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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1004-1008, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514328

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: For the purposes of teaching anatomy, the use of cadaver preparations is considered the most efficient way of ensuring that students retain knowledge. Nevertheless, in Ecuador the use of animal specimens in universities must comply with the internationally accepted principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs). Plastination is an alternative technique which allows organs to be conserved in the long term and complies with the 3Rs. The object of the present work was to use cold-temperature silicone plastination with Biodur® products to obtain long-lasting, easy-to-handle canine organs for use as tools for the teaching of animal anatomy. Six canine cadavers were obtained from local animal protection charities. The hearts, brains and kidneys of the cadavers were dissected and fixed with formaldehyde 10 %. They were then dehydrated with acetone at -20 °C. The specimens were impregnated with Biodur® S10:S3 (-20 °C) and finally cured with Biodur® S6. We plastinated six hearts, twelve kidneys, four brains and one encephalic slice of canine. The application of cold-temperature plastination to canine organs followed the parameters established for the conventional protocol, enabling us to obtain organs of brilliant appearance, free of odours, in which the anatomical form was preserved. Thus the technique helped us to comply with the 3Rs, as we obtained easy-to-handle teaching models to replace fresh or formaldehyde-fixed samples for the teaching-learning of the canine anatomy.


En la enseñanza de la Anatomía, el uso de preparaciones cadavéricas se considera el método que permite a los estudiantes retener el conocimiento de una forma más eficiente. No obstante, en Ecuador, el uso de especímenes animales en las universidades se debe realizar bajo el principio internacional de reemplazo, reducción y refinamiento (3Rs). La técnica de plastinación es una técnica alternativa que permite preservar órganos a largo plazo y que se adapta al principio de las 3Rs. El objetivo del trabajo fue utilizar la técnica de plastinación en silicona al frío con productos Biodur® para obtener órganos caninos duraderos y manejables útiles como herramienta para la enseñanza de la anatomía animal. Se obtuvieron seis cadáveres de caninos de fundaciones locales para la protección animal. Se realizaron disecciones de corazones, cerebros y riñones de los cadáveres caninos. Los órganos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %. A continuación, se llevó a cabo la deshidratación con acetona a -20 °C. Los especímenes fueron impregnados con S10:S3 Biodur® (-20 °C) y al final fueron curados con Biodur® S6. Se lograron plastinar seis corazones, doce riñones, cinco encéfalos y un tallo encefálico de canino. La técnica de plastinación al frío utilizada para obtener órganos de canino conservó los parámetros empleados en el protocolo convencional y permitió obtener órganos que presentaron aspecto brillante, ausencia de olores y mantuvieron la forma anatómica. Por lo que, la técnica facilitó cumplir con el principio de las 3Rs al obtenerse modelos didácticos fáciles de manipular que pueden reemplazar muestras frescas o formolizadas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la anatomía del canino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Organ Preservation/methods , Cryopreservation , Plastination , Anatomy, Veterinary/education , Silicones , Tissue Preservation/methods , Cold Temperature , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1058-1065, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514349

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The existence of "transitional muscular structures" between subendocardial branches (Purkinje fibers) and ventricular working muscle fibers (WF) was first described by the German anatomist, Kurt Goerttler, in 1964. He designated them as "subendocardial nucleus organs." He supposed such fibers functioned as mechanoreceptors, controlling of the intensity of contraction of the ventricular musculature. Brazilian anatomist Ferraz de Carvalho described similar structures in 1993. A thorough literature search failed to identify any other research articles confirming or denying their existence. The objective of this work was to find such structures in subendocardial ventricular walls in human hearts. We collected fifteen formalin-preserved hearts from the Anatomy Department of São Paulo University and sectioned the apical portions on the right and left ventricles according to method used by Goerttler. We utilized conventional histology (light microscopy- LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a new preservation method called micro- plastination (MP). At the anterior wall of the right ventricle in the subendocardial region between the interventricular septum and moderator band, we found several bundles of fusiform and helicoidal fibers of similar histology to the WF. The bundles measured between 400 and 1150 µm in length and were separated from adjacent muscular fibers by thin collagen fiber, thus acting as a "pseudo capsule." Some structures seemed to be linked to PF and were appeared to be lymphatic and blood vessels and nerves. We called those structures "cardiac corpuscles" (CC). The observation of the previously "unknown" CC in this initial study confirmed the previous descriptions and its discovery may contribute to new perspectives in the study of cardiac muscle structure and function.


La existencia de "estructuras musculares de transición" entre los ramos subendocárdicos (fibras de Purkinje) y las fibras musculares ventriculares activas(FMV) fue descrita por primera vez por el anatomista alemán Kurt Goerttler en 1964, quien las denominó "órganos del núcleo subendocárdico". Supuso que tales fibras funcionaban como mecanoreceptores, controlando la intensidad de la contracción de la musculatura ventricular. El anatomista brasileño Ferraz de Carvalho describió estructuras similares en 1993. Una búsqueda bibliográfica exhaustiva no logró identificar ningún otro artículo de investigación que confirmara o negara su existencia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar dichas estructuras en las paredes ventriculares subendocárdicas de corazones humanos. Recolectamos 15 corazones conservados en formalina del Departamento de Anatomía de la Universidad de São Paulo y seccionamos las porciones apicales de los ventrículos derecho e izquierdo según el método utilizado por Goerttler. Utilizamos histología convencional (microscopía de luz-LM), microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) y un nuevo método de conservación llamado microplastinación (MP). En la pared anterior del ventrículo derecho en la región subendocárdica entre el tabique interventricular y la banda moderadora, encontramos varios haces de fibras fusiformes y helicoidales de histología similar a la FMV. Los haces medían entre 400 y 1150 µm de longitud y estaban separados de las fibras musculares adyacentes por una fina fibra de colágeno, actuando así como una "pseudocápsula". Algunas estructuras parecían estar vinculadas a la fibras de purkinje y parecían ser vasos linfáticos, sanguíneos y nerviosos. Llamamos a esas estructuras "corpúsculos cardíacos" (CC). La observación del CC previamente "desconocido" en este estudio inicial confirmó las descripciones anteriores y su descubrimiento puede contribuir a nuevas perspectivas en el estudio de la estructura y función del músculo cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Purkinje Fibers/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 333-342, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440309

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Changes in the microcirculation of multiple tissues and organs have been implicated as a possible mechanism in physiological aging. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor is a secretory protein responsible for regulating angiogenesis via altering endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, extracellular matrix degradation and cell permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of morphological alterations caused by physiological aging in the heart and kidney and to examine its relation to changes in capillary density. We used two age groups of healthy Wistar rats - 6- and 12-month- old. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was examined through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and assessed semi-quantitatively. Changes in capillary density were evaluated statistically and correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. We reported stronger immunoreactivity for vascular endothelial growth factor in the left compared to the right ventricle and also observed an increase in its expression in both ventricles in older animals. Contrasting results were reported for the renal cortex and medulla. Capillary density decreased statistically in all examined structures as aging progressed. The studied correlations were statistically significant in the two ventricles in 12-month-old animals and in the renal cortex of both age groups. Our results shed light on some changes in the microcirculation that take place as aging advances and likely contribute to impairment in the function of the examined organs.


Los cambios en la microcirculación de múltiples tejidos y órganos se han implicado como un posible mecanismo en el envejecimiento fisiológico. En particular, el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular es una proteína secretora responsable de regular la angiogénesis mediante la alteración de la proliferación endotelial, la supervivencia, la migración, la degradación de la matriz extracelular y la permeabilidad celular. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el papel del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular en la progresión de las alteraciones morfológicas causadas por el envejecimiento fisiológico en el corazón y riñón y examinar su relación con los cambios en la densidad capilar. Utilizamos dos grupos de ratas Wistar sanas: 6 y 12 meses de edad. La expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular se examinó mediante inmunohistoquímica e inmunofluorescencia y se evaluó semicuantitativamente. Los cambios en la densidad capilar se evaluaron estadísticamente y se correlacionaron con la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular. Informamos una inmunorreactividad más fuerte para el factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular en el ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el derecho y también observamos un aumento en su expresión en ambos ventrículos en animales mayores. Se informaron resultados contrastantes para la corteza renal y la médula. La densidad capilar disminuyó estadísticamente en todas las estructuras examinadas a medida que avanzaba el envejecimiento. Las correlaciones estudiadas fueron estadísticamente significativas en los dos ventrículos en animales de 12 meses y en la corteza renal de ambos grupos de edad. Nuestros resultados arrojan luz sobre algunos cambios en la microcirculación que tienen lugar a medida que avanza el envejecimiento y probablemente contribuyan a un deterioro en la función de los órganos examinados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/blood supply , Capillaries/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Heart/physiology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Kidney/physiology , Microcirculation
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e20230002, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452586

ABSTRACT

A prática regular de esportes pode induzir adaptações no coração, sendo essa condição comumente chamada de "coração de atleta". As alterações observadas incluem dilatação das câmaras cardíacas, aumento da espessura miocárdica, melhora do enchimento ventricular, aumento da trabeculação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), dilatação da veia cava inferior, entre outras. Essas alterações também podem ser observadas em algumas doenças cardíacas, como cardiomiopatia (CMP) dilatada, hipertrófica e outras. Dessa forma, os exames de imagem cardíaca são fundamentais na identificação dessas alterações e na diferenciação entre o "coração de atleta" e uma possível cardiopatia.(AU)


Exercise-induced adaptation may occur in amateur and professional athletes. This condition is commonly named "athlete's heart". The alterations observed include dilation of the heart chambers, increased myocardial thickness, improved ventricular filling, increased left ventricular trabeculation, dilation of the inferior vena cava, among others. These changes can also be observed in some heart diseases, such as dilated, hypertrophic and other cardiomyopathies (CMP). Thus, cardiac imaging tests are fundamental in identifying these alterations and in differentiating between "athlete's heart" and possible heart disease. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnosis , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Exercise/physiology , Electrocardiography/methods
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 324-330, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) belongs to the genus Alligator, which is a unique crocodile in China. In order to study the macroscopic structure of the heart of Chinese alligator, we performed detailed cardiac anatomy on five specimens. The heart is in the cranial mediastinum. It is caudally involved by the liver cranial margins, and ventrally by the ribs, intercostal muscles, and sternum and dorsally by the lungs. The wild Chinese alligator heart is a typical four-chamber heart, with two (right and left) atria and ventricles, left and right aorta, pulmonary artery and subclavian artery branch from the aorta. Morphology measures the circumference (129.36 mm), weight (44.14 g), and length of the heart from apex to bottom (52.50 mm). Studies have shown that the shape of the wild Chinese alligator's heart is consistent with the anatomy of other crocodiles.


El caimán chino (Alligator sinensis) pertenece al género Alligator, que es un cocodrilo único en China. Para estudiar la estructura macroscópica del corazón del caimán chino, revisamos detalladamente la anatomía cardíaca de cinco especímenes. El corazón está en el mediastino craneal. Está limitado caudalmente por los márgenes craneales del hígado, y ventralmente por las costillas, los músculos intercostales y el esternón, y dorsalmente por los pulmones. El corazón de cocodrilo chino salvaje es un corazón típico de cuatro cámaras, con dos atrios y dos ventrículos (derecho e izquierdo), aortas izquierda y derecha, arteria pulmonar y rama de la arteria subclavia de la aorta. La morfología mide la circunferencia (129,36 mm), el peso (44,14 g) y la longitud del corazón desde el ápice hasta la base (52,50 mm). Los estudios han demostrado que la forma del corazón del caimán chino salvaje es consistente con la anatomía de otros cocodrilos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 161-171, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364975

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are divergences in the literature regarding the experimental model (Wistar-WIS or Wistar Kyoto-WKY) to be used as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control. The characterization of these models in terms of cardiovascular parameters provides researchers with important tools at the time of selection and application in scientific research. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of WIS and WKY as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control by assessing the long-term behavior of blood pressure and cardiac structure and function in these strains. Methods: To this end, WIS, WKY, and SHR underwent longitudinal experiments. Blood pressure and body mass were measured every two weeks from the 8th to the 72nd. Echocardiographic analysis was performed in all groups with 16, 48, and 72 weeks of life. After having applied the normality test, the Two-Way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Tukey post hoc test was used. A significance level of 5% was established. Results: The WIS group showed higher body mass (p<0.05), while the WKY and SHR presented higher body mass variation over time (p<0.05). SHR exhibited increased values of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure when compared to WKY and WIS, whereas the WKY generally showed higher values than WIS (p<0.05). Regarding the cardiac function, SHR showed reduced values, while the WKY presented an early decrease when compared to WIS with aging (p<0.05). Conclusion: WIS is a more suitable normotensive control for SHR than WKY in experiments to test blood pressure and cardiac structure and function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Body Weight , Echocardiography , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
8.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): erer_07, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411516

ABSTRACT

A necessidade de examinar o coração com uma ferramenta tridimensional não é nova na ecocardiografia. O órgão complexo e dinâmico em estudo sempre exigiu o entendimento em três dimensões e em tempo real. Sem o recurso, o examinador precisa transformar as imagens em bidimensional para uma compreensão de volume que exige complexa interação de conhecimentos e aproximações. A invenção da tridimensão já contabiliza três décadas, e seu aprimoramento levou a produtos comerciais no início do século. Estudos demonstram, no mínimo, equivalência da tridimensão com ganhos no manuseio do tempo necessário. Utilizamos as modalidades Tri Plano na rotina com ganho de tempo e menor estresse do membro superior do examinador. A tridimensão pode responder perguntas mais complexas e auxilia em nossa abordagem mais geométrica da contração, sendo o espessamento analisado em segundo plano.(AU)


The need to examine the heart using a three-dimensional (3D) tool is not new. This complex and dynamic organ has always required 3D and real-time understanding. Without this feature, the examiner has to transform two-dimensional images to understand its volume, which requires complex knowledge and approximation interactions. Echocardiography was invented three decades ago, and its improvements resulted in commercial products at the beginning of the century. Some studies demonstrate 3D equivalence with gains in handling the necessary time. We use triplane modalities in our routine, with time gain and less stress on the examiner's upper limb. Thus, 3D examinations can answer more complex questions and provide a more geometric approach to contraction, with thickening being analyzed in the background. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Echocardiography, Stress/methods
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 1190-1199, ago. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385473

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Intermittent fasting and concurrent training have been performed frequently to decrease body mass. The aim was to analyze the effects of concurrent training (CT) and intermittent fasting (IF) on cardiac remodeling. In total, 39 adult male Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C [n = 12]), fasting control (FC [n = 11]), training (T [n = 8]) and fasting training (FT [n = 8]). The CT protocol was composed of 12 sessions, with 30 minutes of aerobic training (AT) in the liquid medium at an intensity of 80 % of the anaerobic threshold, followed by resistance training (RT) with 4 series of 10 aquatic jumps at an corresponding to 50 % of body weight. The IF period was established at 12/12 hours, starting at 9 p.m. and ending at 9 a.m. Echocardiographic analyzes were performed before and after the intervention and, at the end of the experiment, samples of the cardiac tissue were collected to perform the histological analyses. Data analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk tests, Analysis of Variance - ANOVA with Tukey's post-test, and Kruskal- Wallis with Dunn's post-test. All procedures assumed an error of 5 % (p<0.05). Neither group showed alterations in the functional (min. p= 0.12 - max. p= 0.83) and structural parameters of the heart (min. p=0.31 - max. p=0.83). A decrease was observed in the area of cardiomyocytes in the T (p=0.001) and FT groups (p=0.001). The CT and IF did not alter the functional and structural parameters of the heart, but did cause a decrease in the area of the cardiomyocytes.


RESUMEN: El ayuno intermitente y el entrenamiento concurrente se han realizado frecuentemente para disminuir la masa corporal. El objetivo fue analizar los efectos del entrenamiento concurrente (EC) y el ayuno intermitente (AI) sobre el remodelado cardíaco. En total, se utilizaron 39 ratas Wistar macho adultas, divididas en cuatro grupos: control (C [n = 12]), control en ayunas (AC [n = 11]), entrenamiento (E [n = 8]) y ayuno, entrenamiento [n = 8]). El protocolo de EC estuvo compuesto de 12 sesiones, con 30 minutos de entrenamiento aeróbico (EA) en el medio líquido a una intensidad del 80 % del umbral anaeróbico, seguido de entrenamiento de resistencia (ER) con 4 series de 10 saltos acuáticos correspondiente al 50 % del peso corporal. El período de AI se estableció a las 12/12 horas, a partir de las 21:00 horas. finalizando a las 9 a.m. Se realizaron análisis ecocardiográficos antes y después de la intervención y, al finalizar el experimento, se reco- lectaron muestras del tejido cardíaco para realizar los análisis histológicos. El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante las pruebas de Shapiro-Wilk, Análisis de Varianza - ANOVA con pos test de Tukey y Kruskal-Wallis con postest de Dunn. Todos los procedimientos asumieron un error del 5 % (p <0,05). No se observaron alteraciones funcionales de los grupos (mín. P = 0,12 - máx. P = 0,83) y estructurales del corazón (mín. P = 0,31 - máx. P = 0,83). Se observó una disminución en el área de cardiomiocitos en los grupos E (p = 0,001) y EA (p = 0,001). La EC y la AI no alteraron los parámetros funcionales y estructurales del corazón, pero sí provocaron una disminución del área de los cardiomiocitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Exercise , Intermittent Fasting , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Rats, Wistar
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 95-101, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385331

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar los efectos de la actividad locomotriz voluntaria gestacional, como un tipo de entrenamiento físico, sobre la morfología de la bomba cardíaca de la cría, en modelo murino de la cepa CF-1. 12 hembras gestantes fueron divididas aleatoriamente en un grupo control y un grupo que realizó actividad locomotriz voluntaria, accediendo a una rueda de actividad durante los primero 12 días de gestación. Se evaluó la morfología cardiaca mediante cortes transversales, midiendo espesor y área de las paredes del ventrículo derecho, ventrículo izquierdo y septum, tanto en valores absolutos como en valores relativos a la masa corporal del individuo. Se observó que la masa corporal de las crías control (GC) fue significativamente mayor que las del grupo cuyas hembras accedieron a la rueda de actividad (GE) (p<0.01). Solo hubo diferencias en los valores absolutos de espesores y áreas miocárdicas de ventrículo derecho, entre el grupo GE y GC (p<0.05), pero al evaluar los espesores y áreas relativos a la masa corporal se observó que las crías del grupo GE presentaron espesores y áreas significativamente mayores que las que grupo GC (p<0.01). En conclusión, la actividad física gestacional altera el desarrollo morfológico de la bomba cardíaca en ratones CF-1, aumentando significativamente el espesor y área de las paredes miocárdicas en relación a la masa corporal total de la cría.


SUMMARY: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of gestational voluntary locomotor activity, as a type of physical training, on the morphology of the offspring´s heart pump, in a murine model of the CF-1 strain. Twelve (12) pregnant females were randomly divided in a control group and a group performing voluntary locomotor activity, by accessing an activity wheel during the first 12 days of gestation. Cardiac morphology was evaluated using cross sections, measuring thickness and area of the walls of the right ventricle, left ventricle, and septum, both in absolute values and values relative to the individual's body mass. It was observed that the body mass of the control pups (CG) was significantly higher than those of the group whose females accessed the activity wheel (GE) (p <0.01). Differences were observed only in absolute values of thickness and myocardial areas of the right ventricle, between the GE and GC group (p <0.05). However, when evaluating the thickness and areas relative to body mass, it was observed that the offspring of the GE group presented thicknesses and areas significantly larger than those in the GC group (p <0.01). In conclusion, gestational physical activity alters the morphological development of the heart pump in CF-1 mice, significantly increasing the thickness and area of the myocardial walls in relation to offspring total body mass.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Exercise/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/growth & development , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/growth & development , Locomotion/physiology , Morphogenesis
11.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1842, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363595

ABSTRACT

The Bradypus variegatus species presents peculiar anatomophysiological properties and many aspects of its organic systems still need to be clarified, especially regarding the cardiovascular system, given its participation in vital activities. Disorderly anthropic action has had drastic consequences in sloth populations and the need to treat sick and injured animals is increasingly common. To this end, the importance of knowing its characteristics is emphasized. Therefore, this study proposed to describe the internal macroscopic structures of the sloth's heart, as well as to measure the ventricular walls and indicate the electrical activity of the organ. For the dissections, 15 Bradypus variegatus cadavers were used (1 young female, 9 adults females and 5 adult males) belonging to the Área de Anatomia of the Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal (DMFA), Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recide, PE, Brazil. After they were fixed and preserved, the specimens received a midsagittal incision in the chest, followed by soft tissue folding and removal of ribs to access the heart. The organ was derived from the cavity and sectioned sagittal medially to identify its internal anatomy. Ventricular walls and interventricular septum were measured with a steel caliper (150 mm / 0.02 mm). An electrocardiogram was performed to determine the electrical profile on 5 healthy B. variegatus sloths, living under semi-livestock conditions at the Recife Zoo, PE, Brazil. The electrodes were taken from the regions, scapular and glutes of the animals that were called hugging a keeper during the procedure, carried out in the Zoo itself, using a portable device. Based on the data obtained, sloths have cardiac chambers separated by septa, however between atria and ventricles, in both antimeres, there are atrioventricular ostia, where valves are found, consisting of 3 valves on the right and 2 on the left. The atria are practically smooth inside and have their cavity enlarged by the atria, the right being larger than the left, these having a greater amount of pectineal muscles in relation to the atria. The ventricles have trabeculae and papillary muscles, 3 on the right and 2 on the left. These muscles hold the tendinous chords that connect the valves. The existence of trabeculae marginal septum was not evidenced. The thickness of the wall of the left ventricle, as well as that of the interventricular septum, proved to be greater than the thickness of the wall of the right ventricle, regardless of the age or sex of the animals. Based on the electrocardiographic recordings, the sloths presented sinus rhythm, with a heart rate between 67 and 100 bpm. The electrical axis ranged from -60º to -90º. The P wave is smoother than the QRS complex. While the S-T segment was classified as isoelectric. The T wave was shown to be + and predominantly > or = at 25% of the S wave, which characterized an rS type QRS deflection in both females and males. The general characteristics of the cardiac chambers in sloths are similar to those observe in other domestic and wild mammals. However, the presence of pectineal muscles associated with the atria and auricles differs from that observed in mammals such as the paca and raccoon and in birds such as the ostrich, which have trabecular structures in these cavities. The number of valves in sloths is equal to the anteater. However, it has a marginal trabeculae septum, not seen in Bradypus variegatus. According to the electrocardiographic findings, the rhythm was sinus, but much lower than that observed in the capuchin monkey, which also maintains arboreal habits.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sloths/physiology , Xenarthra/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart Rate , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Electrocardiography
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1737-1741, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131558

ABSTRACT

The cutia (Dasyprocta agouti) and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ) are hystricomorphic rodents of the Brazilian fauna. The wild animal anatomy is essential to the clinic and surgery practices and conservation programs. This work aimed to evaluate the heart quantitative morphology of the cutia and the capybara. For this, three hearts of cutia and three of capybaras were used from the collection of the Anatomy Sector of Domestic and Wild Animals of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo. The hearts were weighted and measured with a pachymeter. The left ventricle volume was estimated through the Cavalieri method. The hearts' mean weight was 16.76g (cutias) and 104.2g (capybaras). The mean values for the axis, width and base dimensions were of the cutia 4.3cm, 3.3cm and 3.3cm and for the capybara were 7.6cm, 6.0cm and 6.1cm, respectively. The mean volume of the left ventricle of the cutia and the capybara was 5.03cm3 and 54.55cm3, respectively. The quantitative results of the hearts were compatible with the average body weight of the rodents. Thus, these numerical data can be applied to veterinary cardiology.(AU)


A cutia (Dasyprocta agouti) e a capivara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) são roedores histricomorfos da fauna brasileira. A anatomia de animais silvestres é essencial para a prática clínico-cirúrgica e programas conservacionistas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a morfologia quantitativa do coração da cutia e da capivara. Para isso, foram utilizados três corações de cutias e três de capivaras, provenientes do acervo do Setor de Anatomia dos Animais Domésticos e Silvestres da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. Os corações foram pesados e as mensurações foram realizadas com paquímetro. O volume do ventrículo esquerdo foi calculado pelo método de Cavalieri. O peso médio dos corações foi de 16,76g (cutias) e de 104,2g (capivaras). Os valores médios para as dimensões eixo, largura e base foram, para a cutia, de 4,3cm, 3,3cm e 3,3cm e para a capivara, de 7,6cm, 6,0cm e 6,1cm, respectivamente. O volume médio do ventrículo esquerdo da cutia e da capivara foi respectivamente de 5,03cm3 e de 54,55cm3. Os resultados quantitativos dos corações foram compatíveis com o peso corporal médio dos roedores. Assim, esses dados numéricos podem ser aplicados à cardiologia veterinária.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodentia/anatomy & histology , Dasyproctidae/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
13.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 27(3): 124-130, jul./set. 2020. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1370721

ABSTRACT

The vertebral heart size is a method used to measure the cardiac dimension in order to identify the remodeling of the chambres in heart disease. This study aims to determinate the vertebral heart size values at right lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs views relating to canines weight and body area variations. For the purpose of the study 40 healthy dogs within the age of 1 to 6 years, males and females, with deep or intermediated thorax were selected, brachycephalic dogs were not included in the study; the dogs were separated in four groups: group 1(n=9) compound of dogs up to 5 kg; group 2 (n=8) with dogs from 5,1 to 10 kg; group 3 (n=12) with dogs from 10,1 to19 kg and group 4 (n=11) with dogs weighing more than 19,1 kg. The values of body score, body mass index and the thorax configuration where previously measured, as well as the vertebral heart size and the depth width ratio from the radiographs. The results demonstrated intervals of right lateral-lateral vertebral heart size 9.9 to 10.4v and ventro-dorsal vertebral heart size of 9.8-10.3v. The study results show that the vertebral heart size numbers did not correlate with weight or body area, regardless the type of radiography view. Therefore, it can be concluded that the vertebral heart size in right lateral and ventrodorsal radiography can be used to rate the cardiac area, not suffering influence by the dog's weight or body area.


O vertebral heart size é um método utilizado para mensurar a dimensão cardíaca visando identificar os remodelamentos das câmaras nas cardiopatias. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os valores de vertebral heart size nas projeções radiográficas latero-lateral direita e ventro-dorsal conforme as variações do peso e área corporal. Para isso, foram selecionados 40 cães hígidos com idade entre 1 e 6 anos, machos e fêmeas, com padrão torácico intermediário e profundo, com exclusão dos braquicefálicos; os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo 1 (n=9) composto por cães de até 5 kg; grupo 2 (n=8) com cães de 5,1 a 10 kg; grupo 3 (n=12) com cães de 10,1 a 19 kg e grupo 4 (n=11) com cães acima de 19,1 kg. Os valores de escore corporal, índice de massa corporal e conformação torácica foram previamente mensurados, bem como os valores dos vertebral heart size a relação profundidade/largura torácica das radiografias. Os resultados demonstraram intervalos de vertebral heart size latero-lateral 9.9 a 10.4v e vertebral heart size ventro dorsal de 9.8-10.3v. Os valores não apresentaram correlação com o peso e área corporal nos grupos estudados, independente das projeções estudas. Assim, pode-se concluir que método vertebral heart size nas projeções estudadas é aplicável na avaliação da área cardíaca, não sofrendo influências do peso e área corporal canina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Body Weight/physiology , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Cardiovascular Diseases/veterinary , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Rib Cage/anatomy & histology , Heart Diseases/veterinary
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 596-601, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098293

ABSTRACT

Las valvas cardíacas y especialmente la valva atrioventricular izquierda (VAVI) ha sido considerada por largo tiempo, como una estructura pasiva. Sin embargo, han surgido nuevas teorías que reconocen a esta estructura como una "valva viva", con un funcionamiento de mayor autonomía y dinámico. En esta línea, existen estudios en donde se ha concluido que la ausencia de tejidos contráctiles en una valva, generan ondulaciones no fisiológicas. Por el contrario, se ha señalado la presencia de tejido contráctil en la valva, lo que refleja una activación ondulante. Basado en lo anterior, el objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de fibras musculares cardíacas en las cúspides de la VAVI. Se utilizaron 12 cúspides, 6 anteriores y 6 posteriores, de 7 cadáveres adultos (4) y lactantes (3) de distintas edades, sin patologías cardíacas. Las muestras pertenecían a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Estadual de Ciencias da Saúde de Alagoas, Maceió, Brasil. Estas muestras fueron tratadas con procesamiento histológico de rutina. Los hallazgos morfológicos a un aumento de 4x mostraron células musculares que fueron visibles principalmente por el lado atrial en la totalidad de las cúspides, tanto inmersas en el tejido conectivo denso del anillo fibroso como en el tejido conectivo laxo. Al verificar la naturaleza de las fibras con un aumento mayor (100x), se detectaron estrías transversales en todas las muestras estudiadas, lo cual afirma la presencia de fibras musculares estríadas cardíacas en la VAVI. Los resultados obtenidos aportan al conocimiento de la microestructura y tejido contráctil de las cúspides de la VAVI. Por lo tanto, resulta de gran relevancia seguir profundizando en los conocimientos morfológicos de la VAVI, para sentar una base sólida sobre la microestructura contráctil en los diferentes estadíos del ser humano.


Cardiac valves and particularly, the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) have long been considered passive structures. Nonetheless, there are more recent hypothesis that recognize this structure as a "living valve", with greater autonomy and dynamic function. Along these lines, some studies have concluded that the absence of contractile tissues in a valve, generates non-physiological undulations. In contrast, the presence of contractile tissue in the valve has been reported, reflecting a waving activation. Based on the above, the objective of the present study was to determine the presence of cardiac muscle fibers in the cusps of the LAVV. 12 cusps, 6 anterior and 6 posterior. Therefore, 7 adult (4) and lactating (3) bodies of different ages without cardiac pathologies were used. The samples belonged to the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidade de Ciencias da Saude de Alagos, Maceió, Brazil. The samples were treated with routine histological processing. Morphological findings at an increase of 4x showed muscle cells that were visible mainly from the atrial side in all the cusps, both immersed in the dense connective tissue of the fibrous ring and in loose connective tissue. Transverse striations were detected in all samples studied, when verifying the nature of the fibers with greater increase (100x), confirming the presence of cardiac striated muscle fibers in the LAVV. The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the microstructure and contractile tissue of the LAVV cusps. Therefore it is relevant to further morphological knowledge of this valve, in order to build a solid foundation on the contractile microstructure in the different stages of the human development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Mitral Valve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Heart/anatomy & histology
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056388

ABSTRACT

The Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) is an odontocete cetacean specie that lies in the waters of the southern hemisphere. With the aim of studying the course and distribution of Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary arteries, an exhaustive heart dissection was performed on one specimen. To the extent of our knowledge, and basing upon an extensive bibliographic research on the commersonii species, this is the first reported description of a Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy. Despite the fact that the analysis of a unique specimen does not allow to establish final conclusions, comparisons reveal broad similarities between Cephalorhynchus commersonii's coronary distribution and previous anatomical studies describing the heart of various marine diving mammals and the human fetus circulation. Diving mammals have developed an anastomotic system along evolution, in order to adjust their bodies to diving imposed conditions, and minimize the oxygen demand of the heart muscle. The present work begins with the identification of the patterns and similarities between Commerson's dolphin heart anatomy when compared to other odontecete species, to continue with an exhaustive description of the Commerson's dolphin coronary anatomy.


La tonina overa (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) es una especie de cetáceo odontoceto que se encuentra en las aguas del hemisferio sur. Con el objetivo de estudiar el curso y la distribución de las arterias coronarias de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, se realizó una disección exhaustiva del corazón de un ejemplar. Hasta donde sabemos, y basándonos en una extensa investigación bibliográfica sobre la especie, esta es la primera descripción informada de la anatomía de un corazón de este ejemplar. A pesar de que el análisis de una sola muestra no permite establecer conclusiones finales, las comparaciones revelan amplias similitudes entre la distribución coronaria de Cephalorhynchus commersonii, los estudios anatómicos previos que describen el corazón de varios mamíferos marinos buceadores, y la circulación del feto humano. Los mamíferos buceadores han desarrollado un sistema anastomótico a lo largo de la evolución para ajustar sus cuerpos a las condiciones impuestas por el buceo y minimizar la demanda de oxígeno del músculo cardíaco. El presente trabajo comienza con la identificación de los patrones y similitudes entre la anatomía del corazón de tonina overa en comparación con otras especies odontecetas, continuando con una descripción exhaustiva de la anatomía coronaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Dolphins/anatomy & histology , Heart/anatomy & histology
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18560, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364408

ABSTRACT

The Gαq-RGS2 loop activator, 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one has demonstrated Gαq signaling inhibitor activity. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of Gαq-RGS2 loop activator on isolated heart and aorta of normal rats. Heart and aorta were isolated from the sacrificed rats (n=6) and mounted on the langendroff's and organ bath assembly, respectively. The effect of various receptor-dependent (acetylcholine, angiotensin II and adrenaline) and independent (calcium chloride and sodium nitroprusside) agonists in absence and presence of Gαq-RGS2 loop activator on left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the contractile responseswere evaluated in isolated heart and aorta, respectively. Gαq-RGS2 loop activator (100 µM) significantly attenuated the adrenaline (p<0.001,) and angiotensin II (p<0.001) induced increase in LVSP in isolated heart and contractile response of adrenaline (p<0.01) and angiotensin II (p<0.01) in the aorta. However, effect calcium chloride did not significantly alter by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator. The effect of acetylcholinewas significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05) increased by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator in isolated heart and aorta. The effect of sodium nitroprusside significantly (p<0.01) potentiated by Gαq-RGS2 loop activator (100 µM) in isolated heart while it did not significantly alters in the aorta. Ultimately, the Gαq-RGS2 loop activator modulated the action of receptor-dependent agonists in isolated heart and aorta


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/pathology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Blood Pressure , Angiotensin II , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Acetylcholine/classification
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 757-765, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002290

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the values of morphological traits of myocardium in American minks. The study was conducted on 342 male mink hearts and 416 female mink hearts. Mink coat coloration resulting from mutation or crossbreeding of mutational variants with each other and sex were assumed as a source of variation. Carcass, lung and heart weights, heart height, width, depth and circumference, as well as left and right ventricular wall weights and thickness at two locations were determined. The values of 10 indices characterising the relative size of the heart were estimated. The results showed no normal distribution of the heart traits examined. The greatest average heart weight was characteristic of male mutational colour variant minks (17.40 ± 2.34 g). These hearts were heavier by more than 8 % than those of male standard colour variant minks. The hearts of male mutational colour variant minks were characterised by the greatest left and right ventricle weights (P≤0.01) compared to those of male standard colour variant minks, in which in turn the greatest left and right ventricle wall thickness was larger than that in standard colour variant minks. It was found that a greater difference calculated between mean left ventricle wall thickness and mean right ventricle wall thickness in standard colour variant minks may provide more evidence of its adaptation to a greater effort, referring thus to their evolutionary history than to the occurrence of signs of multistage myocardial hypertrophy.


El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar los valores de los rasgos morfológicos del miocardio en el visón americano. El estudio se realizó en 342 corazones de visón macho y 416 corazones de visón hembra. La coloración de la capa de visón resultante de la mutación o el cruce de variantes mutacionales entre sí, y el sexo se asumieron como una fuente de variación. Se determinaron los pesos de la canal, los pulmones y el corazón, la altura del corazón, el ancho, la profundidad y la circunferencia, así como los pesos y el grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en dos ubicaciones. Se estimaron los valores de 10 índices que caracterizan el tamaño relativo del corazón. Los resultados no mostraron una distribución normal de los rasgos de los corazones examinados. El mayor peso promedio del corazón fue característico de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho (17,40 ± 2,34 g). Estos corazones eran más pesados en más de un 8 % que los de los visones con variante de color estándar machos. Los corazones de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho se caracterizaron por los mayores pesos de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho (P≤0,01) en comparación con los de los visones de color estándar machos, en los que a su vez el mayor grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho fue mayor que el de las variantes de colores estándar. Se observó que una mayor diferencia entre los grosores medio de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en las variantes de color estándar, puede proporcionar más pruebas de su adaptación a un mayor esfuerzo, refiriéndose así a su historial evolutivo, pese a la aparición de signos de hipertrofia miocárdica multietapa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Heart/anatomy & histology , Mink/anatomy & histology , Mink/genetics , Organ Size/genetics , Sex Characteristics , Mutation
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 651-656, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985058

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the differences of heart mass and lung mass in forensic autopsy cases and to explore their application value in forensic identification. Methods The data from 1 614 autopsy cases accepted by center of Medico-legal Investigation of China Medical University between 2007 to 2016 were collected. The correlation of heart and lung mass with age, height, body weight, and body mass index (BMI), as well as differences in different causes of death were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6.0 software. Results The heart mass and lung mass of males were higher than those of females (P<0.05). The heart mass of males and females was positively correlated with age, height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) (P<0.05). The heart mass of patients dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD) was significantly higher than those dying from other causes of death. The lung mass of patients dying from drowning and delayed treatment was higher than those dying from other causes of death (P<0.05). Conclusion In forensic practice, measurement of the heart mass and lung mass has certain significance for differential diagnosis and diagnosis of different causes of death.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Autopsy , Cause of Death , China , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Forensic Pathology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Lung/anatomy & histology , Organ Size
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1241-1245, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975690

ABSTRACT

Third coronary artery or supernumerary coronary artery is a direct branch from right aortic sinus and it supplies pulmonary conus and upper part of right ventricle. Third coronary artery is an important bridge for collateral circulation between right and left coronary system. The aim of this study was to determine the number of arteries that origin from right aortic sinus, their frequency and position. The study included 55 adult human hearts collected from Department of Anatomy. The hearts were morphologically studied by gross dissection for the prevalence and topographical anatomy of supernumerary coronary arteries. Out of 55 hearts, 26 (47.3 %) had one right coronary artery, 23 (41.8 %) had two right coronary arteries, and 6 (10.9 %) had three coronary arteries. The supernumerary arteries arises from the right aortic sinus. Right supernumerary coronary arteries may be present in about 52.7 % of the Serbian population. Interpretation of signs and symptoms of coronary occlusion should therefore consider possible contribution of this blood vessels.


La tercera arteria coronaria o arteria coronaria supernumeraria es una rama directa del seno aórtico derecho y su ministra el cono pulmonar y la parte superior del ventrículo derecho. La tercera arteria coronaria es importante para la circulación colateral entre el sistema coronario derecho e izquierdo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el número de arterias de origen del seno aórtico derecho, su frecuencia y posición. El estudio incluyó 55 corazones humanos adultos pertenecientes al Departamento de Anatomía. Los corazones se estudiaron morfológicamente mediante disección macroscópica para determinar la prevalencia y la anatomía topográfica de las arterias coronarias supernumerarias. De 55 corazones, 26 (47,3 %) tenían una arteria coronaria derecha, 23 (41,8 %) tenían dos arterias coronarias derechas, y 6 (10,9 %) tenían tres arterias coronarias. Las arterias supernumerarias surgen del seno aórtico derecho. Las arterias coronarias supernumerarias derechas pueden estar presentes en aproximadamente el 52,7 % de la población serbia. La interpretación de los signos y síntomas de la oclusión coronaria debería considerar la posible contribución de estos vasos sanguíneos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Heart/anatomy & histology
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1622-1630, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976483

ABSTRACT

In humans, left atrial enlargement and reduced contractile functions are associated with adverse cardiovascular events and a poor prognosis in many dilatation of the left atrium occurs with the gradual evolution of chronic mitral valve disease and is well diseases. The left atrium is the most compromised cardiac chamber in dogs with chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD). Therefore, this study aimed to compare the main parameters of left atrial enlargement (left atrium/aorta ratio, left atrial diameter and volume indices) and contractile function (transmitral flow peak velocity A wave and time velocity integral, atrial fraction, and atrial ejection force) at different stages of valve disease, and correlate the left atrial diameter, volume, and contractile function indices with echocardiographic variables predictive of heart failure in dogs (transmitral flow peak velocity E wave, E wave/IVRT ratio, E wave/E´wave ratio, and E wave/A wave ratio). The results showed that progressive characterized by the left atrium/aorta ratio and left atrium volume index. The left atrial diameter and volume indices and left atrium/aorta ratio correlated positively with the transmitral flow peak velocity E wave and E wave/IVRT ratio, which are important indices of diastolic function. The left atrial contractile function indices increased as CMVD evolved. Except for the atrial fraction, the left atrial contractile function indices correlated with the left ventricular filling pressure indices.(AU)


O tamanho e a função atrial esquerda estão relacionados em humanos com eventos cardiovasculares adversos e prognóstico nas principais cardiopatias. Na doença valvar crônica de mitral (DVCM) em cães, o átrio esquerdo é a câmara cardíaca mais comprometida. Portanto, os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar os principais parâmetros de aumento atrial esquerdo (relação átrio esquerdo/aorta, índice do diâmetro atrial esquerdo e índice do volume atrial esquerdo) e função contrátil de átrio esquerdo (velocidade máxima e integral de velocidade da onda A do fluxo transvalvar mitral, fração atrial e força de ejeção atrial) nos diferentes estágios da doença valvar; correlacionar diâmetro e volume atrial esquerdo e os índices de função contrátil atrial esquerda com as variáveis ecocardiográficas preditivas de insuficiência cardíaca em cães (velocidade máxima da onda E do fluxo transvalvar mitral, relação E/TRIV, relação E/E'par e relação E/A). Os resultados mostraram que com a evolução progressiva da doença valvar crônica de mitral, ocorre dilatação progressiva do átrio esquerdo, bem caracterizada pela relação átrio esquerdo/aorta e pelo índice de volume atrial esquerdo. O índice do diâmetro atrial esquerdo, o índice de volume atrial esquerdo e a relação átrio esquerdo/aorta correlacionam-se, positivamente, com a velocidade da onda E e com a relação E/TRIV, que são importantes índices de função diastólica. Os índices de função contrátil do átrio esquerdo aumentam à medida que a DVCM evolui. Os índices de função contrátil do átrio esquerdo apresentam correlação positiva com os índices de pressão de enchimento ventricular esquerdo, exceção feita à fração atrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Blood Pressure , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Dogs/blood , Heart/anatomy & histology
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