardíaca ao exame radiográfico de macacos-prego, constituindo-se como uma técnica de fácil aplicação, poddevendo ser considerada na investigação de problemas cardíacos para esta espécie silvestre...

Animals , Cebus/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Thoracic Vertebrae , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology , Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular/veterinary
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 571-579, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-755512


Se plastinaron y describieron cinco órganos internos de delfín nariz de botella (Tursiops truncatus) obteniendo modelos didácticos, inodoros, no tóxicos y perdurables que permiten el arreglo de sus componentes en un contexto inalterado; los especímenes resultantes son opacos y firmes pero no irrompibles, con apariencia similar al estado vivo. Las descripciones anatómicas estuvieron en conformidad con los de los autores presentados dentro de los antecedentes de este estudio, afianzando el conocimiento de que los órganos internos de T. truncatus aquí descritos tipifican a los de los mamíferos en aspectos generales ya que se revela gran uniformidad entre sus elementos estructurales. Por otra parte existen pocos trabajos de anatomía no patológica en delfines, y si bien es cierto que se les han realizado varios estudios morfométricos y conductuales, aún puede decirse que muchos rasgos biológicos de los delfines nariz de botella quedan por ser descritos.

Five internal organs of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) were plastinated and described, obtaining odorless, nontoxic and perdurable didactic models, which let their components to be modified in an unaltered context; the resulting specimens are opaque and firm, but not unbreakable, with an appearance similar to that of the living state. The anatomic descriptions were made in concordance with those of the authors presented within the antecedents of this study; reinforcing the knowledge that the internal organs of T. truncatus described here typify those of mammals in general aspects, since the great uniformity between their structural elements is revealed. Moreover, there are very few non pathological anatomic studies about dolphins; even though various mophometric and behavioral studies have been carried out, it still can be considered that several biological aspects of bottlenose dolphins remain to be described.

Animals , Male , Female , Bottle-Nosed Dolphin/anatomy & histology , Genitalia, Female/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Plastic Embedding , Tongue/anatomy & histology