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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016719, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058012

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, species of the genus Ramphocelus with the presence of various endoparasites have already been reported. Coccidia have been the parasites most frequently found. All species of this genus have similar habitats and ecological niches, which makes parasite transmission easy. The aim of this study was to diagnose the presence of endoparasites in fecal samples from specimens of Ramphocelus carbo that were caught in the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve (Cazumbá Resex), in the State of Acre. The specimens (n = 30) were caught in mist nets arranged in different ecosystems of the Reserve. After identification, the bird specimens were placed in cloth bags for a maximum of 30 minutes to collect feces. Among the 22 samples collected, 63.63% (n = 14) were positive for endoparasites. The coccidia were the parasites most frequently. Helminths belonging to Ascaridiidae (Nematoda), Strongylida (Nematoda) and Davaneidae (Cestoda) were recorded for the first time in R. carbo in the State of Acre. Parasites belonging to Strongylida and Davaneidae were recorded for the first time in a species of Ramphocelus. These findings add information on the parasitic fauna of wild birds, since in the Amazon region there are few studies on this subject.


Resumo No Brasil, espécies do gênero Ramphocelus ja foram relatadas com a presença de vários endoparasitos, sendo os coccídios os parasitos mais frequentes. Todas as espécies do gênero possuem habitats e nichos ecológicos semelhantes, facilitando a transmissão desses parasitos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo diagnosticar a presença de endoparasitos em amostras fecais de Ramphocelus carbo capturadas na Reserva Extrativista Cazumbá-Iracema (Resex do Cazumbá), localizada no estado do Acre. Os espécimes (n=30) foram capturados em redes de neblina dispostas em diferentes ecossistemas da Reserva. Após a identificação das aves, os espécimes foram colocadas em sacos de pano por no máximo 30 minutos para coleta das fezes. Das 22 amostras coletadas, 63,63% (n = 14) foram positivas para endoparasitas. Os coccídíos foram os parasitos mais frequentes. Os helmintos Ascaridiidae (Nematoda), Strongylida(Nematoda) e Davaneidae (Cestoda) foram registrados pela primeira vez em R. carbo, no estado do Acre. Strongylida e Davaneidae são registrados pela primeira vez em uma espécie pertencente a Ramphocelus. Esses achados acrescentam informações sobre a fauna parasitária de aves silvestres, pois na Amazônia existem poucos estudos nessa área.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Passeriformes/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Helminths/classification , Brazil
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e009420, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138120

ABSTRACT

Abstract The broad-headed spiny rat, Clyomys laticeps, is an echimyid rodent found in open areas of Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in central Brazil and Paraguay. Little is known about the parasites associated with this semi-fossorial species, as no previous studies have been conducted on their helminth fauna. The aim of this study was to report the helminth community structure of C. laticeps inhabiting Serra de Caldas Novas State Park, a Cerrado area in central Brazil. Trappings were carried out in dry grasslands from January to October 2016, and the large and small intestines of 14 C. laticeps individuals were examined for the presence of helminths. Three nematode species were found: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., and Subulura forcipata, and 85.7% of the studied species were infected with at least one of these helminths. F. almeidai was the most prevalent species among hosts, and S. forcipata was the most abundant. This study is the first report on helminth community structure in C. laticeps. We report a new host species and increase the known geographical range of F. almeidai, and provide the first record of Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infecting echimyids. This is also the first report of S. forcipata in a mammal host.


Resumo Clyomys laticeps é um roedor equimídeo encontrado em áreas abertas dos biomas Cerrado e Pantanal, ao longo do Brasil central e Paraguai. Essa espécie apresenta hábitos semi-fossoriais e atividade noturna. Até o momento, não existem estudos sobre seus parasitas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a comunidade de helmintos encontrados em C. laticeps, capturados no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, uma área de Cerrado no Brasil Central. Os indivíduos foram capturados em área de "campo sujo" entre janeiro e outubro de 2016. Os intestinos delgado e grosso de 14 roedores foram examinados quanto à presença de helmintos. Três espécies de nematoides foram encontradas: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. e Subulura forcipata. Considerando-se as três espécies, 85,7% dos roedores apresentaram pelo menos um helminto. F. almeidai foi a espécie mais prevalente, enquanto Subulura forcipata foi a mais abundante. Este estudo é o primeiro registro da estrutura da comunidade de helmintos para C. laticeps. Como resultado, foi registrado um novo hospedeiro e o aumento da área de distribuição geográfica para o nematódeo F. almeidai e o primeiro caso de Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infectando um roedor equimídeo. Além disso, este estudo também traz o primeiro registro de S. forcipata infectando um mamífero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodentia/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Helminths/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Brazil , Ecosystem
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 613-624, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057993

ABSTRACT

Abstract Black-necked swans are distributed across South America and face conservation problems in Chile according to data of the State institution SAG. The aim of this study was to identify helminths and to assess associated tissue damage via histopathology. A total of 19,291 parasites were isolated from 21 examined birds; 17 species were identified, including nematodes, flukes, and tapeworms. Of these, 12 were new host records, 13 were reported for the first time in Chile, and 5 were new records for the Neotropical region. Further, the flukes Schistosomatidae gen. sp. and Echinostoma echinatum are of zoonotic concern. Regarding histopathology, an inflammatory response was found along the birds' entire digestive tract. Nevertheless, it is difficult to declare that there is a clear association between such lesions and isolated parasites, as other noxa could be responsible as well. Although in some cases there was an evident association, such inflammatory responses and necrosis were minimal, as occurred with Capillaria, Retinometra, Catatropis, Echinostoma, and Schistosomatidae gen. sp. Nevertheless, Epomidiostomum vogelsangi caused granulomatous injuries, an important inflammatory response, and necrosis, but it always circumscribed to superficial layers of the gizzard. Conversely, Paramonostomum was not associated with an inflammatory response despite a high parasitic load.


Resumo O cisne de pescoço negro é distribuído por toda a América do Sul, e enfrenta problemas de conservação no Chile, sendo protegido pela Lei Estadual de Caça. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar helmintos em cisnes e avaliar o dano tecidual por meio de histopatologia. Um total de 19.291 parasitas foi isolado de 21 aves examinadas, sendo 17 espécies identificadas, entre nematóides, trematódeos e tênias. Destes, 12 são novos registros de hospedeiros, 13 são reportados pela primeira vez no Chile, e 5 são novos registros para a região Neotropical. Além disso, os trematódeos Schistosomatidae gen. sp. e Echinostoma echinatum detectados têm importância zoonótica. Em relação à histopatologia, uma resposta inflamatória foi encontrada em todo o trato digestivo. Entretanto, é difícil estabelecer uma associação estrita de tais lesões com parasitas isolados, porque outros fatores também poderiam ser responsáveis. Em alguns casos, houve uma associação óbvia entre parasitas e lesões, embora a resposta inflamatória e a necrose fossem mínimas, como foi o caso dos gêneros Capillaria, Retinometra, Catatropis, Echinostoma e Schistosomatidae gen. sp. Entretanto, Epomidiostomum vogelsangi causou lesões granulomatosas com importante resposta inflamatória e necrose, mas sempre circunscrita às camadas superficiais da moela. Por outro lado, Paramonostomum não foi associado com uma resposta inflamatória óbvia apesar da alta carga parasitária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Anseriformes/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Chile/epidemiology , Helminthiasis, Animal/pathology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Helminths/classification
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 425-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042535

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compared the structure of helminth parasite communities in two populations of Astronotus ocellatus from two localities in Pará State, eastern Amazon (Brazil). Hosts from the Tapajós River were infected by Posthodiplostomum sp. metacercarie, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoproleptus sp., with predominance of Contracaecum sp. Hosts from Iara Lake were infected by Procamallanus spiculastriatus, Proteocephalus sp. and Acanthocephala gen. sp., with predominance of P. spiculastriatus. Parasites had an aggregated dispersion and there were differences in Shannon diversity index and the evenness between both host populations, because the parasite component community showed no similarity. The existence of variation in infracommunity and community of parasites for A. ocellatus from different localities indicates the presence of an uneven distribution in terms of species and density of parasites, as well as of intermediate hosts in the localities surveyed.


Resumo Este estudo comparou a estrutura das comunidades de helmintos parasitos em duas populações de Astronotus ocellatus de duas localidades do Estado do Pará, leste da Amazônia brasileira. Hospedeiros do rio Tapajós foram infectados por Posthodiplostomum sp. metacercarie, larvas de Contracaecum sp. e Pseudoproleptus sp., com predomínio de Contracaecum sp. Hospedeiros do lago Iara foram infectados por Procamallanus spiculastriatus, Proteocephalus sp. e Acanthocephala gen. sp., com predomínio de P. spiculastriatus. Os parasitos tiveram uma dispersão agregada e houve diferenças no índice de diversidade de Shannon e na uniformidade entre as duas populações hospedeiras, porque a comunidade de componentes dos parasitos não mostrou similaridade. A existência de variação nas infracomunidades e comunidades de parasitos para uma mesma espécie hospedeira de diferentes localidades indica a presença de uma distribuição desigual em termos de espécies e densidade de parasitos em A. ocellatus, bem como de hospedeiros intermediários nas localidades pesquisadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/parasitology , Helminths/isolation & purification , Brazil , Cichlids/classification , Biodiversity , Rivers , Helminths/classification , Host-Parasite Interactions
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 40-46, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990814

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds act as hosts for a variety of parasites, many of these are unreported. The literature provides scant information on the helminth fauna of Phimosus infuscatus. The presence of helminths were investigate in 28 birds from Pelotas, Capão do Leão, and Rio Grande in Rio Grande do Sul. The preparation and identification of helminths followed protocols. Prevalence (P%), mean intensity of infection (MII), and mean abundance (MA) were estimated. The following helminths were found: Hystrichis acanthocephalicus , Dioctophyme renale (larva), Porrocaecum heteropterum , Baruscapillaria sp., Aproctella carinii , Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Cyathostoma sp. (Nematoda); Echinostomatidae gen. sp., Tanaisia valida, and Athesmia sp. (Trematoda: Digenea) and Megalacanthus sp. (Cestoda). The most prevalent species were H. acanthocephalicus, P. heteropterum, Megalacanthus sp., and Echinostomatidae gen. sp. and Megalacanthus sp. had the highest MII and MA. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of H. acantocephalicus between female and male bird hosts. We report Echinostomatidae gen. sp., T. valida, Athesmia sp., Cyathostoma sp., A. carinii, P. minor, D. renale (larva), Baruscapillaria sp., and Megalacanthus sp. for the first time in P. infuscatus in Brazil.


Resumo As aves atuam como hospedeiros para uma ampla variedade de parasitos, muitos destes ainda desconhecidos. Foram examinadas 28 aves, provenientes dos municípios de Pelotas, Capão do Leão e Rio Grande. A coleta, preparação e identificação dos helmintos seguiu bibliografia específica. A assembleia de helmintos foi analisada através dos índices de prevalência (P%), intensidade média de infecção (IMI) e abundância (AM). A assembleia de helmintos de P. infuscatus estava composta por Nematoda: Hystrichis acanthocephalicus , Dioctophyme renale (larva), Porrocaecum heteropterum , Baruscapillaria sp., Aproctella carinii , Paradeletrocephalus minor, Cyathostoma sp.; Digenea: Echinostomatidae gen. sp., Tanaisia valida, Athesmia sp. e Megalacanthus sp. (Cestoda). As espécies mais prevalentes foram: H. acanthocephalicus, P. heteropterum , Megalacanthus sp. e Echinostomatidae gen. sp. A maior IMI e AM foi de Megalacanthus sp., onde observou-se diferença significativa na prevalência de H. acantocephalicus em hospedeiros fêmeas. Os helmintos Echinostomatidae gen. sp., T. valida, Athesmia sp., Cyathostoma sp., A. carinii, P. minor, D. renale (larva), Baruscapillaria sp., e Megalacanthus sp. são registrados pela primeira vez em P. infuscatus no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Brazil , Helminths/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 495-504, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977933

ABSTRACT

Abstract The helminth fauna and metacommunity structure of eight sympatric sigmodontine rodents were investigated at the Serra dos Órgãos National Park, an Atlantic Forest reserve located in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Rodents of the species Abrawayaomys ruschii, Akodon montensis, Blarinomys breviceps , Delomys dorsalis, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus quaestor and Thaptomys nigrita were found infected with helminths. Akodon montensis presented the highest total helminth species richness, with six different species of helminths. The nematode Stilestrongylus lanfrediae was the most abundant and prevalent helminth species observed. The host-parasite network analysis showed little interactions among host species. Akodon montensis seems to act as a keystone-species in the rodent community. This species shared the nematodes Stilestrongylus aculeata with A. ruschii and Protospirura numidica criceticola with T. nigrita, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis with D. dorsalis. The congeners host species O. flavescens and O. nigripes shared the nematodes Guerrerostrongylus zetta and S. lanfrediae. The rodents B. breviceps and O. quaestor did not share any helminths with other hosts. The helminth metacommunity showed a random pattern on both infracommunity and component community levels, indicating different responses by each helminth species to the environmental gradient.


Resumo Foram investigadas a helmintofauna e suas estruturas da metacomunidade em oito roedores sigmodontíneos simpátricos ao longo do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, uma reserva de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Roedores das espécies Abrawayaomys ruschii, Akodon montensis, Blarinomys breviceps, Delomys dorsalis, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus quaestor e Thaptomys nigrita foram infectados por helmintos. Akodon montensis apresentou a maior riqueza total de espécies de helmintos, com seis espécies. O nematoide Stilestrongylus lanfrediae foi a espécie de helminto com maior abundância e prevalência. A análise de rede parasito-hospedeiro mostrou poucas interações entre as espécies hospedeiras e A. montensis atuou como uma espécie-chave na comunidade de roedores. Esta espécie compartilhou os nematoides Stilestrongylus aculeata com A. ruschii e Protospirura numidica criceticola com T. nigrita, e o cestoide Rodentolepis akodontis com D. dorsalis. As espécies congêneres O. flavescens e O. nigripes compartilharam os nematoides Guerrerostrongylus zetta e S. lanfrediae. Os roedores B. breviceps e O. quaestor não compartilharam helmintos com outros hospedeiros. A metacomunidade de helmintos mostrou um padrão aleatório em ambos os níveis, comunidade componente e infracomunidade, indicando diferentes respostas de cada espécie de helminto ao gradiente ambiental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Prevalence , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Helminths/isolation & purification
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 488-494, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977928

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of metazoan parasites on hematological and biochemical parameters and relative condition factor of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum ) farmed in northern Brazil. A total of 32 juvenile fish were captured from a commercial fish farm located in the municipality of Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas state, Brazil. Parasite prevalence was 100% for Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium boegeri and Notozothecium janauachensis, 100% for Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae and 53.13% for Dolops geayi. The greatest mean parasite intensity was found in acantocephalans followed by monogeneans and branchiuran crustaceans. A negative correlation was observed between abundance of N. buttnerae and hematocrit percentage, hemoglobin concentration, total thrombocyte count and glucose and between abundance of the monogenean and glucose concentration. Parasitic infections caused damage in tambaqui in terms of the observed hematological parameters that were characterized by hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia, which are important parameters to be used in parasitic diagnosis. This study is the first record of the occurrence of Dolops geayi in farmed tambaqui in the Amazon.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto do parasitismo por metazoários sobre os parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos e fator de condição relativo de tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum) cultivados na região Norte do Brasil. Foram coletados 32 tambaquis em fase de engorda numa piscicultura comercial no município de Rio Preto da Eva, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. A prevalência de parasitos foi de 100% para Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium boegeri e Notozothecium janauachensis, 100% para Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae e 53,13% para Dolops geayi. A maior intensidade média foi de acantocéfalos, seguida por monogenéticos e branquiúros. Correlação negativa significativa foi observada entre abundância de N. buttnerae e os parâmetros de hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, trombócitos totais e glicose, bem como entre a abundância de monogenéticos e glicose. A infecção por parasitos metazoários foi capaz de debilitar os tambaquis como observado por meio das alterações hematológicas; sendo este quadro de anemia hipocrômica e trombocitopenia importante para ser utilizado no diagnóstico destas parasitoses. Este estudo foi o primeiro registro da ocorrência de Dolops geayi em tambaquis cultivados na Amazônia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arguloida , Characiformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Aquaculture , Characiformes/blood , Fish Diseases/blood , Helminthiasis, Animal/blood
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 750-754, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951601

ABSTRACT

Abstract Forty five specimens representing nine species of reptile (Salvator merianae, Enyalius bilineatus, Amphisbaena alba, Xenopholis undulatus, Chironius fuscus, Helicops angulatus, Chironius flavolineatus, Erythrolamprus viridis and Crotalus durissus) collected in five Brazilian states were examined for helminths. Twelve helminth species were found as follow: nine Nematoda (Physaloptera tupinambae, Strongyluris oscari, Paracapillaria sp., Dracunculus brasiliensis, Physaloptera liophis, Serpentirhabias sp. 1, Serpentirhabias sp. 2, Serpentirhabias sp. 3 and Aplectana sp.), one Cestoda (Semenoviella amphisbaenia), one Trematoda (Paracotyletrema sp.), and one Acantocephala (Centrorhynchus sp.). Ten new host records and seven new locality records were reported.


Resumo Quarenta e cinco espécimes que representa nove espécies de répteis (Salvator merianae, Enyalius bilineatus, Amphisbaena alba, Xenopholis undulatus, Chironius fuscus, Helicops angulatus, Chironius flavolineatus, Erythrolamprus viridis e Crotalus durissus) coletados em cinco estados brasileiros foram examinados para helmintos. Foram encontrados doze espécies de helmintos sendo: nove Nematoda (Physaloptera tupinambae, Strongyluris oscari, Paracapillaria sp., Dracunculus brasiliensis, Physaloptera liophis, Serpentirhabias sp. 1, Serpentirhabias sp. 2, Serpentirhabias sp. 3 e Aplectana sp.), um Cestoda (Semenoviella amphisbaenia), um Trematoda (Paracotyletrema sp.) e um Acantocephala (Centrorhynchus sp.). Dez novos registros de hospedeiros e sete novos registros de localidade foram relatados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reptiles/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Brazil
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 289-294, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metynnis lippincottianus is a freshwater native fish to the Guiana basin and Amazon basin and was recently introduced into the São Francisco River in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the helminths parasites of M. lippincottianus from the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. From 67 hosts examined, 63 were parasitized by 9,257 helminths represented by five species: Dadayius sp. [prevalence (P) = 1.49%, mean abundance (MA) = 0.01]; proteocephalid plerocercoids (P = 43.28%, MA = 5.04); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (P = 29.85%, MA = 0.54); Spinitectus rodolphiheringi (P = 2.99%, MA = 0.03); Spinoxyuris sp. (P = 85.07%, MA = 132.54). These findings show that M. lippincottianus is an additional host to the helminths infecting fish native to the São Francisco River (plerocercoids, P. (S.) inopinatus and S. rodolphiheringi), and highlight the fact that Dadayius sp. and Spinoxyuris sp., which were typically found in native Metynnis spp. in other basins, also parasitizing the non-native serrasalmid M. lippincottianus in São Francisco River. These two helminth species have thrived in this freshwater ecosystem with the expansion of the geographical distribution of the host species to the São Francisco River.


Resumo Metynnis lippincottianus é uma espécie de peixe de água doce nativa da bacia da Guiana e bacia amazônica que foi recentemente introduzida no rio São Francisco, Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou determinar quais espécies de helmintos parasitam M. lippincottianus do Reservatório de Três Marias, alto rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Sudeste do Brasil. Dos 67 espécimes de peixes examinados, 63 estavam parasitados pelo total de 9.257 helmintos representados por cinco espécies: Dadayius sp. [prevalência (P) = 1,49% e abundância média (AM) = 0,01)]; plerocercoides proteocefalídeos (P = 43,28%, AM = 5,04); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus ) inopinatus (P = 29,85%, AM = 0,54); Spinitectus rodolphiheringi (P = 2,99%, AM = 0,03); Spinoxyuris sp. (P = 85,07%, AM = 132,54). Estes resultados mostram que M. lippincottianus é um hospedeiro adicional para os helmintos que infectam peixes nativos do rio São Francisco (plerocercoides, P. (S.) inopinatus e S. rodophiheringi) e destacam o fato de que Dadayius sp. e Spinoxyuris sp., geralmente encontradas em Metynnis spp. nativas em outras bacias, também parasitam o serrasalmídeo não-nativo M. lippincottianus no rio São Francisco. Estas duas espécies se estabeleceram neste ecossistema de água doce com a expansão da distribuição geográfica do hospedeiro para o rio São Francisco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Characiformes/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Brazil , Rivers , Characiformes/classification , Helminths/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 242-250, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744338

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the helminth fauna of Astyanax fasciatus in two distinct sites of the Taquari River, São Paulo State, with 30 individuals sampled in a lotic site and 30 in a lentic site, recording the monogeneans: Cacatuocotyle paranaensis, Characithecium costaricensis, Diaphorocleidus kabatai, Jainus sp., Notozothecium sp. and Gyrodactylus sp., the digenean Antorchis lintoni and no-identified metacercariae; the nematode Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and no-identified larvae. The mean abundances of total monogeneans (U = 1053; p = 0.042) and C. costaricensis (U = 1107; p = 0.005) were higher in the lotic site. This difference may be due to the higher density of the host population in the lotic site, and the water transparence in lentic environments that prevents A. fasciatus to form shoals, precluding the exchange of parasites with direct cycle within a host population. This study is the first report of the helminth fauna of A. fasciatus in the Taquari River, with ten taxa recorded, and reports A. fasciatus as a new host for Notozothecium sp. and C. paranaensis.


Este estudo avaliou a helmintofauna de Astyanax fasciatus em dois trechos distintos no rio Taquari, São Paulo, com 30 indivíduos coletados no trecho lótico e 30 no trecho lêntico, registrando os monogenóides: Cacatuocotyle paranaensis, Characithecium costaricensis, Diaphorocleidus kabatai, Jainus sp., Notozothecium sp. e Gyrodactylus sp., o digenético Antorchis lintoni e metacercárias não identificadas, o nematoide Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus e larvas não identificadas. A abundância média de monogenóides total (U = 1053; p = 0,042) e C. costaricensis (U = 1107; p = 0,005) foi maior no trecho lótico. Esta diferença pode ser devido à densidade mais alta da população de hospedeiros no trecho lótico e à transparência da água em trechos lênticos que previne a formação de cardumes de A. fasciatus e a troca de parasitas com ciclo direto dentro da população de hospedeiros. Este estudo é o primeiro registro da helmintofauna de A. fasciatus no rio Taquari, com dez taxa encontrados, e registra A. fasciatus como novo hospedeiro para os monogenóides Notozothecium sp. e C. paranaensis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characidae/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Rivers/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Characidae/classification , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160912

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/drug therapy , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Male , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Schools , Students , Tanzania/epidemiology , Urine/parasitology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160911

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/drug therapy , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Lakes , Male , Microscopy , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Schistosomiasis/drug therapy , Tanzania/epidemiology , Urine/parasitology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91232

ABSTRACT

Nematomorpha, horsehair or Gordian worms, include about 300 freshwater species in 22 genera (Gordiida) and 5 marine species in 1 marine genus (Nectonema). They are parasitic in arthropods during their juvenile stage. In the present study, the used gordian worm was found in the feces of a dog (5-month old, male) in July 2014. Following the worm analysis using light and scanning electron microscopes, the morphological classification was re-evaluated with molecular analysis. The worm was determined to be a male worm having a bi-lobed tail and had male gonads in cross sections. It was identified as Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiidae) based on the characteristic morphologies of cross sections and areole on the cuticle. DNA analysis on 18S rRNA partial sequence arrangements was also carried out, and the gordiid worm was assumed to be close to the genus Gordius based on a phylogenic tree analysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/diagnosis , Helminths/classification , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130542

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130538

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225153

ABSTRACT

A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platyhelminths/classification , Young Adult
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 943-948, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732312

ABSTRACT

Helminths and pentastomids were examined in exotic Hemidactylus mabouia and native Phyllopezus pollicaris lizards, living synanthropically in an urban area in the municipality of Crato, Ceará state, northeastern Brazil. A total of 194 lizards were collected, being 76 specimens of H. mabouia e 118 specimens of P. pollicaris. Six parasite species were found infecting H. mabouia: the cestode Oochoristica sp., the nematodes Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, and Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis and the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae; while four parasite species were found associated with P. pollicaris: Oochoristica sp., P. sceleratus, P. retusa, and S. oxkutzcabiensis. Three new host records were reported: P. retusa infecting H. mabouia and P. retusa and Oochoristica sp. infecting P. pollicaris. About 75% of the parasites species found were shared by both lizards. Moreover, H. mabouia showed greater diversity than P. pollicaris (6 versus 4 species), while P. pollicaris had higher intensity of infection than H. mabouia (1536 versus 121 specimens).


Helmintos e pentastomídeos foram analisados em lagartos exóticos Hemidactylus mabouia e nativos Phyllopezus pollicaris, vivendo sinantropicamente em uma área urbana da cidade de Crato, Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram coletados 194 lagartos, sendo 76 espécimes de H. mabouia e 118 de P. pollicaris. Seis espécies de parasitas foram encontradas infectando H. mabouia: Oochoristica sp., Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis e Raillietiella mottae; enquanto em P. pollicaris foram encontradas quatro espécies: Oochoristica sp., P. sceleratus, P. retusa, and S. oxkutzcabiensis. Três novos registros de hospedeiros são reportados: P. retusa em H. mabouia e Oochoristica sp. e P. retusa infectando P. pollicaris. Cerca de 75% dos parasitas encontrados foram compartilhados pelas espécies de lagartos. Ainda, H. mabouia apresentou maior diversidade de parasitas do que P. pollicaris (6 espécies versus 4), enquanto P. pollicaris possui maior intensidade de infecção media do que H. mabouia (1.536 versus 121).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Lizards/parasitology , Pentastomida/classification , Brazil , Helminths/isolation & purification
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124058

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Feces/parasitology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Topography, Medical , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70338

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to know the infection status of intestinal helminths in a most common species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from 2 southern regions of Korea. Total 133 and 103 mice were collected by the mouse trap in Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do and Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, respectively, from July 2005 to June 2006. The small intestine of each mouse was resected and longitudinally opened with a pair of scissors. The intestinal contents were washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. Helminths were collected with naked eyes or under a stereomicroscope from the sediment of the intestinal content. More than 11 species of helminths (4 nematode spp., 5 trematode spp., and 2 cestode spp.) were recovered. Among these, heligmosomoid nematodes (97.5%) was the most highly and heavily infected species. As the members of trematodes, Plagiorchis muris, Brachylaima sp., Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and unidentified echinostome larvae were found in the small intestines of 35 (14.8%), 12 (5.1%), 6 (2.5%), 1 (0.4%), and 1 (0.4%) mice respectively. Two species of tapeworms, Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were also detected in 79 (33.5%) and 21 (8.9%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, heligmosomoid nematodes were the most prevalent (dominant) species among more than 11 helminth species detected, and Brachylaima sp. fluke is newly added in the list of intestinal trematodes in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Korea/epidemiology , Murinae/parasitology , Prevalence , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76769

ABSTRACT

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Ovum/classification , Parasitology , Republic of Korea , Sanitary Engineering , Soil/parasitology
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