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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1112-1123, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927767

ABSTRACT

Influenza B virus is one of the causes for seasonal influenza, which can account for serious illness or even death in some cases. We tested the expression of extracellular domain of hemagglutinin (HA-ecto) of influenza B viruses in mammalian cells, and then determined the immunogenicity of HA-ecto in mice. The gene sequence encoding influenza B virus HA-ecto, foldon sequence, and HIS tag was optimized and inserted into pCAGGS vector. The opening reading frame (ORF) of neuraminidase was also cloned into pCAGGS. The pCAGGS-HA-ecto and pCAGGS-NA were co-transfected into 293T cells using linear polyethylenimine. Cell supernatant after transfection was collected after 96 h, and the secreted trimmeric HA-ecto protein was purified by nickel ion affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Subsequently, the mice were immunized with HA-ecto protein, and the corresponding antibody titers were detected by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. The results showed that soluble trimeric HA-ecto protein could be obtained using mammalian cell expression system. Moreover, trimeric HA-ecto protein, in combination with the adjuvant, induced high levels of ELISA and HAI antibodies against homogenous and heterologous antigens in mice. Thus, the soluble HA-ecto protein expressed in mammalian cells could be used as a recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for influenza B virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Influenza B virus/metabolism , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 160-173, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927701

ABSTRACT

The conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem region of avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important target for designing broad-spectrum vaccines, therapeutic antibodies and diagnostic reagents. Previously, we obtained a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (5D3-1B5) which was reactive with the HA stem epitope (aa 428-452) of H7N9 subtype AIV. To systematically characterize the mAb, we determined the antibody titers, including the HA-binding IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and virus neutralizing (VN) titers. In addition, the antigenic epitope recognized by the antibody as well as the sequence and structure of the antibody variable region (VR) were also determined. Moreover, we evaluated the cross-reactivity of the antibody with influenza virus strains of different subtypes. The results showed that the 5D3-1B5 antibody had undetectable HI and VN activities against H7N9 virus, whereas it exhibited strong reactivity with the HA protein. Using the peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and biopanning with a phage-displayed random peptide library, a motif with the core sequence (431W-433Y-437L) in the C-helix domain in the HA stem was identified as the epitope recognized by 5D3-1B5. Moreover, the mAb failed to react with the mutant H7N9 virus which contains mutations in the epitope. The VR of the antibody was sequenced and the complementarity determining regions in the VR of the light and heavy chains were determined. Structural modeling and molecular docking analysis of the VR verified specific binding between the antibody and the C-helix domain of the HA stem. Notably, 5D3-1B5 showed a broad cross-reactivity with influenza virus strains of different subtypes belonging to groups 1 and 2. In conclusion, 5D3-1B5 antibody is a promising candidate in terms of the development of broad-spectrum virus diagnostic reagents and therapeutic antibodies. Our findings also provided new information for understanding the epitope characteristics of the HA protein of H7N9 subtype AIV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Molecular Docking Simulation
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 799-805, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The new emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus, causing severe human infection with a mortality rate of around 41%. This study aims to provide a novel treatment option for the prevention and control of H7N9.@*METHODS@#H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cells were isolated from peripheral blood plasma cells of the patients previously infected by H7N9 in Jiangsu Province, China. The human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated by amplification and cloning of these HA-specific B cells. First, all human mAbs were screened for binding activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, those mAbs, exhibiting potent affinity to recognize H7 HAs were further evaluated by hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) and microneutralization in vitro assays. Finally, the lead mAb candidate was selected and tested against the lethal challenge of the H7N9 virus using murine models.@*RESULTS@#The mAb 6-137 was able to recognize a panel of H7 HAs with high affinity but not HA of other subtypes, including H1N1 and H3N2. The mAb 6-137 can efficiently inhibit the HA activity in the inactivated H7N9 virus and neutralize 100 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of H7N9 virus (influenza A/Nanjing/1/2013) in vitro, with neutralizing activity as low as 78 ng/mL. In addition, the mAb 6-137 protected the mice against the lethal challenge of H7N9 prophylactically and therapeutically.@*CONCLUSION@#The mAb 6-137 could be an effective antibody as a prophylactic or therapeutic biological treatment for the H7N9 exposure or infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Hemagglutinins , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 626-631, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935335

ABSTRACT

The purpose was to discuss the infection status of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) in children with acute respiratory tract infection(ARTI) in Qingdao, Shandong province, and to analyze the gene characteristics of HPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN). This study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1 674 throat swab samples were collected randomly from children with ARTI, in the three hospitals (Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, West Coast Branch of Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Laoshan Branch of Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University) from January 2018 to December 2019. Multiplex real-time fluorescence RT-PCR was performed to screen HPIV-3 positive specimens. For HPIV-3 positive specimens, nested PCR was used to amplify the full-length HN gene of HPIV-3. The HN gene was sequenced and compared with the representative strains of HPIV-3 in GenBank, and the phylogenetic tree was established. As results, this study collected 1 674 samples, in which there were 90 HPIV-3 positive samples showed and the detection rate was 5.37%. Among positive specimens, the number of samples from children under 6 years old was 88, accounting for 97.78%. HPIV-3 positive cases were mainly distributed in spring and summer. The full-length sequences of 44 HPIV-3 HN genes were obtained by nested PCR method. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis showed that the HPIV-3HN gene belonged to the C3a and C3b branches of C3 genotype, with 30 strains of subtype C3a and 14 strains of subtype C3b. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of the amplified 44 strains of the HPIV-3 HN gene in Qingdao were 97.0%-100.0% and 98.5%-100.0%, respectively. In conclusion, from 2018 to 2019, the C3a and C3b branches of HPIV-3 C3 genotype were circulating prevalent in Qingdao, Shandong province. HN gene variation rate was low, but showed certain regional characteristics in evolution.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemagglutinins , Neuraminidase , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viral Proteins
7.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 35-42, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719489

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is no standard method for confirming the immunogenicity of acellular pertussis vaccines. We tried to develop a local standard method for evaluating the immunogenicity of the three-component of acellular pertussis vaccines which was developed by a Korean local company. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The developed pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin) were evaluated by in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using 189 negative sera, 25 positive sera, and 73 paired sera (pre- and post-Tdap [tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis] vaccinated sera). ELISA units were calculated by the reference line method, compared with World Health Organization reference sera, and the cut-off value was calculated using negative sera. RESULTS: When compared to National Institute for Biological Standards and Control control antigen (NIBSC) control antigens, the developed pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) antigens were 203.48 and 61.60 IU/µg, respectively. Each in-house ELISA was established by validating the coefficients of variation % (PT, 11.53%; FHA, 8.60%; pertactin [PRN], 9.86%) obtained from the results of inter- and intra-assay variation. Also, the cut-off values of PT, FHA, and PRN were 11.65, 38.95, and 5.66 EU/mL, respectively. The distributions of antibody levels in paired showed that 93.15% (68/73) in anti-PT IgG, 97.26% (72/73) in anti-FHA IgG, and 100% in anti-PRN IgG were higher than a 100% increase after vaccination. Additionally, the values of 89.04% (65/73) in anti-PT IgG, 97.26% (72/73) in anti-FHA IgG, and 100% in anti-PRN IgG were below each cut-off point. CONCLUSION: We established an in-house ELISA method using self-developed antigens, and these immunoassays have provided a way to standardize measuring the immunogenicity of newly developed vaccines, through single- and dual-serology.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutinins , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Methods , Pertussis Toxin , Pertussis Vaccine , Vaccination , Vaccines , Whooping Cough , World Health Organization
8.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 124-131, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Canine influenza virus (CIV), H3N2, carries potentiality for zoonotic transmission and genetic assortment which raises a concern on possible epidemics, and human threats in future. To manage possible threats, the development of rapid and effective methods of CIV vaccine production is required. The plant provides economical, safe, and robust production platform. We investigated whether hemagglutinin (HA) antigen from Korea-originated CIV could be produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce, Lactuca sativa by a DNA viral vector system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DNA sequences of the HA gene from Korean CIV strain influenza A/canine/Korea/S3001/2015 (H3N2) for cloning into a geminiviral expression vectors to express recombinant HA (rHA) antigen in the plant. Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration was performed to introduce HA-carrying vector into host plants cells. Laboratory-grown N. benthamiana, and grocery-purchased or hydroponically-grown lettuce plant leaves were used as host plants. RESULTS: CIV rHA antigen was successfully expressed in host plant species both N. benthamiana and L. sativa by geminiviral vector. Both complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated form of rHA were produced in lettuce, depending on presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. In terms of rHA expression level, canine HA (H3N2) showed preference to the native signal peptide than ER retention signal peptide in the tested geminiviral vector system. CONCLUSION: Grocery-purchased lettuce leaves could serve as an instant host system for the transient expression of influenza antigen at the time of emergency. The geminiviral vector was able to induce expression of complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated rHA in lettuce and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Base Sequence , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , DNA , Emergencies , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hemagglutinins , Influenza, Human , Lactuca , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Leaves , Plants , Protein Sorting Signals , Nicotiana
9.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 161-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786531

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare immunogenicities and reactogenicities of the trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine and split influenza vaccine in Korean children and adolescents.METHODS: In total, 202 healthy children aged 36 months to <18 years were enrolled at six hospitals in Korea from October to December 2008. The subjects were vaccinated with either the split or subunit influenza vaccine. The hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers against the H1N1, H3N2, and B virus strains were measured, and the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and geometric mean titers were calculated. All subjects were observed for local and systemic reactions.RESULTS: Both the split and subunit vaccine groups had similar seroprotection rates against all strains (95.9%, 94.9%, 96.9% vs. 96.0%, 90.9%, and 87.9%). In children aged 36 to <72 months, the seroprotection rates were similar between the two vaccine groups. In children aged 72 months to <18 years, both vaccines showed high seroprotection rates against the H1N1, H3N2, and B strain (98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4% vs. 97.0%, 95.5%, and 91.0%), but showed relatively low seroconversion rates (39.1%, 73.4%, 35.9% vs. 34.3%, 55.2%, and 38.8%). There were more local and systemic reactions in the split vaccine group than in the subunit vaccine group; however, no serious adverse reactions were observed in both groups.CONCLUSIONS: Both the split and subunit vaccines showed acceptable immunogenicity in all age groups. There were no serious adverse events with both vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Hemagglutinins , Herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Seasons , Seroconversion , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
10.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 35-44, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741848

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) among healthy Korean children and adolescents. METHODS: From October to December 2008, 65 healthy patients aged 6 months to 18 years who visited Korea University Ansan Hospital for influenza vaccination were enrolled in this study. We measured the hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers at baseline and 30 days after vaccinating enrollees with split influenza vaccine and calculated the seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers, and seroconversion rates. Local and systemic adverse events were assessed after vaccination. RESULTS: The seroprotection rates against all three viral strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) were 87.7%, 89.2%, and 89.2% (≥70%), respectively; seroconversion rates were 44.6%, 73.8%, and 63.1% (≥40%), respectively; and seroconversion factors were 4.5, 8.4, and 10.5 (>2.5), respectively. The TIV immunogenicity was acceptable according to the CPMP (Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products) criteria. Although 48 patients (73.8%) reported one or more adverse events, no severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis and convulsion were observed. Forty-two patients (64.6%) reported a local skin reaction, including redness (29.2%), pain (43.1%), or swelling (41.5%) of the injected site, and 26 (40.0%) reported a systemic reaction: fatigue (23.1%), myalgia (20.0%), headache (10.8%), arthralgia (10.8%), chills (9.2%), or fever (7.7%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the immunogenicity of the TIV vaccine is acceptable. As there were no serious adverse events aside from local reactions and mild systemic reactions, this vaccine can be safely used among healthy Korean children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Arthralgia , Chills , Fatigue , Fever , Headache , Hemagglutinins , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Myalgia , Seizures , Seroconversion , Skin , Vaccination
11.
The Journal of the Korean Society for Transplantation ; : 84-91, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the outcomes of ABO incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The changes in the immunologic factors that might help predict the long term outcomes were also studied. METHODS: Twenty-three patients, who underwent ABO incompatible LDLT from 2010 to 2015, were reviewed retrospectively. The protocol was the same as for ABO compatible LDLT except for the administration of rituximab and plasma exchange. The clinical outcomes and immunologic factors, such as isoagglutinin titer and cluster of differentiation 20+ (CD20+) lymphocyte levels were reviewed. RESULTS: The center showed a 3-year survival of 64% with no case of antibody-mediated rejection. When transplantation-unrelated mortalities (for example, traffic accidents and myocardial infarction) were removed from statistical analysis, the 3-year survival was 77.8%. Although isoagglutinin titers continued to remain at low levels, the CD20+ lymphocyte levels recovered to the pre-Rituximab levels at postoperative one year. CONCLUSIONS: As donor shortages continue, ABO incompatible liver transplantation is a feasible method to expand the donor pool. On the other hand, caution is still needed until more long-term outcomes are reported. Because CD20+ lymphocytes are recovered with time, more immunologic studies will be needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System , Accidents, Traffic , B-Lymphocytes , Hand , Hemagglutinins , Immunologic Factors , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Lymphocytes , Methods , Mortality , Plasma Exchange , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , Tissue Donors
12.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 61-66, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43943

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nitrocellulose membrane–based filtration system (NCFS) is widely used for protein concentration. In this study, we applied NCFS for production of virus-like particle (VLP) as a vaccine candidate and evaluated yield property and immunogenicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Influenza VLPs were generated by baculovirus-insect cell protein expression system. NCFS and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation were used for purification of VLP. Immunogenicity of VLP was evaluated by animal experiment. RESULTS: Influenza VLPs expressing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins derived from highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N8) were effectively produced and purified by NCFS. HA activity of VLP which correlated with antigenicity was well conserved during multiple purification steps. This NCFS based purified VLPs induced influenza virus–specific antibody responses. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the influenza VLP vaccine could be prepared by NCFS without loss of immunogenicity and elicit antigen-specific immune responses.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Antibody Formation , Baculoviridae , Collodion , Filtration , Hemagglutinins , Influenza, Human , Membranes , Neuraminidase , Orthomyxoviridae , Sucrose , Ultracentrifugation , Vaccines
13.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 299-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115777

ABSTRACT

A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8)-derived recombinant viruses have been used for seasonal flu vaccines; however, they are insufficient for vaccines against some human-fatal H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (HPAIV) due to low productivity. Additionally, the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) protein, an important mammalian-pathogenicity determinant, of PR8 possesses several mammalian-pathogenic mutations. We previously reported two avian PB2 genes (01310 and 0028) related to efficient replication in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and nonpathogenicity in BALB/c mice. In this study, we generated PR8-derived H5N1 recombinant viruses harboring hemagglutinin (attenuated) and neuraminidase genes of a clade 2.3.2.1c H5N1 HPAIV (K10-483), as well as the 01310 or 0028 PB2 genes, and investigated their replication and immunogenicity. Compared with a control virus harboring six internal PR8 genes (rK10-483), the recombinant viruses possessing the 01310 and 0028 PB2 genes showed significantly higher replication efficiency in ECEs and higher antibody titers in chickens. In contrast to rK10-483, none of the viruses replicated in BALB/c mice, and all showed low titers in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Additionally, the recombinant viruses did not induce a neutralization antibody but elicited decreased protective immune responses against K10-483 in mice. Thus, the highly replicative and mammalian nonpathogenic recombinant H5N1 strains might be promising vaccine candidates against HPAI in poultry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chickens , Efficiency , Eggs , Hemagglutinins , Influenza in Birds , Influenza Vaccines , Kidney , Neuraminidase , Ovum , Poultry , Reverse Genetics , Seasons , Vaccines , Virulence
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): 445-449, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912680

ABSTRACT

Canine distemper is one of the major infectious diseases in dogs and wild animals, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The H gene has the greatest genetic variability among the genes encoded by the canine distemper virus (CDV) genome, and it has been used to characterise field samples, allowing the identification of specific lineages. Variation in the H gene can allow the virus to evade recognition by vaccine-induced antibodies, resulting in vaccine failure. The purpose of this study was to characterise H gene in CDV strains from naturally infected dogs in the state of São Paulo. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Brazilian CDV strains were genetically related to the circulating CDV strains in Uruguay, Argentina, and Europe. We found no evidence of South America 2 and 3 CDV lineages circulating in Brazilian dogs. The degree of genetic divergence between wild Brazilian CDV strains and vaccine strains may suggest the possibility of vaccine failures and consequently the occurrence of canine distemper outbreaks.(AU)


A cinomose canina é uma das principais doenças infecciosas em cães e animais selvagens, resultando em alta morbidade e mortalidade. O gene H tem uma das maiores variabilidades genéticas entre os genes codificados pelo vírus da cinomose canina (CDV), e tem sido utilizado para caracterizar as estirpes de CDV, permitindo a identificação de linhagens específicas. A variação no gene H pode permitir que o vírus evite o reconhecimento por anticorpos induzidos pela vacina, resultando em falha vacinal. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o gene H em estirpes de CDV de cães infectados naturalmente no estado de São Paulo. A análise filogenética revelou que as estirpes de CDV brasileiras estão geneticamente relacionadas as estirpes circulantes no Uruguai, na Argentina e na Europa. Não foi encontrada nenhuma evidência da circulação no estado de São Paulo das linhagens América do Sul 2 e 3. O grau de divergência genética entre linhagens selvagens de CDV brasileiras e as estirpes vacinais podem sugerir a possibilidade de falhas vacinais e consequentemente a ocorrência de surtos de cinomose canina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phylogeny , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Brazil
15.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 38(3): 193-198, 2016. tabela, gráfico
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-834154

ABSTRACT

Background: The term dangerous universal blood donor refers to potential agglutination of the erythrocytes of non-O recipients due to plasma of an O blood group donor, which contains high titers of anti-A and/or anti-B hemagglutinins. Thus, prior titration of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins is recommended to prevent transfusion reactions. Objective: The aim ofthis study was to estimate the frequency of dangerous universal donors in the blood bank of Belo Horizonte (Fundac¸ão Central de Imuno-Hematologia ­ Fundac¸ão Hemominas ­ Minas Gerais) by determining the titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in O blood group donors. Method: A total of 400 O blood group donors were randomly selected, from March 2014 to January 2015. The titers of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins (IgM and IgG classes) were obtained using the tube titration technique. Dangerous donors were those whose titers of anti-A or anti-B IgM were ≥128 and/or the titers of anti-A or anti-B IgG were ≥256. Donors were characterized according to gender, age and ethnicity. The hemagglutinins were characterized by specificity (anti-A and anti-B) and antibody class (IgG and IgM). Results: Almost one-third (30.5%) of the O blood group donors were universal dangerous. The frequency among women was higher than that of men (p-value = 0.019; odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.08­2.56) and among young donors (18­29 years old) it was higher than for donors between 49 and 59 years old (p-value = 0.015; odds ratio: 3.05; 95% confi- dence interval: 1.22­7.69). There was no significant association between dangerous universal donors and ethnicity, agglutinin specificity or antibody class. Conclusion: Especially platelet concentrates obtained by apheresis (that contain a substantial volume of plasma), coming from dangerous universal donors should be transfused in isogroup recipients whenever possible in order to prevent the occurrence of transfusion reactions


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Hemotherapy Service , Transfusion Reaction , Hemagglutinins
16.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2016; 22 (7): 548-552
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-181512

ABSTRACT

A novel strain of influenza A virus H1N1 surfaced in Mexico in April 2009 and quickly spread across the globe, turning an epidemic into a pandemic. Within two months, the World Health Organization [WHO] declared an international health emergency and raised the threat bar from level V to level VI, i.e. containment to mitigation. During this time, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean worked closely with its Member States, other stakeholders and WHO headquarters to manage the situation. This report examines the steps taken as part of this response. Programme documents were reviewed and key personnel interviewed for this study. A hallmark of the response was the establishment of the Strategic Health Operations Centre to bring together experts from different technical backgrounds at regional level. Several lessons were learnt that can provide the basis for standard operating procedures, protocols and guidelines for emergency events in future


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hemagglutinins/genetics , World Health Organization/organization & administration
17.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 299-306, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148740

ABSTRACT

Nineteen highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from wild birds in the Donglim reservoir in Gochang, Jeonbuk province, Korea, which was first reported to be an outbreak site on January 17, 2014. Most genes from the nineteen viruses shared high nucleotide sequence identities (i.e., 99.7% to 100%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were reassortants of the HPAI H5 subtype and the H4N2 strain and that their hemagglutinin clade was 2.3.4.4, which originated from Eastern China. The hemagglutinin protein contained Q222 and G224 at the receptor-binding site. Although the neuraminidase protein contained I314V and the matrix 2 protein contained an S31N substitution, other mutations resulting in oseltamivir and amantadine resistance were not detected. No substitutions associated with increased virulence and enhanced transmission in mammals were detected in the polymerase basic protein 2 (627E and 701D). Non-structural-1 was 237 amino acids long and had an ESEV motif with additional RGNKMAD amino acids in the C terminal region. These viruses caused deaths in the Baikal teal, which was unusual, and outbreaks occurred at the same time in both poultry and wild birds. These data are helpful for epidemiological understanding of HPAI and the design of prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amantadine , Amino Acids , Base Sequence , Birds , China , Disease Outbreaks , Hemagglutinins , Influenza in Birds , Korea , Mammals , Neuraminidase , Oseltamivir , Poultry , Virulence
18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 461-469, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99320

ABSTRACT

Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Cytoskeletal structures of Giardia trophozoites must be finely reorganized during cell division. To identify Giardia proteins which interact with microtubules (MTs), Giardia lysates were incubated with in vitro-polymerized MTs and then precipitated by ultracentifugation. A hypothetical protein (GL50803_8405) was identified in the precipitated fraction with polymerized MTs and was named GlMBP1 (G. lamblia microtubule-binding protein 1). Interaction of GlMBP1 with MTs was confirmed by MT binding assays using recombinant GlMBP1 (rGlMBP1). In vivo expression of GlMBP1 was shown by a real-time PCR and western blot analysis using anti-rGlMBP1 antibodies. Transgenic G. lamblia trophozoites were constructed by integrating a chimeric gene encoding hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged GlMBP1 into a Giardia chromosome. Immunofluorescence assays of this transgenic G. lamblia, using anti-HA antibodies, revealed that GlMBP1 mainly localized at the basal bodies, axonemes, and median bodies of G. lamblia trophozoites. This result indicates that GlMBP1 is a component of the G. lamblia cytoskeleton.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies , Axoneme , Basal Bodies , Blotting, Western , Cell Division , Cytoskeleton , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Hemagglutinins , Microtubules , Polymers , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trophozoites
19.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 70-73, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187849

ABSTRACT

In late March of 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico, was eventually identified as H1N1 influenza A. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised a pandemic alert to the highest level. More than 214 countries have reported confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza A. In Korea, the first case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection was reported on May 2, 2009. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 750,000 cases of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 were confirmed by laboratory test. The H1N1-related death toll was estimated to reach 252 individuals. Almost one billion cases of influenza occurs globally every year, resulting in 300,000 to 500,000 deaths. Influenza vaccination induces virus-neutralizing antibodies, mainly against hemagglutinin, which provide protection from invading virus. New quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine generates similar immune responses against the three influenza strains contained in two types of trivalent vaccines and superior responses against the additional B strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Hemagglutinins , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mexico , Pandemics , Vaccination , Vaccines , World Health Organization
20.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 22(1): 9-11, 2015. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-987725

ABSTRACT

The ability of plant agglutinins to distinguish between erythrocytes of different blood types led Boyd and Shapleigh (1954) to propose for them the name lectins, from the Latin "legere", to pick out or choose [1]. This term was later generalized to embrace all sugar-specific agglutinins of non-immune origin, irrespective of source and blood type specificity [2]. It was toward the end of the 19th century that evidence first started to accumulate for the presence in nature of proteins possessing the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes. Such proteins were referred to as hemagglutinins, or phytoagglutinins, because they were originally found in extracts of plants…


Subject(s)
Humans , Lectins , Agglutinins , Erythrocytes , Hemagglutinins
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