Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 257
Filter
1.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 455-460, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149034

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se evaluaron retrospectivamente los resultados obtenidos de estudios parasitológicos en muestras de heces y escobillados anales remitidos al Laboratorio de Parasitología y Gastroenterología del Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de los parásitos intestinales observados en las muestras remitidas a este hospital y su distribución en rangos etarios. En el período comprendido entre mayo de 2018 y abril de 2019 se analizó un total de 4713 muestras pertenecientes a 3311 pacientes, que arrojó un resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). De los exámenes coproparasitológicos el 30% fueron positivos (1193/4025) y se hallaron huevos de Enterobius vermicularis en el 26% (178/688) de los escobillados anales. En las muestras seriadas de heces se obtuvo un 37% de positividad mientras que en muestras únicas un 21%. En la totalidad de muestras fecales, los enteroparásitos más prevalentes fueron Blastocystis spp. en un 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) y Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Los resultados demostraron diferencias significativas con mayor prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en pacientes en edad escolar comprendidos entre los 6 y 10 años, en relación a los de edad preescolar. En las muestras fecales analizadas se evidenció un predominio de parasitismo de protozoos sobre helmintos, por lo que se debería considerar reforzar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de esas especies mediante técnicas, como coloraciones, que posibiliten su hallazgo y confirmación.


Abstract The results obtained of the coproparasitological studies and anal swab submitted to the laboratory of the Parasitology Section of the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" of the Buenos Aires City, Argentina, were retrospectively evaluated The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites found on the submitted samples and to evaluate their frequency according to the age of the patients. Within the period between May 2018 and April 2019, a total of 4713 samples corresponding to 3311 patients were analyzed and intestinal parasites were present in 29% (1371/4713). In 30% of coproparasitological studies parasite estructures were found (1193/4025) and 26% of anal swab samples were positive for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs (178/688). In serial fecal samples, 37% positive results were obtained, while in single samples, 21%. The most prevalent enteroparasites calculated from the total fecal samples were: Blastocystis spp. with 14% (579/4025), followed by Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) and Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). The incidence of intestinal parasites was higher in the group of patients between 6 and 10 years, and the existence of significant differences between proportions of parasitized patients in preschool and school infants, was observed. In the faecal samples analyzed, a greater prevalence of parasitism caused by protozoa than by helminths was evidenced, for which reason it should be considered, reinforcing the laboratory diagnosis using techniques such as stains that allow its finding and confirmation.


Resumo Os resultados obtidos de estudos parasitológicos em amostras fecais e esfregaços anais enviados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia e Gastroenterologia do Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" da Cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, foram avaliados retrospectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência dos parasitas intestinais observados nas amostras enviadas a este hospital e sua distribuição por faixas etárias. Durante o período compreendido entre maio de 2018 a abril de 2019 foram analisadas 4713 amostras, correspondentes a 3311 pacientes, o que deu um resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). 30% dos exames coproparasitológicos foram positivos (1193/4025) e foram encontrados ovos de Enterobius vermicularis em 26% (178/688) dos esfregaços anais. Nas amostras seriadas fecais foram obtidos 37% de resultados positivos, enquanto que em amostras únicas, 21%. Os enteroparasitas mais prevalentes na totalidade das amostras fecais foram Blastocystis spp. em 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) e Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Os resultados demonstraram diferenças significativas com maior prevalência de parasitas intestinais em pacientes em idade escolar da faixa etária entre 6 e 10 anos, em relação aos da pré-escola. Nas amostras fecais analisadas, evidenciou-se um predomínio de parasitismo por protozoários por sobre helmintos, pelo qual deve ser considerado o reforço do diagnóstico laboratorial dessas espécies por meio de técnicas, como colorações que permitam a sua localização e confirmação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Argentina/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
3.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(1): 9-14, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026040

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A contaminação de praças ou ambientes de recreação por ovos de geohelmintos constitui um problema de saúde pública. O solo, com relação aos helmintos parasitas se comporta como um hospedeiro intermediário. Recebe fezes ou água contaminada por parasitas em estágios não infectantes, oferecendo-lhes condições para o desenvolvimento e protege os parasitas em estágios infectantes durante certo tempo para, posteriormente, transmiti-lo ao homem. O objetivo é verificar a ocorrência e a contaminação ambiental por parasitas com potencial zoonótico no solo de escolas infantis em dois municípios do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo delineamento transversal, observacional e descritivo. A coleta foi através de amostras de areia em dez escolas de dois municípios, as coletas do material foram de cinco pontos diferentes, tanto da profundidade quanto da superfície, totalizando-se 100 amostras analisadas. As amostras de areia foram processadas em laboratório através dos métodos de Rugai e Hoffman, Pons e Janer. Resultados: Análise total (N=100) dos dois municípios, totalizando 50 amostras de cada. A contaminação das areias, por ovos de Ancylostoma spp., foi de 54% (n=27) no município I, sendo encontrados 56% (n=28) na cidade II. Conclusão: A ocorrência de ovos de Ancylostoma spp. no ambiente de recreação enfatiza a importância da adoção de medidas restritivas rígidas que impeçam a entrada de animais, como cães e gatos em locais de lazer. Além desses parasitas serem capazes de comprometer a saúde de humanos e infectar outros animais. (AU)


Introduction: Contamination of squares or recreational environments with geohelminth eggs is a public health problem. The soil serves as an intermediate host to helminths. It receives feces or water contaminated with parasites in non-infective stages, providing them with conditions for development, and protects parasites in infective stages for some time and then transmits them to humans. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of environmental contamination with parasites with zoonotic potential in the soil of nursery schools in two municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted. Soil samples were collected at ten schools in two municipalities, from five different school sites in terms of both depth and surface. Soil samples were processed at a laboratory using the methods of Rugai and Hoffman, Pons and Janer. Results: In total, 100 samples from the two municipalities were analyzed, 50 samples each. Soil contamination with Ancylostoma spp. eggs was 54% (n=27) in city I and 56% (n=28) in city II. Conclusions: The occurrence of Ancylostoma spp. eggs in recreational environments shows the importance of adopting strict restrictive measures to prevent animals, such as dogs and cats, from entering leisure areas. Also, these parasites may compromise human health and infect other animals. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Helminthiasis/prevention & control , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Larva Migrans/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers , Child Rearing , Ancylostoma/pathogenicity
4.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 88(6): 315-321, oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887800

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enteroparasitosis son enfermedades del tubo digestivo causadas por protozoarios, hongos y/o helmintos. Afectan principalmente a niños con condiciones socioeconómicas desfavorables, pudiendo tener repercusión sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo. Con el objetivo de contribuir a generar conocimiento sobre la prevalencia de las enteroparasitosis en niños de dos Centros de Atención a la Infancia y la Familia (CAIF) del barrio Casavalle, zona de influencia de la Policlínica Los Ángeles (Montevideo), entre marzo y diciembre de 2015, se realizaron coproparasitarios y espátulas adhesivas a niños mayores de 6 meses y menores de 5 años. Se devolvieron los resultados a las comunidades participantes, al centro de salud de referencia y a las autoridades de la zona. Se planificaron y realizaron jornadas de formación y sensibilización sobre las parasitosis, aportando información para su prevención. Los niños que tuvieron resultados positivos fueron tratados en la policlínica o derivados para su tratamiento. De los 577 niños matriculados, participaron en el proyecto 317 (54,9%), a todos los cuales se les realizaron los estudios coproparasitario y espátula adhesiva. Resultaron positivos 97 niños (30,6%), de los cuales 22 poliparasitados (6,9%). Los agentes más frecuentemente encontrados fueron: Giardia lamblia (18,6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6,6%) y Enterobius vermicularis (5,7 %). Se evidenciaron tres mecanismos de transmisión con vía de entrada oral: por contaminación fecal, por contacto con el suelo y transmisión directa, por lo que son necesarios esfuerzos para mejorar hábitos de higiene personal, vigilancia epidemiológica con georreferenciación y acciones dirigidas a mejorar la salud ambiental y saneamiento.


Summary Enteroparasitosis are diseases of the digestive tract caused by protozoan, fungi and/or helminths. They mainly affect children under unfavorable socio-economic conditions, and they may have an impact on growth and development. Coproparasitary tests and Graham technique tests were performed to children between 6 months and five years old from March to December 2015, with the purpose of generating knowledge on the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in children seen in two Centers for Child and Family Care (CAIF) in Casavalle neighborhood, in the area of influence of the Los Angeles Polyclinics (Montevideo). The results of the tests were given to participants, the reference health care centers and the authorities in the area. Subsequently, activities geared to training and raising awareness on parasitosis were organized, providing information for prophylactic purposes. Children whose results were positive were treated in the polyclinic or referred for treatment. 577 children were registered in the institution and 317 of them (54.9%) participated in the project, all of whom underwent coproparasitary and Graham technique tests. 97 children were positive (30.6%), 22 of which were poliparasitized (6.9%). The most frequently found agents were Giardia lamblia (18.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.6%) and Enterobius vermicularis (5.7%). Three mechanisms of transmission with oral entry route were evidenced: fecal contamination, contact with the soil and direct transmission, so efforts are needed to improve personal hygiene habits, epidemiological surveillance with georeferencing and actions aimed at improving environmental health and sanitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Day Care Centers , Social Vulnerability , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Poverty , Uruguay , Epidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Age Distribution , Helminthiasis/epidemiology
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 68(3): 255-261, sep.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-844989

ABSTRACT

La infección causada por Strongyloides stercoralis puede permanecer asintomática o con síntomas ligeros en humanos por varios años. Sin embargo, algunos individuos inmunodeprimidos, entre ellos los pacientes tratados con esteroides por tiempo prolongado, pueden presentar hiperinfección con altas tasas de mortalidad. El objetivo es reportar por primera vez en Cuba el caso de una paciente con síntomas de estrongiloidiasis crónica asociada al uso de esteroides orales. Se trata de una paciente de 63 años, asmática con síntomas de estrongiloidiasis crónica y riesgo de hiperinfección por el uso de esteroides orales por tiempo prolongado. Se describen las manifestaciones clínicas y los análisis complementarios. Se discuten los factores predisponentes para la adquisición inicial y el desarrollo de la enfermedad. El laboratorio confirmó la presencia de larvas rabditoides de Strongyloides stercoralis en las heces de la paciente. Aunque existen evidencias de casos fatales de pacientes con strongiloidiasis asociada al uso prolongado de esteroides en la literatura internacional, hay escasez de esos reportes en Cuba. Adicionalmente, es probable que el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos, hayan contribuido a evitar complicaciones fatales en esta paciente(AU)


The infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis may remain asymptomatic or with slight symptoms in humans for decades. However, immunocompromised patients, particulary those receiving long-term steroid therapy, may face hyperinfection resulting in high mortality rates. The objective was to present the first report in Cuba about a patient with chronic strongyloidiasis associated to use of oral steroids. Here is a 63 years-old asthmatic woman, who showed chronic strongyloidiasis symptoms and hyperinfection risk due to the long-term use of oral steroids. The symptoms and physical examination were described as well as various diagnostic tests. Predisposing factors for the onset and development of the disease were discussed. Laboratory diagnosis confirmed the presence of Strongyloides stercoralis rabditoid larvae in the patient's feces. Although there has been evidence of fatal cases with chronic strongyloidiasis associated with long-term use of steroids in the international literature, such reports are rare in Cuba. Additionally, it is likely that timely diagnosis and treatment have contributed to avoid fatal complications in this patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Feces/parasitology
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 407-418, jul.-sep. 2015. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765469

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Salvador no cuenta con datos actualizados de prevalencia en menores de 15 años de la infección por helmintos transmitidos por contacto con el suelo. Además, al ser uno de los países en las Américas que reporta un número bajo de casos de malaria, se considera que su eliminación allí es factible. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y la intensidad de la infección por geohelmintos y la prevalencia de Plasmodium spp. en escolares de 8 a 10 años de El Salvador. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte transversal en las cinco zonas eco-epidemiológicas del país (planicie costera, depresión central, cadena volcánica, cadena costera y zona montañosa). La presencia de geohelmintiasis se estudió en 1.325 estudiantes y, la de malaria, en 152. Se utilizó la técnica de Kato-Katz para la detección de geohelmintos, y para el diagnóstico de la malaria, una prueba rápida, el estudio mediante microscopía y la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. La prevalencia total de geohelmintiasis fue de 7,9 % (IC 95% 6,6-9,5). En la planicie costera fue de 14,9 % (IC 95% 10,9-19,7); en la depresión central, de 9,4 % (IC 95% 6,5-13,3); en la cadena volcánica, de 6,6 % (IC 95% 4,2-10,5); en la cadena costera, de 5,9 % (IC 95% 3,8-9,4), y en la cadena montañosa, de 2,6 % (IC 95% 1,4-5,7). La proporción de infección de gran intensidad debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue de 0,3 %. No se encontraron escolares infectados con Plasmodium spp. Conclusión. La prevalencia de geohelmintos fue baja y la especie más prevalente fue Trichuris trichiura . La intensidad de la infección debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue leve (<1 %). Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por geohelmintos fueron la defecación al aire libre, no usar calzado y vivir en la planicie costera.


Introduction: El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Conclusion: Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Soil/parasitology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , El Salvador/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Coinfection , Geography, Medical , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Helminthiasis/transmission , Helminths/isolation & purification , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/transmission
8.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 211-214, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752592

ABSTRACT

Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed.


Parasitos intestinais são um problema de saúde pública no mundo e a infecção por Blastocystis, protozoário de patogenicidade controversa, é uma das mais frequentes. Nesse estudo foi investigada a ocorrência de parasitos intestinais em pacientes atendidos na Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, em Uberaba (MG), com ênfase em Blastocystis, pelos métodos parasitológicos direto e de Ritchie. Foram examinadas fezes de 1.323 pacientes de abril/2011 a maio/2012. Em 28,7% deles foi identificado um parasito intestinal, sendo Blastocystis spp. (17,8%) e Giardia intestinalis (7,4%) os mais frequentes. A ocorrência de parasitismo foi maior em crianças de 6-10 anos e a infecção por Blastocystis spp. foi maior acima de seis anos (p < 0,001). Presença exclusiva de G. intestinalis e de Blastocystis spp. foi observada em 5,4% e 12,2% dos pacientes, respectivamente, sendo que dos pacientes com fezes diarreicas, 8% apresentavam parasitismo exclusivo por Blastocystis spp. Outros parasitos intestinais observados em crianças foram Ascaris lumbricoides (0,3%) e Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1,4%). O método de Ritchie foi mais sensível (92,8%) que o direto (89,8%), com alta concordância entre eles (97,7%, kappa = 0,92). Em conclusão, a ocorrência de Blastocystis spp. em Uberaba é elevada e foi observada a presença de fezes diarreicas com parasitismo exclusivo por Blastocystis spp.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158472

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: One third of the world’s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu state health department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.


Subject(s)
Albendazole/administration & dosage , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Child , Diethylcarbamazine/administration & dosage , Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Helminthiasis/drug therapy , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/transmission , Humans , India , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/transmission , Prevalence , Rural Population , Soil/parasitology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225153

ABSTRACT

A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platyhelminths/classification , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160907

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged > or =15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Islands , Lakes , Male , Middle Aged , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tanzania/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130542

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130538

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180026

ABSTRACT

This study describes the first record of Globocephalus samoensis (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) recovered in wild boars from southwestern regions of Korea. Gastrointestinal tracts of 111 Korean wild boars (Sus scrofa coreanus) hunted from mountains in Suncheon-si, Gwangyang-si, and Boseong-gun between 2009 and 2012 were examined for their visceral helminths. G. samoensis, as identified by morphological characteristics of the head and tail, were recovered from the small intestine of 51 (45.9%) wild boars. Worms were found from 7 of 28 wild boars (25.0%) from Suncheon-si, 40 of 79 (50.6%) from Gwangyang-si, and all 4 (100%) from Boseong-gun. The length of adult females was 7.2+/-0.5 mm, and the thickest part of the body measured the average 0.47+/-0.03 mm, while those of males were 6.52+/-0.19 and 0.37+/-0.02 mm, respectively. The buccal cavity was equipped with a pair of large and bicuspid subventral lancets near the base of the capsule. The average length of spicules of males was 0.45+/-0.02 mm. By the present study, G. samoensis is recorded for the first time in southwestern regions of Korea. Additionally, morphological characteristics and identification keys provided in the present study will be helpful in the faunistic and taxonomic studies for strongylid nematodes in both domestic and wild pigs. The infection of G. samoensis apparently did not elicit pathologic lesions, as revealed by macroscopic observation during the autopsy of all wild boars in this study.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/anatomy & histology , Animals , Biometry , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Hookworm Infections/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Microscopy , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/parasitology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Anon.
Rev. salud pública ; 16(6): 1-1, nov.-dez. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745111

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Considerando que más de la mitad de la población mundial está infectada por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales, con alta prevalencia en las zonas más pobres, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia de los parasitismos entre indígenas de la etnia Terena, establecidos en el Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Metodología Se examinaron 134 muestras de heces de individuos de la comunidad indígena. Estas se conservaron en solución de Merthiolate-iodo-formol (MIF). Los exámenes de laboratorio fueron realizados por las técnicas de Hoffman, Pons y Janer; Willis y Kinyoun. Resultados Se identificaron infecciones por helmintos nematodos de las especies Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, y Trichuris trichiura; cestodos de la especie Hymenolepis nana, y Taeniaspp. También por protozoarios de las especies Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, y Entamoeba histolytica. De las muestras investigadas, 23,1% fueron negativas; de los 76,9 % parasitados hubo diferencia estadísticamente no significativa para el parasitismo en hombres y mujeres examinados, de unoa 33 años de edad, y sobre parasitismo mono específico, o con simultaneidad de especies. Como diversidad parasitaria fueron encontradas siete especies de helmintos nematodos y cestodos, y cinco de protozoarios Archamoebae, flagelados y enterozoários. Conclusiones Los resultados fueron la base para la orientación e intervención adecuada, revelando la necesidad de la implantación de medidas gubernamentales y socioeducativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de esta comunidad...


Objective Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. Methodology 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. Results We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascarislumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobiusvermicularis, Strongyloidesstercoralis, and Trichuristrichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoebahistolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodeshelminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. Conclusions These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Young Adult , Indians, South American , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection , Feces/parasitology , Health Services Needs and Demand , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Prevalence , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/parasitology
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(1): 29-36, ene.-feb. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708551

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de analizar la prevalencia y distribución de las geohelmintiasis en la Argentina e identificar las áreas de mayor riesgo, realizamos una revisión sistemática de los estudios poblacionales publicados entre 1980 y 2011, indexados en las bases MEDLINE/ PUBMED y/o LILACS. También se incluyeron los datos de prevalencia basal del Programa Nacional de Desparasitación Masiva (PNDM, 2005). Se identificaron 310 publicaciones, de las que solo 24 artículos con información sobre 26 relevamientos, realizados en 8 provincias y un total de 5495 individuos evaluados, cumplían los criterios de inclusión. La prevalencia de geohelmintiasis varió ampliamente: Ascaris lumbricoides 0-67%, uncinarias 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura 0-24.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0-83%. La prevalencia acumulada estimada de los 4 geohelmintos principales varió entre 0.8 y 88.6%. Los datos basales del PNDM con información de 1943 niños de 12 provincias confirman esta heterogeneidad con rangos de prevalencia acumulada entre 0 y 42.7%. Los estudios incluidos en esta revisión muestran que la distribución de geohelmintiasis en la Argentina es heterogénea, con focos de alta prevalencia (> 20%) en el noreste y noroeste del país, los que podrían beneficiarse de una estrategia de desparasitación masiva. En muchos casos esta alta prevalencia es debida a uncinarias y estrongiloidiosis, lo que debe tenerse en cuenta para definir las estrategias diagnósticas y terapéuticas para su control. Asimismo, se resalta la escasez o ausencia de datos, con información de menos de la mitad de las provincias y menos de 8000 individuos evaluados.


A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Soil/parasitology , Ascaris lumbricoides , Argentina/epidemiology , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis/epidemiology , Trichuris , Trichuriasis/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70338

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to know the infection status of intestinal helminths in a most common species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from 2 southern regions of Korea. Total 133 and 103 mice were collected by the mouse trap in Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do and Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, respectively, from July 2005 to June 2006. The small intestine of each mouse was resected and longitudinally opened with a pair of scissors. The intestinal contents were washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. Helminths were collected with naked eyes or under a stereomicroscope from the sediment of the intestinal content. More than 11 species of helminths (4 nematode spp., 5 trematode spp., and 2 cestode spp.) were recovered. Among these, heligmosomoid nematodes (97.5%) was the most highly and heavily infected species. As the members of trematodes, Plagiorchis muris, Brachylaima sp., Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and unidentified echinostome larvae were found in the small intestines of 35 (14.8%), 12 (5.1%), 6 (2.5%), 1 (0.4%), and 1 (0.4%) mice respectively. Two species of tapeworms, Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were also detected in 79 (33.5%) and 21 (8.9%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, heligmosomoid nematodes were the most prevalent (dominant) species among more than 11 helminth species detected, and Brachylaima sp. fluke is newly added in the list of intestinal trematodes in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Korea/epidemiology , Murinae/parasitology , Prevalence , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124058

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Topography, Medical , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210966

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of helminthic infections was surveyed on a total of 6,178 residents (males 2,549 and females 3,629) in 102 villages of 9 provinces in Lao PDR between 2007 and 2011 under the project of Korea-Laos Collaborative Project for Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections in Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear and Stoll's egg counting techniques. The overall liver/intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 71.9% with a single or mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, Trichostrongylus sp., echinostomes, Taenia spp., and others. Ov/MIF revealed the highest prevalence (55.6%) followed by hookworms (27.8%) and T. trichiura (6.5%). The endemic regions with the highest prevalence of Ov/MIF were Savannakhet, Khammouane, Vientiane (Nam Ngum), Champasak (Khong Island), and Saravane Province. High prevalences of A. lumbricoides (33.8%), hookworms (47.8%), and T. trichiura (32.6%) were observed in Phongsaly, Luang Prabang, and Vientiane (Nam Ngum) areas, respectively. The results of this study highlight helminth parasites of current public health significance in different areas of Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL