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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 365-372, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142967

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: We evaluated different technological approaches and anti-D clones to propose the most appropriate serologic strategy in detecting the largest numbers of D variants in blood donors. Methods: We selected 101 samples from Brazilian blood donors with different expressions of D in our donor routine. The tests were performed in immediate spin (IS) with eleven commercially available anti-D reagents in a tube and microplate. The D confirmatory tests for the presence of weak D included the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) in a tube, gel and solid-phase red blood cell adherence (SPRCA). All DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood and the D variants were classified using different molecular assays. Results: The RHD variants identified by molecular analysis included weak D types (1, 2, 3, 11 and 38) and partial Ds (DAR1.2, DAR1, DAR3.1, DAU0, DAU2, DAU4, DAU5, DAU6, DMH and DVII). The monoclonal-monoclonal blend RUM-1/MS26 was the best anti-D reagent used in detecting the D antigen in the IS phase in a tube, reacting with 83.2% of the D variants, while the anti-D blend D175 + 415 was the best monoclonal antibody (MoAb) used in a microplate to minimize the need for an IAT, reacting with 83.2% of the D variants. The D confirmatory tests using SPRCA showed a reactivity (3 - 4+) with 100% of the D variant samples tested. Conclusion: Our results show that, even using sensitive methods and MoAbs to ensure the accurate assignment of the D antigen, at least 17% of our donor samples need a confirmatory D test in order to avoid alloimmunization in D-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/analysis , Blood Donors , Serotyping , Alleles , Hemagglutination
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 915-920, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129595

ABSTRACT

Nabumetone is used to reduce the pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. In the current study, immunomodulatory effect of Nabumetone is investigated in mice. The control group was administered normal saline orally as placebo. Nabumetone was administered orally via gavage in two treatment groups at 14mg/kg.b.w. doses and 28mg/kgb.w., respectively. Haemagglutination (HA) assay, Jerne hemolytic plaque and mice lethality assays were applied. In HA assay, the titer was significantly decreased in Nabumetone treatment groups (P< 0.001). In Jerne hemolytic plaque formation assay, there was a significant reduction (P< 0.001) in number of plaques in Nabumetone treated groups when compared with control. In mice lethality assay, there was a significant difference in mortality ratio of mice in control and Nabumetone treated groups (P< 0.001). Therefore, it is concluded that Nabumetone suppresses the humoral immune response in mice.(AU)


A nabumetona é usada na redução da dor e inflamação da artrite reumática. No presente estudo, o efeito imunomodulador é investigado em camundongos. O grupo de controle recebeu solução salina via oral como placebo. Nabumetona foi administrada oralmente via gavagem em dois grupos de tratamentos com doses de 14mg/kg.b.w. e 28mg/kgb.w., respectivamente. Foram realizados ensaios de hemaglutinação (HA), placa hemolítica de Jerne e letalidade dos camundongos. No ensaio HA, o grau foi significativamente menor nos grupos de tratamento com nabumetoma (P< 0.001). No ensaio de formação de placa hemolítica de Jerne houve redução significativa (P< 0.001) no número de placas em grupos tratados com nabumetoma comparado ao controle. No ensaio de letalidade dos camundongos houve diferença significativa no grau de mortalidade de camundongos no grupo de controle e grupos tratados com nabumetoma (P< 0.001). Portanto, conclui-se que a Nabumetoma suprime a resposta imune humoral em camundongos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Nabumetone/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/veterinary , Saline Solution , Hemagglutination
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 48-54, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091896

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Systemic sclerosis (SSC) is an autoimmune disorder that affects several organs of unknown etiology, characterized by vascular damage and fibrosis of the skin and organs. Among the organs involved are the esophagus and the lung. OBJECTIVES To relate the profile of changes in esophageal electromanometry (EM), the profile of skin involvement, interstitial pneumopathy (ILD), and esophageal symptoms in SSC patients. METHODS This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out at the SSC outpatient clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Uberlândia. After approval by the Ethics Committee and signed the terms of consent, 50 patients were initially enrolled, from 04/12/2014 to 06/25/2015. They were submitted to the usual investigations according to the clinical picture. The statistical analysis was descriptive in percentage, means, and standard deviation. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between EM, high-resolution tomography, and esophageal symptoms. RESULTS 91.9% of the patients had some manometric alterations. 37.8% had involvement of the esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter. 37.8% had ILD. 24.3% presented the diffuse form of SSC. No association was found between manometric changes and clinical manifestations (cutaneous, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal symptoms). CONCLUSION The present study confirms that esophageal motility alterations detected by EM are frequent in SSC patients, but may not be related to cutaneous extension involvement, the presence of ILD, or the gastrointestinal complaints of patients.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A esclerose sistêmica (ES) é uma doença autoimune que afeta vários órgãos de etiologia desconhecida, caracterizada por dano vascular e fibrose da pele e órgãos. Entre os órgãos envolvidos estão o esôfago e o pulmão. OBJETIVOS Relacionar o perfil das alterações na eletromanometria (ME), o perfil de acometimento da pele, a pneumopatia intersticial (PI) e os sintomas esofágicos em pacientes com ES. MÉTODO Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal, realizado no ambulatório de SSC do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética e assinatura dos termos de consentimento, 50 pacientes foram inicialmente convidados, de 04/12/2014 a 25/06/2015. Eles foram submetidos às investigações usuais de acordo com o quadro clínico. A análise estatística foi descritiva em porcentagem, média e desvio padrão. O teste Qui-quadrado foi utilizado para avaliar a relação entre ME, tomografia de alta resolução e sintomas esofágicos. RESULTADOS 91,9% dos pacientes apresentaram alterações manométricas. 37,8% tinham envolvimento do corpo esofágico e do esfíncter esofágico inferior. 37,8% tinham IP. 24,3% apresentaram a forma difusa da ES. Não há associação entre alterações manométricas e manifestações clínicas (sintomas cutâneos, pulmonares e gastrointestinais). CONCLUSÃO O presente estudo confirma que as alterações da motilidade esofágica detectadas pela EM são frequentes em pacientes com SSC, mas podem não estar relacionadas ao envolvimento cutâneo, à de DPI ou às queixas gastrointestinais dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Scleroderma, Systemic/physiopathology , Esophageal Motility Disorders/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Esophagus/physiopathology , Manometry/methods , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Esophageal Motility Disorders/complications , Esophageal Motility Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower/physiopathology , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Hemagglutination , Middle Aged
4.
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 18(48): 26-33, 2020. tab
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1260157

ABSTRACT

Introduction : les valeurs de référence peuvent être obtenues à partir des bases de données. Nous nous proposons de produire ces valeurs à partir d'une base de données hématologiques et de souligner les contraintes inhérentes à cette méthodologie. Matériel et méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, réalisée du 1er janvier 2015 au 30 mars 2017, au Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine de Libreville. Les dossiers des donneurs, dont les sérologies (HIV, AgHBs, Ac HVC, VDRL et TPHA) étaient négatives ont été retenus. Les paramètres de l'hémogramme ont été notés pour chaque dossier. L'identification des valeurs aberrantes a été réalisée à l'aide de la méthode de Cook, la nature de la distribution a été étudiée grâce au test de normalité de Shapiro-Wilk. Les limites de référence à 95% et leurs intervalles de confiance à 90% ont été calculés. La recherche des partitions a été effectuée à l'aide du z-test. Les différences étaient considérées comme statistiquement significatives, pour une valeur de p inférieure à 0,05. Résultats: ce protocole a concerné 27022 dossiers, dont 2013 (7,4%) ont été exploités. L'intervalle de référence à 95% des leucocytes allait de 2,8.103 à 6,1.103/mm3, alors que celui des hématies allait de 4,3.106 à 5,3.106/mm3et celui des plaquettes de 129,7.103 à 258,0.103/mm3. De plus, les hématies allaient de 4,4.106 à 5,3.106/mm3chez les hommes contre 4,4.106 à 5,1.106/mm3pour les femmes de même tranche d'âge.Conclusion: la réalisation d'une telle étude nécessite une collaboration interdisciplinaire, une bonne tenue des bases de données et nous rappelle la primauté d'une différence biologique, par rapport à une différence statistique


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Platelets , Gabon , Hemagglutination , Hemoglobins , Leukocytes , Reference Values
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e151444, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122147

ABSTRACT

Blood typing techniques have been improved to ensure greater safety for transfusion procedures. Typification for the DEA 1 antigen through flow cytometry should offer more reliability to routine immunohematology in donor and recipient dogs. Currently, the DEA 1 group is starting to be an autosomal dominant allelic system with the DEA 1 negative type and its variations of positivity. The present study investigated the DEA 1 antigen using the techniques of immunochromatography, hemagglutination and flow cytometry. Among the positive animals for the DEA 1 group, typified by flow cytometry, medium intensities of fluorescence were found, which are indicative of weak, moderate and strong antigenicity. This enabled the division of the DEA 1 group into weak positive, moderate positive and strong positive. The blood typing techniques for the DEA 1 group by flow cytometry, agglutination and immunochromatography had positive (Spearman r=0.70) and statistically significant (p>0.0001) correlations.(AU)


As técnicas de tipificação sanguínea vêm sendo aperfeiçoadas para garantir maior segurança aos procedimentos transfusionais. A tipificação para o antígeno AEC 1 com o emprego da citometria de fluxo poderá oferecer mais confiabilidade à rotina da imunohematologia em cães doadores e receptores. Na atualidade, o grupo AEC 1 passou a ser denominado como um sistema alélico autossômico dominante com o tipo AEC 1 negativo e suas variações de positividade. O presente trabalho comparou os resultados de três técnicas utilizadas para a pesquisa do antígeno AEC 1: cromatografia; hemoaglutinação e citometria de fluxo. Dentro dos indivíduos positivos para o grupo AEC 1, tipificados pela citometria de fluxo, foram encontradas intensidades médias de fluorescência indicadoras de antigenicidade fraca, moderada e forte, podendo-se dividir o grupo AEC 1 em positivo fraco, positivo moderado e positivo forte. As técnicas de tipificação sanguínea para o grupo AEC 1 por cromatografia, hemoaglutinação e citometria de fluxo apresentaram correlação positiva (Spearman r=0,70) e estatisticamente significativa (p<0,0001).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Blood Transfusion/veterinary , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching/methods , Hemagglutination , Chromatography, Affinity/veterinary , Flow Cytometry
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-6, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1179207

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmose é uma zoonose parasitária com ampla distribuição mundial provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii, considerado um dos protozoários mais bem sucedidos do planeta, pois infecta cerca de um terço da população mundial. Dentre as formas de transmissão, o consumo de carne mal cozida, contendo cistos, tem sido considerado um fator de risco para aquisição desta zoonose. Uma abordagem alternativa para o controle da toxoplasmose pela ingestão de carne bovina seria a sorologia dos bovinos, já que animais soropositivos albergam cistos teciduais. Contudo, a obtenção de soro para esta avaliação, nem sempre é factível, dada a dificuldade de coleta de sangue durante a linha de abate e sua ausência em cortes comerciais. O exsudato cárneo é uma alternativa para detecção de anticorpos anti - T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne, que foi a proposta deste estudo para avaliar o desempenho dos testes de Hemaglutinação Indireta (HI) e Aglutinação Modificada (MAT) quando comparados ao ELISA usando exsudato cárneo. Este estudo mostrou que a acurácia dos testes de aglutinação não foi viável devido aos baixos índices de sensibilidade e especificidade quando comparados ao ELISA. Estes dados demonstram a importância da escolha de testes eficientes como ELISA para aplicação no controle da qualidade e inocuidade de cortes comerciais de carne bovina. (AU)


Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with a wide worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasmagondii, which is considered one of the most successful protozoa on the planet, since it can infect a third of the world population. Among the forms of transmission, consumption of undercooked meat has been considered as a risk factor for the acquisition of this zoonosis. An alternative approach to toxoplasmosis control by beef ingestion could be the serological diagnosis in cattle, since seropositives animals harbor tissue cysts. However, the use of serum for this evaluation is not always feasible due to the difficulty of blood collection during slaughter and its absence in commercial beef cuts. Meat exudate is an alternative for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in commercial beef cuts, which was the propose of this study to evaluate the performance of Indirect Hemagglutination (HI) and Agglutination Modified (MAT) tests compared to ELISA using meat exudates. This study showed that the agglutination tests accuracy was not viable due to low sensitivity and specificity indexes when compared to ELISA. These data demonstrate the importance of choosing accurate tests such as ELISA for application in quality control and safety of commercial beef cuts. (AU)


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests , Toxoplasmosis , Agglutination , Exudates and Transudates , Red Meat , Food Supply , Hemagglutination
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used in the diverse field to evaluate influenza virus infection; for the surveillance, diagnosis, efficacy evaluation, and development of the vaccine. The aim of this study was to establish an ELISA for detecting HA strain-specific antibodies using recombinant pandemic A H1N1 (pH1N1) HA1 (rHA1) protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rHA1 was produced in baculovirus system. The clinical performance of the developed ELISA was validated using human serum samples, by comparison with standard methods for detecting a neutralizing antibody; hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and microneutralization test (MNT). The ability of the ELISA system to evaluate the efficacy test of an influenza vaccine was explored by measuring antibody levels in the serum of vaccinated mice. RESULTS: Our ELISA could detect anti-rHA1 antibody in influenza-infected patients and vaccinated subjects. Compared to HI assay and MNT as reference methods, our method showed good performance in detection of anti-rHA1 antibody. Detection of the anti-rHA1 antibody in vaccinated mice and its correlation with titers in HI assay was also proved in a mice model. CONCLUSION: An ELISA system using rHA1 of pH1N1 influenza virus was developed, and showed good clinical performance in diagnosis of influenza virus infection and evaluation of the vaccination efficacy in both human and animal models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Baculoviridae , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Vaccination
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The titer of influenza vaccine-induced antibodies declines over time, and younger children have lower immunogenicity and shorter duration of immunity. This study aimed to compare persistence of antibody at 6 months after influenza vaccination according to influenza virus strains, vaccine type, antigen dose, and primed status in children aged 6 to 35 months. METHODS: A total 124 healthy children aged 6 to 35 months were enrolled from September to December 2016 at 10 hospitals in Korea and randomly assigned to either a full dose of quadrivalent influenza vaccine or a half dose of trivalent influenza vaccine with Victoria B strain group. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers (that measure the seroprotection rates) were assessed for the recommended influenza strains at 6 months post vaccination. RESULTS: The seroprotection rates at 6 months for strains A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria were 88.7%, 97.4%, 36.6%, and 27.6%, respectively. The seroprotection rates for A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B (Victoria) were 91.4%, 98.7% and 27.5% in a full dose of quadrivalent vaccine vs. 83.7%, 94.6% and 27.9% in a half dose trivalent vaccine, respectively. The seroprotection rate for the B (Yamagata) strain was 23.8% in the quadrivalent group and 14.0% in the trivalent group. CONCLUSION: Persistence of antibodies at 6 months was more favorable against the influenza A strains than against the B strains. Persistence of antibodies to additional B strain at 6 months was superior in the quadrivalent vaccine group. The immunity of primed children with different B strains was not superior to that of the unprimed group with another B strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Child , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Victoria
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764239

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) infection results in hepatitis in dogs. In this study, we investigated the biologic and genetic characteristics of the CAV-1 vaccine strain (CAV1V) to improve quality control about CAV vaccine. The identity of CAV1V as CAV-1 was confirmed based on its cytopathic effects and the results of hemagglutination (HA) and immunofluorescence assays, and electron microscopy. The CAV1V strain reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/mL in MDCK cells at 4 days post-inoculation and exhibited hemmagglutination activity of 256 U using guinea pig erythrocytes. Intranuclear fluorescence in the infected cells was observed and typical adenoviruses were observed in electon microscope. CAV1V strain was identified as a CAV-1 strain by nucleotide sequence analysis. In a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the fiber genes of several CAV strains, CAV1V showed the highest similarity (99.8%) with the GLAXO strain, which was isolated in Canada. Our biological characterization of CAV1V will facilitate quality control of the canine hepatitis vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Canine , Animals , Base Sequence , Canada , Dogs , Erythrocytes , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Hepatitis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Quality Control
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760360

ABSTRACT

Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across the globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A), which has impacted the equine industry internationally because of the marginal mortality and high morbidity. In the present study, the immune responses after equine influenza vaccination were evaluated in 4,144 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza virus (EIV), A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8), was used as the antigen in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 89.2% (97.4% in 2016, 77.6% in 2017, and 92.4% in 2018). This paper highlights the advances in understanding the effects of vaccines and control strategies for mitigating the emerging menace by EIV.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Hemagglutination , Horses , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Vaccination , Vaccines
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ABO blood group typing test (ABO test) is an initial pre-transfusion test based on hemagglutination. Although various factors affect hemagglutination strength, few studies have examined how these factors can be applied in clinical laboratories and their effects on hemagglutination. This study was conducted to analyze the factors affecting hemagglutination strength in the ABO test using a tube method applied in many laboratories. METHODS: We conducted a detailed questionnaire survey of 51 laboratories which use the ABO test with a tube method. We also analyzed the results of the ABO test (cell and serum typing) with 40 specimens using factors affecting hemagglutination at a tube method and applied differently in each laboratory. RESULTS: Each laboratory used various methods to prepare red cell suspensions as specimens or reagents and used different reagent to sample ratios, centrifugation protocols, and shaking test tubes before evaluating hemagglutination strength. By testing various combinations of these factors, direct sampling from the red cell layer of the original specimen was found to have the largest effect on lowering hemagglutination strength in cell typing tests. In serum typing tests, various factors influenced hemagglutination strength, including shaking the tube before analysis and the concentration of a home-made red cell suspension used as a reagent. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve accurate results in the ABO test by the tube method, detailed guidelines that include the factors affecting hemagglutination strength determined in this study should be established.


Subject(s)
Centrifugation , Hemagglutination , Indicators and Reagents , Methods , Suspensions
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758797

ABSTRACT

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Salmonella Pullorum have significant damaging effects on the poultry industry, but no previous vaccine can protect poultry effectively. In this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN), was constructed by using the suicide plasmid pREasd-mediated bacteria homologous recombination method to form a new bivalent vaccine candidate against Newcastle disease (ND) and S. Pullorum disease (PD). The effect of this vaccine candidate was compared with those of the NDV LaSota and C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA) strains. The serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, secretory IgA, and stimulation index in lymphocyte proliferation were increased significantly more (p 0.05). Moreover, the novel strain provides 60% and 80% protective efficacy against the NDV virulent strain F48E9 and the S. Pullorum virulent strain C79-13. In summary, in this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting NDV HN protein was constructed. The generation of the S. Pullorum C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN) strain provides a foundation for the development of an effective living-vector double vaccine against ND and PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Bacteria , Chickens , Hemagglutination , HN Protein , Homologous Recombination , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphocytes , Methods , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Plasmids , Poultry , Salmonella , Suicide , Vaccines
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741522

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) infection results in significant respiratory illness in dogs. Isolating and culturing CAV-2 allows for investigations into its pathogenesis and the development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated a virus from a naturally infected dog in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The virus was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells and showed a specific cytopathic morphology that appeared similar to a bunch of grapes. The virus was first confirmed as CAV-2 based on these cytopathic effects, an immunofluorescence assay, hemagglutination assay, and electron microscopy. The viral titer of the isolate designated APQA1601 reached 10(6.5) 50% tissue culture infections dose per mL in MDCK cells and exhibited no hemagglutination units with erythrocytes from guinea pig. The virus was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing. The APQA1601 strain had the highest similarity (~99.9%) with the Toronto A26/61 strain, which was isolated in Canada in 1976 when the nucleotide sequences of the full genome of the APQA1601 strain were compared with those of other CAV strains. Isolating CAV-2 will help elucidate the biological properties of CAV-2 circulating in Korean dogs.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Canine , Animals , Base Sequence , Canada , Dogs , Erythrocytes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Genome , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Kidney , Korea , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccines , Vero Cells , Vitis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741520

ABSTRACT

As animal welfare issue becomes important, the European Union bans conventional cages for laying hens from 2012. So the alternative housing systems like floor pens, aviaries or free range systems have been suggested. From 2011 to 2014, we monitored 20 welfare-oriented laying hen farms in South Korea to figure out serological status of major viral diseases. During this period, total 3,219 blood samples were collected from the randomly selected chickens to test and evaluate the hemagglutination inhibition titers for low pathogenic avian influenza, Newcastle disease and egg drop syndrome '76. A total of 2,926 blood samples were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the serological status of infectious bronchitis (IB). The distribution of ELISA titers for IB was various from almost 0 to 20,000 through the all weeks of age. Also, the antibody coefficient of variation for most of the diseases in this study was higher than those of typical cage layers. As this study was the first surveillance for major avian viral diseases of the animal welfare-oriented farms in South Korea, the results obtained from this study will help to determine what information and resources are needed to maintain better biosecurity and to improve the health and welfare of laying hen flocks.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animal Welfare , Animals , Bronchitis , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , European Union , Hemagglutination , Housing , Influenza in Birds , Korea , Newcastle Disease , Ovum , Sentinel Surveillance , Virus Diseases
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The frequency with which the 2 B lineages have been found to cocirculate in a season has been on the rise, which has spurred the need for a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to protect against both B lineages. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that QIV include both B lineages beginning in the 2013–2014 flu season. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an egg-cultivated QIV in healthy Korean children and adolescents aged ≥ 6 months to < 19 years. METHODS: A total of 528 subjects were randomized 4:1 to receive either a QIV (GC3110A) or a trivalent influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were assessed 28 days after the last dose. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects in the GC3110A group who achieved seroconversion was confirmed to exceed 40% across all age groups. The proportion of subjects aged ≥ 6 months to < 3 years in the GC3110A group who achieved seroprotection failed to meet the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) standard of 70%. Potential causes may include the small number of subjects, as well as the small dosage. However, results pertaining to the other age groups satisfied the MFDS standard. The safety profile was also comparable to that of the control. CONCLUSION: The new quadrivalent split influenza vaccine may offer broader protection to children and adolescents aged ≥ 3 years to < 19 years of age against both influenza B lineages than the existing trivalent influenza vaccines (Registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02541253).


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antibody Formation , Child , Hemagglutination , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Seasons , Seroconversion , World Health Organization
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115778

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of canine H3N8 influenza and human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza in dogs in Ohio was estimated by conducting serologic tests on 1,082 canine serum samples. In addition, risk factors, such as health status and age were examined. The prevalences of human H1N1, H3N2, and canine H3N8 influenzas were 4.0%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively. Two samples were seropositive for two subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2; H1N1 and canine influenza virus [CIV] H3N8). Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with respiratory signs were 5.795 times more likely to be seropositive against H1N1 virus (p = 0.042). The prevalence of human flu infection increased with dog age and varied by serum collection month. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in this study did not detect nucleoprotein-specific antibodies from many hemagglutination inhibition positive sera, which indicates a need for the development and validation of rapid tests for influenza screening in canine populations. In summary, we observed low exposure of dogs to CIV and human influenza viruses in Ohio but identified potential risk factors for consideration in future investigations. Our findings support the need for establishment of reliable diagnostic standards for serologic detection of influenza infection in canine species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Hospitals, Animal , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Mass Screening , Ohio , Orthomyxoviridae , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91210

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important zoonosis caused by the mosquito-transmitted JE virus (JEV), which is a causative agent of reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Detection of JEV antibodies in swine is performed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), virus neutralization (VN), and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The most stringent PRNT is the 90% endpoint PRNT (PRNT₉₀). These conventional assays are difficult to carry out in diagnostic laboratories with insufficient instruments or cell culture systems. An alternative assay that is easily conducted and time efficient is required. In this study, we improved the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) with clarified antigen for the detection of JEV antibodies. The I-ELISA results obtained from 175 swine serum samples were compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results. The sensitivity of I-ELISA was 91.8%, 95.0%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. The specificity of I-ELISA was 92.2%, 94.7%, and 94.7% compared with HI, VN, and PRNT₉₀ results, respectively. Moreover, the I-ELISA results were significantly correlated with the HI (r = 0.93), VN (r = 0.95), and PRNT₉₀ (r = 0.92) results. These results suggest that the improved I-ELISA is useful for serosurveillance of JEV in swine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cell Culture Techniques , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 775-780, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788951

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lectins are non-immunogenic carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that bind to glycoproteins, glycolipids, or polysaccharides with high affinity and exhibit remarkable ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and other cells. In the present study, ten Fusarium species previously not explored for lectins were screened for the presence of lectin activity. Mycelial extracts of F. fujikuroi, F. beomiformii, F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, F. incarnatum, and F. tabacinum manifested agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment of rabbit erythrocytes increased lectin titers of F. nisikadoi and F. tabacinum extracts, whereas the protease treatment resulted in a significant decline in agglutination by most of the lectins. Results of hapten inhibition studies demonstrated unique carbohydrate specificity of Fusarium lectins toward O-acetyl sialic acids. Activity of the majority of Fusarium lectins exhibited binding affinity to D-ribose, L-fucose, D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannitol, D-galactosamine hydrochloride, D-galacturonic acid, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, fetuin, asialofetuin, and bovine submaxillary mucin. Melibiose and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid did not inhibit the activity of any of the Fusarium lectins. Mycelial extracts of F. begoniae, F. nisikadoi, F. anthophilum, and F. incarnatum interacted with most of the carbohydrates tested. F. fujikuroi and F. anthophilum extracts displayed strong interaction with starch. The expression of lectin activity as a function of culture age was investigated. Most species displayed lectin activity on the 7th day of cultivation, and it varied with progressing of culture age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mycelium , Fusarium/metabolism , Fusarium/chemistry , Lectins/metabolism , Hemagglutination Tests , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Fusarium/growth & development , Hemagglutination , Lectins/pharmacology
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