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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 519-524, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364326

ABSTRACT

Resumo A hiperativação do sistema nervoso simpático desempenha um papel central na fisiopatologia da hipertensão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade simpática cardíaca e investigar o papel da cintigrafia miocárdica com metaiodobenzilguanidina com 123I ([123I] MIBG) na estratificação de risco cardiovascular de pacientes com hipertensão resistente tratados com denervação renal (DR). Dezoito pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo (média de idade de 56 ± 10 anos, 27,8% mulheres). Ecocardiograma transtorácico, análise geral do sangue e cintilografia miocárdica com [(123I) MIBG] foram realizados antes e seis meses após a DR. Um paciente era considerado respondedor (R) se uma diminuição ≥ 5 mmHg na pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) média ambulatorial fosse observada no seguimento de seis meses. 66,7% dos pacientes foram R (diminuição na PAS de 20,6 ± 14,5 mmHg, vs. menos 8 ± 11,6 mmHg em não-respondedores (NR), p = 0,001). A relação coração-mediastino (RCM) inicial foi significativamente menor na linha basal no grupo R (1,6 ± 0,1 vs. 1,72 ± 0,1, p <0,02), mas semelhante em seis meses. Considerando os dois momentos no tempo, o grupo R teve valores iniciais de RCM mais baixos do que o grupo NR (p <0,05). Tanto o RCM tardio quanto a taxa de washout foram idênticos e nenhuma correlação significativa entre a resposta à DR ou qualquer índice de imagem com MIBG foi encontrada. A denervação renal efetivamente reduziu a pressão arterial na maioria dos pacientes, mas a imagem com [123I] MIBG não foi útil na previsão da resposta. Entretanto, houve evidência de overdrive do sistema nervoso simpático e, tanto a RCM inicial quanto tardia estavam reduzidas em geral, provavelmente colocando essa população em um risco maior de eventos adversos.


Abstract Hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system plays a central role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac sympathetic activity and investigate the role of myocardial123I-labelled meta-iodo benzyl guanidine ([123I] MIBG) scintigraphy in cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with resistant hypertension treated with renal denervation (RDN). Eighteen patients were included in this prospective study (mean age 56 ± 10 years old, 27.8% females). Transthoracic echocardiogram, general blood analysis and myocardial ([123I] MIBG scintigraphy were performed before and six-months after RDN. A patient was considered a responder (R) if a drop ≥ 5mmHg on mean systolic ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring was observed at the six-month follow-up. 66.7% of patients were R (drop in systolic BP of 20.6 ± 14.5mmHg, vs minus 8 ± 11.6mmHg in non-responders (NR), p=0.001). Early heart-mediastinum ratio (HMR) was significantly lower at baseline in the R group (1.6 ± 0.1 vs 1.72 ± 0.1, p<0.02) but similar at six months. Considering both instants in time, the R group had lower early HMR values than the NR group (p<0.05). Both the late HMR and the washout rate were identical and no significant correlation between response to RDN or any MIBG imaging index was found. Renal denervation effectively lowered blood pressure in the majority of patients but [123I] MIBG was not useful in predicting the response. However, there was evidence of sympathetic overdrive and, both early and late HMR were overall reduced, probably putting this population at a higher risk of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , 3-Iodobenzylguanidine , Sympathetic Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Radiopharmaceuticals , Denervation , Heart/physiology , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Iodine Radioisotopes , Middle Aged
2.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292025

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A identificação precoce do dano miocárdico parece ser importante na abordagem do paciente com doença de Chagas. A ecocardiografia com strain obtida por speckle tracking e a avaliação da fibrose miocárdica por meio da ressonância magnética cardíaca podem ser métodos diagnósticos promissores nesse sentido. Objetivo: Avaliar o acometimento miocárdico especificamente na forma crônica cardíaca leve da doença de Chagas por meio do strain por speckle tracking e da fibrose miocárdica pela ressonância magnética cardíaca, além de suas correlações. Método: Estudo de corte transversal que analisou portadores da forma cardíaca crônica leve da doença de Chagas (fração de ejeção preservada) submetidos à ecocardiografia com strain por speckle tracking e à ressonância magnética cardíaca. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 participantes (mulheres: 62%; idade: 54 ± 5 anos). A prevalência de fibrose miocárdica por meio do realce tardio miocárdico foi de 50%. O strain longitudinal global encontrava-se diminuído em 17 pacientes (81%), com mediana de 14,1% (intervalo interquartil de 12,1 a 16,3). Os valores do mapa T1 encontravam-se, em média, elevados nos portadores de doença de Chagas (993 ± 163 ms). O mapa T1 foi significativamente correlacionado com o strain longitudinal global (r= 0,634; p = 0,015). Além disso, o índice de dispersão mecânica, obtido por strain, estava aumentado (> 55 ms) em 84%, com a maior área sob a curva Característica de Operação do Receptor (área sob a curva de 0,696; intervalo de confiança de 95% de 0,412-0,981) para discriminação de fibrose pelo realce tardio miocárdico. Conclusão: O strain miocárdico e o mapa T1 se comportam como marcadores precoces do dano miocárdico na cardiopatia chagásica crônica leve. O índice de dispersão mecânica estava elevado e foi o parâmetro que melhor se correlacionou com o realce tardio miocárdico. (AU)


Background: The early identification of myocardial damage seems important in the management of patients with Chagas disease. However, it is unknown whether speckle tracking echocardiography strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are promising methods for assessing myocardial involvement and fibrosis, respectively. Objective: To evaluate myocardial involvement in the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease using speckle tracking strain and myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance and assess their correlations. Method: This cross-sectional study analyzed patients with the mild chronic cardiac form of Chagas disease (preserved ejection fraction) using speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: The study included 21 participants (women: 62%; age: 54 ± 5 years). The prevalence of myocardial fibrosis was 50% on delayed myocardial enhancement. The median global longitudinal strain was decreased (14.1%; interquartile range, 12.1­16.3%) in 17 patients (81%). The mean T1 mapping value was high in patients with Chagas disease (993 ± 163 ms). The T1 map was significantly correlated with the global longitudinal strain (r = 0.634; p = 0.015). In addition, the mechanical dispersion index obtained by strain was increased (>55 ms) by 84%, with the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve, 0.696; 95% confidence interval, 0.412­0.981) for fibrosis discrimination by delayed myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Myocardial strain and T1 mapping are early markers of myocardial damage in mild chronic Chagas heart disease. The mechanical dispersion index was high and the most closely correlated with delayed myocardial enhancement. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Stroke Volume , Fibrosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Linear Models , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve
3.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 64-67, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292233

ABSTRACT

La pseudodextrocardia se ha definido como un desplazamiento irregular del corazón y sus estructuras vasculares hacia la derecha por causas extracardiacas. Es un hallazgo ocasional en estudios imagenológicos de tórax o abdomen y varía acorde con las diferentes relaciones causales. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con una neumopatía crónica, quien a su ingreso presenta pseudodextrocardia como hallazgo incidental.


Pseudo-dextrocardia has been defined as an unusual displacement of the heart and its vascular structures to the right secondary to extracardiac causes. It is an occasional finding in thoracic or abdominal imaging studies and varies according to the various causal relationships. We report a case of pseudo-dextrocardia as an incidental finding in a patient admitted with chronic pulmonary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Dextrocardia/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Thorax , Dextrocardia
4.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 274-283, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131044

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comprobar las diferencias morfológicas y funcionales del corazón en dos poblaciones latinoamericanas con distintas características raciales y condiciones de vida. Métodos: Mediante el ecocardiograma transtorácico se obtuvieron datos de 206 personas: 103 del poblado de Atahualpa, Ecuador (nivel del mar, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 53 mujeres) y 103 habitantes de la Ciudad de México (altitud de 2,300 m, edad x̄ 75 ± 4.2 años, 52 mujeres). Resultados: Las diferencias significativas entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fueron frecuencia cardíaca, 66 vs. 80; diámetro diastólico ventricular izquierdo, 40.8 vs. 42.7; grosor del tabique, 9.8 vs. 11.6; pared posterior, 10.2 vs. 11.8; volumen-latido en centímetros cúbicos, 53.0 vs. 46.6; volumen auricular Izquierdo, 25.8 vs. 33.6; presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar, 27.1 vs. 42.0; gasto cardíaco, 3.1 vs. 4.8; cociente E/Ea, 6.4 vs. 9.2; área mitral, 3.4 vs. 3.0. El comparativo de la función diastólica entre Atahualpa y la Ciudad de México fue: tipo 0: 2 vs. 1; tipo 1: 96 vs. 81; tipo 2: 5 vs. 20; tipo 3: 0 vs. 1. Conclusión: Las características ecocardiográficas que identifican los cambios adaptativos del corazón en Atahualpa coinciden con personas que viven a nivel del mar y con buena actividad física y en México con los habitantes de grandes altitudes y expuestos a contaminación ambiental. La función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo fue similar en ambas poblaciones, lo que indica que los cambios adaptativos hacen posible que el corazón sea eficaz en diferentes circunstancias del ecosistema.


Abstract Objective: To compare morphological and functional differences of the heart in two Latin American populations with different ethnicity and living conditions. Methods: Using transthoracic echocardiogram we obtained data on 206 individuals: 103 from Atahualpa, Ecuador (living at sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 53 women) and 103 inhabitants from Mexico City (living at 2300 m above sea level, mean age: 75 ± 4.2 years, 52 women). Results: Significant differences between Atahualpa and Mexico were: Heart rate 66 versus 80 x’, left ventricular diastolic diameter 40.8 versus 42.7, septum thickness 9.8 versus 11.6, posterior wall 10.2 versus 11.8, stroke volume cc 53.0 versus 46.6, left atrial volume 25. 8 versus 33.6, systolic pressure of the pulmonary artery 27.1 versus 42.0, cardiac output 3.1 versus 4.8, E/Ea ratio 6.4 versus 9.2, and mitral area 3.4 versus 3.0. Comparison of diastolic function between Atahualpa and Mexico was: Type 0; 2 versus 1. Type 1; 96 versus 81. Type 2; 5 versus 20 and Type 3; 0 versus 1. Conclusion: Echocardiographic characteristics that identify adaptive changes of the heart in Atahualpa are coincident with people living at sea level and with good physical activity, and Mexico City, with inhabitants living at high altitudes and exposed to environmental pollution. The systolic function of the left ventricle was similar in both populations, indicating that adaptive changes allow the heart to be effective in different circumstances of the ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Exercise , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Altitude , Mexico
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879218

ABSTRACT

There are various examination methods for cardiovascular diseases. Non-invasive diagnosis and prognostic information acquisition are the current research hotspots of related imaging examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new advanced fusion imaging technology that combines the molecular imaging of PET with the soft tissue contrast function of MRI to achieve their complementary advantages. This article briefly introduces several major aspects of cardiac PET/MRI in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, ischemic cardiomyopathy, nodular heart disease, and myocardial amyloidosis, in order to promote cardiac PET/MRI to be more widely used in precision medicine in this field.


Subject(s)
Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092227

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is one of the most common diseases in Latin America and heart involvement is the main cause of death. This study aimed to determine differences in tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) parameters in the assessment left and right ventricular function in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease compared to those in healthy controls. METHODS: We compared 194 patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease to 72 age-matched healthy individuals. We considered p-values <0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: TDI analysis of the right ventricular (RV) showed lengthened isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) and higher RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP) and left ventricle (LV) index of myocardial performance (LIMP) in the Chagas group than in the control group, indicating RV and LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. TDI analysis of the myocardial velocities of the interventricular septum and the lateral wall of the LV also showed a systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrated early LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage in the RV and LV in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease by TDI. These early findings of RV and LV dysfunction may help identify patients who will progress to heart failure during the disease course. TDI should be included in initial patient evaluations because it allows adequate follow-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Case-Control Studies , Observer Variation , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 393-398, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149098

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Aún existe controversia sobre la utilidad de la ecocardiografía funcional (EcoFn) en la valoración cardiovascular de neonatos críticamente enfermos. Objetivo: Analizar la utilidad de la EcoFn en la modificación de tratamiento en neonatos ingresados a una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN). Material y métodos: Estudio prospectivo en una UCIN durante un año mediante EcoFn realizada por un cardiólogo capacitado en pacientes en sus primeras 72 horas de vida extrauterina, con valoración de la funcionalidad cardiaca y presencia de alteraciones estructurales. Con base en los hallazgos se analizaron las modificaciones al tratamiento. Resultados: 37 neonatos fueron evaluados con EcoFn en dos ocasiones: una diagnóstica y otra de seguimiento. En 11 (29.7%) se encontró daño estructural y funcional, en 9 (24.3%) solo funcional, en 7 (18.9%) solo estructural y en 10 (27%) no se observaron alteraciones. En el 70% se realizó al menos un cambio de tratamiento. Los cambios más frecuentes fueron modificaciones al apoyo ventilatorio (63%), seguido del apoyo aminérgico (19.5%) y modificaciones en el aporte de líquidos (10.8%). En todos los casos los cambios mejoraron las condiciones clínicas de los neonatos. Conclusiones: La EcoFn permitió determinar mejor las condiciones estructurales y hemodinámicas de los pacientes y realizar modificaciones terapéuticas más precisas.


Abstract Introduction: It is still controversy about the usefulness of functional echocardiography (FnEC) in critically ill neonates. Objective: To analyze the usefulness of the FnEC in the treatment decisions in neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Materials and methods: A year prospective study in a NICU. A trained cardiologist performed a FnEC to 72 h of life patients to evaluate the cardiac function and heart structure. We analyzed the clinical decisions after the findings. Results: 37 neonates underwent two FnEC: at the diagnosis and at follow-up. Eleven patients (29.7%) had structural and functional abnormalities, 9 (24.3%) only functional, 7 (18.9%) only structural, and in the rest, 10 (27%), were normal. Al least one change in the management occurred in 70% of the patients. The main changes were to the ventilatory support (63%), followed by inotropic support (19.5%) and fluid intake (10.8%). In all changes, we observed an improvement in the clinical conditions of the neonates. Conclusions: The FnEC allowed to determinate the cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic conditions of the patients and make a more precise therapeutic modifications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Echocardiography , Cardiovascular System/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Critical Illness , Mexico
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(3): 222-232, jul.-sep. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149071

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios tempranos en la función miocárdica en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad, sin hipertensión arterial. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que se incluyeron 150 participantes de ambos sexos entre 6 y 15 años. Se realizaron evaluaciones antropométricas, bioquímicas y de función ventricular mediante métodos ecocardiográficos convencionales y análisis de deformación miocárdica con ecocardiografía bidimensional speckle tracking. La comparación global entre los grupos de estudio (niños con peso normal, sobrepeso y obesidad) se llevó a cabo con la prueba de análisis de varianza (ANOVA) de una vía y análisis post hoc con corrección de Bonferroni para las comparaciones múltiples, y se consideró a los niños con peso normal como grupo de referencia. Resultados: La muestra final fue de 142 participantes, 50 (35%) con peso normal, 39 (28%) con sobrepeso y 53 (37%) con obesidad. El diámetro diastólico del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y el septum interventricular, y el diámetro de la aurícula izquierda (AI) y la masa del VI fueron significativamente más altos en el grupo con obesidad en comparación con el grupo con peso normal. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los indicadores convencionales de la función sistólica y diastólica ventricular izquierda. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la deformación miocárdica regional entre los tres grupos. La media de deformación miocárdica longitudinal global fue más baja en los pacientes con obesidad (−20.9% vs. −23.5%; p menor 0.05) en comparación con los niños con peso normal. Conclusiones: La obesidad infantil se asoció a alteraciones en la deformación miocárdica, incluso en presencia de fracción de expulsión normal. La evaluación de la deformación miocárdica es relevante en los pacientes pediátricos con obesidad.


Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate early changes in myocardial function in overweight and obese children without hypertension. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 150 participants of both sexes between 6 and 15 years old. Anthropometric and biochemical evaluations were performed. Ventricular function was assessed by conventional echocardiographic methods and myocardial deformation analysis by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. One-way analysis of variance was employed for the global comparison of study variables between groups (children with normal weight, overweight and obesity), and post hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparison, considering normal-weight children as the reference category. Results: Overall, 142 participants were included, 50 (35%) with normal weight, 39 (28%) overweight and 53 (37%) obesity. Diastolic diameter of the left ventricular (LV) and interventricular septum, diameter of the left atrium and LV mass were significantly higher in children with obesity compared to those with normal weight. No significant differences in the conventional indicators of LV systolic and diastolic function were found between groups. Significant differences in the regional myocardial deformation between the three groups were observed. Mean global longitudinal myocardial deformation was smaller in patients with obesity (−20.9% vs. −23.5%, p less 0.05) compared to children with normal weight. Conclusions: The childhood obesity was associated with altered myocardial deformation, even in the presence of normal ejection fraction. Myocardial deformation evaluation is relevant in the assessment of pediatric patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Echocardiography , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 207-215, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Myocardial performance index (MPI), demonstrates both systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle. Presystolic wave (PSW) is frequently detected on Doppler examination of the left ventricular outflow tract and possible mechanism of PSW is impaired LV compliance and left ventricular stiffness. Objective: To investigate the relationship between PSW and MPI in type 2 diabetic patients. Method: A total of 129 type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PSW on Doppler echocardiography. There were 90 patients (38 male, mean age 57.77 ± 10.91 years) in the PSW-positive group and 39 patients (13 male; mean age: 55.31 ± 11.29 years) in the PSW-negative group. The p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: MPI was higher in PSW- positive group (0.63 ± 0.17vs 0.52 ± 0.13, p < 0.001). In addition, subclinical left ventricle dysfunction (LVD) was higher in the PSW- positive group (p = 0.029). Univariate analysis showed that the presence of PSW associated with abnormal MPI (p = 0.031). Pearson correlation analysis showed that PSW velocity correlated with MPI (r: 0.286, p = 0.006). Conclusion: Presence of the PSW on Doppler examination was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with DM type 2. This easy-to-perform echocardiographic parameter may be related to subclinical LVD among patients with type 2 DM.


Resumo Fundamento: O índice de performance miocárdica (IPM) avalia as funções sistólica e diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. A onda pressistólica (OPS) é geralmente detectada no exame Doppler da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo e seus possíveis mecanismos são complacência prejudicada e rigidez do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre OPS e IPM em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Método: 129 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 foram incluídos no estudo. Os sujeitos foram alocados em dois grupos, com base na presença de OPS no exame ecocardiográfico com Doppler. Foram incluídos 90 pacientes (38 homens, idade média 57,77 ± 10,91 anos) no grupo OPS-positiva e 39 pacientes (13 homens; idade média 55,31 ± 11,29 anos) no grupo OPS-negativa. Valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado para significância estatística. Resultados: O IPM foi mais alto no grupo OPS-positiva (0,63 ± 0,17 vs 0,52 ± 0,13, p < 0,001). Além disso, a disfunção ventricular esquerda subclínica (DVE) foi maior no grupo OPS-positiva (p = 0,029). Análise univariada mostrou associação de OPS com IPM anormal (p = 0,031), assim como o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson mostrou correlação entre velocidade de OPS e IPM (r: 0,286, p = 0,006). Conclusão: Presença de OPS na ecocardiografia com Doppler foi associada à DVE subclínica em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Esse exame ecocardiográfico de fácil execução pode ser relacionado à DVE subclínica entre pacientes com diabetes tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
10.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 156-167, Junio 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016616

ABSTRACT

Las cardiopatías congénitas presentan con frecuencia patrones anatómicos complejos y tradicionalmente se han estudiado con ecocardiografía y eventualmente con cateterismo cardíaco. Con los avances tecnológicos de las últimas décadas, la tomografía computada y la resonancia magnética nuclear han adquirido gran importancia en la evaluación cardíaca. Actualmente constituyen métodos utilizados en el estudio de variadas patologías cardiovasculares de la infancia de difícil diagnóstico ecográfico, que previamente eran evaluadas por angiografía convencional, lo cual implicaba una dosis de radiación mucho mayor (AU)


Congenital heart defects often have complex anatomical patterns and have traditionally been studied with echocardiography and eventually cardiac catheterization. With technological advances in recent decades, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have become very important in cardiac evaluation. Currently, they are the methods of choice in the study of a wide range of childhood cardiovascular diseases that are difficult to diagnose with echocardiography, which were previously evaluated using conventional angiography, involving a much higher dose of radiation (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/pathology
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 121-128, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983822

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cardiovascular mortality. Several studies have demonstrated the diagnostic and prognostic value of single photon computed tomography-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT-MPI) in the evaluation of patients with suspected IHD, including in obese population. Data on clinical risk factors and their association with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese patients are scarce in the Brazilian population. Objective: To determine the factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese individuals without known IHD. Methods: We studied obese patients without known IHD who were referred for evaluation through SPECT-MPI between January 2011 and December 2016. Clinical variables and results of SPECT-MPI were obtained systematically. The distribution of continuous variables was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk and Shapiro-Francia tests. We used the unpaired Student t test to compare the means of continuous variables with normal distribution and the Chi Square test for binomial variables analysis. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The association of the clinical variables for the presence of factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion was determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and respective odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The study sample consisted of 5,526 obese patients. Mean body mass index (BMI) of our patients was 33.9 ± 3.7 kg/m2, 31% had DM, and myocardial perfusion abnormalities was observed in 23% of the total sample. The factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion on multivariate analysis were: age (OR: 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001), DM (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.31-1.88, p < 0.001), typical angina before the test (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.82-3.31, p < 0.001), need for pharmacologic stress test (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.26-2.07, p < 0.001), less physical effort evaluated in metabolic equivalents (METs) during the exercise treadmill test (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.94, p < 0.001) and a lower post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction after stress (LVEF; OR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.984-0.994, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The factors associated with abnormal myocardial perfusion in obese patients without known IHD were age, DM, presence of typical angina, ventricular dysfunction, and inability to undergo physical stress as clinical variables, in addition to functional capacity during physical stress.


Resumo Fundamento: A obesidade associa-se a um risco aumentado de diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM), doença cardíaca isquêmica (DCI) e mortalidade cardiovascular. Vários estudos demonstraram o valor diagnóstico e prognóstico da cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com tomografia computadorizada por fóton único (CPM-SPECT) na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de DCI, inclusive na população de obesos. Dados sobre fatores de risco clínicos, e sua associação com perfusão miocárdica anormal em obesos, são escassos na população brasileira. Objetivo: Determinar quais são os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica em obesos sem DCI conhecida. Métodos: Estudamos pacientes obesos sem DCI conhecida que foram encaminhados para avaliação por CPM-SPECT entre janeiro de 2011 até dezembro de 2016. Variáveis clínicas e resultados da CPM-SPECT foram obtidos de forma sistematizada. A distribuição das variáveis contínuas foi avaliada utilizando-se os testes de Shapiro-Wilk e Shapiro-Francia. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student não pareado para comparar as médias das variáveis contínuas com distribuição normal, e o teste do Chi quadrado para análise das variáveis binomiais. Considerou-se o valor de p < 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. A associação das variáveis clínicas para a presença de anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica foi determinada por análise de regressão logística univariada e multivariada, calculando-se e apresentando-se os respectivos odds ratios (OR) e intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95. Resultados: A amostra do estudo foi de 5.526 pacientes obesos. O índice de massa corporal médio dos nossos pacientes foi de 33,9 ± 3,7 kg/m2, 31% eram portadores de DM, e anormalidades de perfusão foram observadas em 23% do total da amostra. Os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica, após análise multivariada, foram: idade (OR: 1,02, IC 95%: 1,01-1,03, p < 0,001), DM (OR: 1,57, IC 95%: 1,31-1,88, p < 0,001), presença de angina típica antes do exame (OR: 2,45, IC 95%: 1,82-3,31, p < 0,001), necessidade de utilização de protocolo com estresse farmacológico (OR: 1,61, IC 95%: 1,26-2,07, p < 0,001), menor esforço físico avaliado em equivalentes metabólicos durante o teste ergométrico (OR: 0,89, IC 95%: 0,85-0,94, p < 0,001) e menor fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo após estresse (OR: 0,989, IC 95%: 0,984-0,994, p < 0,001). Conclusão: Os fatores associados à anormalidade de perfusão miocárdica em pacientes obesos sem DCI conhecida foram idade, DM, presença de angina típica, disfunção ventricular e incapacidade para o estresse físico como variáveis clínicas, além da capacidade funcional durante o estresse físico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Heart/physiology , Myocardium , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(11): 722-725, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), in their isolated form, are rare cardiomyopathies. They are characterized by a thickened myocardium due to the presence of deep trabeculae recesses, and to thick trabeculae. This condition is associated with a variable clinical phenotype including heart failure, thromboembolism, and sudden death. We report a case of LVNC at 26 weeks and 4 days of gestation revised on the basis of what is currently reported in the literature. A review of the literature was performed to better describe this rare condition. Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare fetal condition and it should be suspected in case of cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(3): 278-288, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many non-invasive methods, such as imaging tests, have been developed aiming to add a contribution to existing studies in estimating patients' prognosis after myocardial injury. This prognosis is proportional to myocardial viability, which is evaluated in coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction patients only. While myocardial viability represents the likelihood of a dysfunctional muscle (resulting from decreased oxygen supply for coronary artery obstruction), hibernation represents post-interventional functional recovery itself. This article proposes a review of pathophysiological basis of viability, diagnostic methods, prognosis and future perspectives of myocardial viability. An electronic bibliographic search for articles was performed in PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane and Scielo databases, according to pre-established criteria. The studies showed the ability of many imaging techniques in detecting viable tissues in dysfunctional areas of left ventricle resulting from coronary artery injuries. These techniques can identify patients who may benefit from myocardial revascularization and indicate the most appropriate treatment.


Resumo Diversos métodos não invasivos, como novos exames de imagem, vem sendo aprimorados, a fim de somar esforços com os atuais em estimar o prognóstico de pacientes pós-injúria miocárdica. Este prognóstico é proporcional à viabilidade miocárdica, a qual tem sua avaliação reservada para pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronariana e insuficiência ventricular esquerda. Enquanto a viabilidade miocárdica se mostra como a capacidade de recuperação funcional do músculo com disfunção por redução de oxigênio fornecido por artérias coronárias obstruídas, a hibernação consiste na própria recuperação funcional após intervenções. Este artigo propõe uma revisão sobre as bases fisiopatológicas do processo de viabilidade, métodos diagnósticos disponíveis, prognóstico e perspectivas para o futuro acerca dessa condição. Realizou-se pesquisa de busca bibliográfica informatizada em bases eletrônicas de dados, como PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Scielo, onde foram selecionados os estudos de acordo com critérios pré-determinados. Os estudos demonstram a capacidade de várias técnicas de imagem de identificar tecido viável em regiões disfuncionais do ventrículo esquerdo em decorrência de lesões em artérias coronárias. Estas técnicas podem identificar pacientes com potencial benefício da revascularização miocárdica e orientar o tratamento mais adequado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Survival/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Revascularization
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 1-32, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-897812

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia, pelo Núcleo Vida de Ecocardiografia Transe-sofágica Intraoperatória (ETTI/SBA) juntamente com o Departamento de Imagem Cardiovascularda Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (DIC/SBC), fez uma forc ̧a-tarefa para normatizar afeitura da ecocardiografia transesofágica intraoperatória para os anestesiologistas e ecocar-diografistas brasileiros com base nas evidências científicas da Sociedade dos AnestesiologistasCardiovasculares/Sociedade Americana de Ecocardiografia (SCA/ASE) e da Sociedade Brasileirade Cardiologia.


ABSTRACT Through the Life Cycle of Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography(ETTI/SBA) the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology, together with the Department of Cardi-ovascular Image of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (DIC/SBC), createded a task force tostandardize the use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography by Brazilian anesthesi-ologists and echocardiographers based on scientific evidence from the Society of CardiovascularAnesthesiologists/American Society of Echocardiography (SCA/ASE) and the Brazilian Society ofCardiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/standards , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Intraoperative Care , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e6921, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951749

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent and difficult illnesses in pregnancy, which jeopardizes both mother and fetus. There are several diagnostic criteria for preeclampsia. However, the preeclampsia-associated myocardial damage has not been described. In this study, we employed reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) to generate a rat model of preeclampsia for the evaluation of myocardial damage in late-gestation rats. The expressions of cardiac injury markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The arterial pressure and myocardial tissue velocities were also measured. The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in RUPP-associated myocardial damage was further explored. The results showed that RUPP rats had significant myocardial damage, as demonstrated by the high expressions of myoglobin, creatine kinase isoenzyme, cardiac troponin I, and brain natriuretic peptide. In addition, RUPP increased the mean arterial pressure and the early transmitral flow velocity to mitral annulus early diastolic velocity ratio (E/Ea). Furthermore, IL-6 deteriorated these abnormalities, whereas inhibition of IL-6 significantly relieved them. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that RUPP rats displayed myocardial damage in an IL-6-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Perfusion , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Random Allocation , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color , Troponin I/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/metabolism , Arterial Pressure , Heart/drug effects , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Myoglobin/metabolism
16.
In. Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Hoff, Paulo Marcelo Gehm. Manual de condutas em cardio-oncologia / Manual of conducts in cardiology and oncology. Rio de janeiro, Atheneu, 1ª; 2018. p.85-90.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875219
17.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(3): e0039, 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976245

ABSTRACT

We aimed to discuss a case of strength training athlete who competes in international competitions regarding cardiac (dimension and function), vascular (endothelium and vascular resistance), hemodynamic (blood pressure), given limited evidence supporting these cardiovascular adaptations as well as concerning endothelial function in long-term high-intensity strength training. Methods: We assessed heart structure and function (echocardiography); systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); endothelium-dependent vasodilation (flow-mediated dilation, FMD); maximum force tested in the squat, bench press, and deadlift; and maximum oxygen consumption (spirometry). Results: powerlifter's cardiac dimensions (interventricular septum 13 mm; posterior wall thickness 12 mm; LV diastolic diameter 57 mm; left ventricle mass 383 g; LV mass adjusted by body surface area 151.4 g/m2) are above the proposed cutoff values beyond which pathology may be considered. Moreover, cardiovascular function systolic (ejection fraction by Simpson's rule, 71%) is preserved and FMD measure is fairly close and above normal; however, a mild increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed (130/89 mmHg, respectively). Conclusion: Cardiac remodeling cannot be viewed as either pathological or harmful to the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, we showed an improvement in endothelial function.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Physical Exertion , Athletes , Heart/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
18.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 30(3): f:92-l:97, jul.-set. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848728

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A ecocardiografia é fundamental na distinção entre adaptações fisiológicas promovidas pela atividade física e alterações patológicas. O ecocardiograma tridimensional com speckle tracking (3DSTeco) poderia mostrar-se acurado para a detecção de alterações subclínicas da função cardíaca. Objetivos: Determinar o efeito do exercício nos parâmetros da deformação miocárdica em atletas, por meio do 3DSTeco. Método: Realizado ecocardiograma convencional, ecocardiograma tridimensional (3Deco) e 3DSTeco em boxeadores de elite, para análise dos volumes do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), índice de massa indexada à superfície corpórea (IMISC), fração de ejeção (FE), strain global longitudinal (GLS), strain global circunferencial (GCS), strain global radial (GRS), twist, torção e área tracking. Estes dados foram comparados com medidas efetuadas em indivíduos controle não treinados. Resultados: Analisados 16 atletas e 14 controles, com idade (23 ± 4 vs 21 ± 4 anos; p = NS) e sexo (14 vs 12 homens) similares. A FE do VE foi normal e semelhante nos 2 grupos. O IMISC foi maior nos atletas (83 ± 21 vs 65 ± 15 g/m²; p < 0,05), assim como o GRS (24,7 ± 5.2 vs 16.3 ± 7.2; p = 0.007). Não houve diferença significativa para os demais parâmetros como GCS (-26 ± 2 vs -28 ± 6), GLS (-16 ± 2 vs -17 ± 3), twist (3.1 ± 1.3 vs 3.7 ± 1.9), torção (2.0 ± 0.8 vs 1.4 ± 0.4) e área tracking (37 ± 4 vs 41 ± 6). Conclusão: Atletas e indivíduos não treinados apresentam parâmetros de deformação miocárdica comparáveis pelo 3DSTeco, contudo, um incremento do GRS foi observado apenas nos atletas. O 3DSTeco poderia auxiliar na detecção precoce de alterações cardíacas subclínicas em atletas


Introduction: Echocardiography is fundamental in the distinction between physiological adaptations promoted by physical activity and pathological abnormalities. Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) could prove accurate in detecting subclinical abnormalities in cardiac function. Objectives: To determine the effect of exercise on the parameters of myocardial strain in athletes through 3D STE. Method: Elite boxers underwent conventional three-dimensional echocardiography (3D-echo) and 3D-STE to analyze left ventricular (LV) volumes, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMIBSA), ejection fraction (EF), longitudinal global strain (LGS), circumferential global strain (CGS), radial global strain (RGS), twist, torsion and tracking area. These data were compared with measurements performed on untrained control individuals. Results: The analyses included 16 athletes and 14 controls with similar age (23 ± 4 vs. 21 ± 4 years; p = NS) and gender (14 vs. 12 males). LVEF was normal and similar in the 2 groups. LVMIBSA was higher in the athletes (83 ± 21 vs. 65 ± 15 g/m², p < 0.05), as well as RGS (24.7 ± 5.2 vs. 16.3 ± 7.2; p = 0.007). There was no significant difference for the other parameters, such as CGS (-26 ± 2 vs. -28 ± 6), LGS (-16 ± 2 vs. -17 ± 3), twist (3.1 ± 1.3 vs. 3.7 ± 1.9), torsion (2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 1.4 ± 0.4) and tracking area (37 ± 4 vs. 41 ± 6). Conclusion: Athletes and untrained individuals have comparable myocardial strain parameters on 3D-STE. However, an increase in RGS was observed only in the athletes. 3D-STE could help in the early detection of subclinical cardiac issues in athletes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Athletes , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Reference Parameters/analysis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Exercise , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis , Ventricular Function, Left
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 150-162, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847908

ABSTRACT

A doença arterial coronariana é altamente prevalente. A caracterização anatômica apenas não é suficiente para determinar o grau de isquemia que uma estenose acarreta, especialmente nos momentos de demanda aumentada. Os métodos de avaliação da perfusão miocárdica permitem caracterizar a repercussão funcional de uma estenose coronariana e auxiliam na escolha da conduta médica a ser adotada. Os métodos de imagem utilizados atualmente desenvolveram formas de avaliar a adequação da perfusão miocárdica em repouso e em estresse. Na presente revisão, são discutidas as diversas modalidades não invasivas de avaliação da perfusão miocárdica


Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent. Anatomical characterization alone is not sufficient to establish the degree of ischemia caused by an obstruction, especially in moments of high myocardial demand. Myocardial perfusion evaluation methods enable the functional repercussion of a coronary stenosis to be characterized, and assist in the choice of medical conduct to be adopted. The imaging methods currently in use have developed ways of evaluating the adequacy of myocardial perfusion at rest and in stress. This revision article discusses the various non-invasive modalities of myocardial perfusion evaluation


Subject(s)
Humans , Perfusion/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Nuclear Medicine/methods
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