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Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(1): 20-29, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286455


Resumen En 2005 se publicaron recomendaciones para la tipificación de hemopatías malignas en Latinoamérica. Se consideró necesario realizar una reunión nacional para actualizarlas. Se convocaron y reunieron 95 profesionales expertos en el tema para analizar y contrastar alternativas y llegar a un consenso. Se alcanzaron opiniones de consenso en lo relativo a indicaciones, tipos y manejo de muestras, anticuerpos, nomenclatura e informe de resultados para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las leucemias agudas. Las recomendaciones se describen en este artículo y se hace hincapié en la necesidad de que los laboratorios nacionales se apeguen a ellas.

Abstract Recommendations for the typing of hematological malignancies in Latin America were published in 2005. Carrying out a national meeting to update them was deemed necessary. 95 professional experts on the subject were invited in order to analyze and contrast alternatives and reach a consensus. Consensus opinions were reached regarding indications, sample types and processing, antibodies, nomenclature and reporting of results for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute leukemias. This paper describes the recommendations and emphasizes on the need for national laboratories to adhere to them.

Humans , Leukemia/diagnosis , Immunophenotyping/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Leukemia/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Guideline Adherence , Laboratories/standards , Latin America
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(9): 764-770, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896406


Summary Objective: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major challenge in the management of immunocompromised patients. Despite all the advances in diagnosis, it remains a problem. The purpose of our study was to investigate the risk factors associated with IPA seen in patients with hematological malignancies. Method: A total of 152 febrile neutropenia (FEN) patients with hematological malignancies aged over 18 years and receiving high-dose chemotherapy or stem cell transplant between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012 were included in the study. Sixty-five (65) cases with IPA according to the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group criteria were enrolled as the case group, while 87 patients without IPA development during concomitant monitoring were enrolled as the control group. Incidence of IPA was 21.4% (3/14) in patients receiving bone marrow transplant (allogeneic 2, autologous 1) and those cases were also added into the case group. The two groups were compared in terms of demographic, clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors associated with IPA investigated retrospectively. Results: Presence of relapse of primary disease, neutropenia for more than 3 weeks, presence of bacterial infection, and non-administration of antifungal prophylaxis were identified as risk factors associated with IPA. Conclusion: It may be possible to reduce the incidence of the disease by eliminating preventable risk factors. Predicting those risks would, per se, enable early diagnosis and treatment and, thus, the mortality rate of these patients would unquestionably decline.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Febrile Neutropenia/complications , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/immunology , Febrile Neutropenia/immunology , Middle Aged
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(3): 175-179, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787352


ABSTRACT Background Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and also detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) -DNA, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). HBV reactivation in individuals under immunosuppressive therapy is critical, occurring in occult HBV. Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen negative in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy. Methods Sera from 204 cancer patients who were negative for HBsAg, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc also examined for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Of the 204 HBsAg negative blood samples, 11 (5.4%) samples were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 9/11 (81%) of anti-HBc positive samples. Occult HBV infection in hematological cancers was more than solid cancers, 4.8% and 4.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in HBc antibody positivity based on vaccination, previous blood transfusions, history of familial hepatitis or biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin levels) (P>0.05). Conclusion Screening of occult HBV infection by HBsAg, HBV DNA and anti HB core antibody should be suggested as a routine investigation in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy.

RESUMO Contexto A infecção oculta da hepatite B caracteriza-se por antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (AgHBs) negativo com vírus detectável da hepatite B (HBV) -DNA, com ou sem anticorpo de núcleo da hepatite B (anti-HBc). A reativação do HBV em indivíduos sob terapia imunossupressora é crítica, originando a infecção oculta pelo VHB. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de infecção oculta pelo VHB entre em pacientes com câncer e com antígeno de superfície da hepatite B negativo antes de receber quimioterapia. Métodos Soro de 204 pacientes com câncer que foram negativos para AgHBs, foram testados para anticorpos anti-HBc. As amostras que foram negativos para AgHBs, mas positivo para anti-HBc foram também examinadas para HBV-DNA, por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados Entre 204 amostras de sangue AgHBs negativas, 11 (5,4%) foram positivos para anticorpos anti-HBc. HBV-DNA foi detectado em 9/11 (81%) das amostras positivas de anti-HBc. Infecção oculta de VHB em câncer hematológico foi maior que em cânceres sólidos, 4,8% e 4,3% respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa na positividade anti-HBc, com base na vacinação, transfusões de sangue anteriores, história de hepatite familiar ou parâmetros bioquímicos (ALT, AST, total e níveis de bilirrubina total) (P & gt; 0,05). Conclusão A triagem de infecção oculta por AgHBs, HBV-DNA e anti-anticorpo de núcleo HB deve ser sugerida como uma investigação de rotina em pacientes com câncer antes de receber a quimioterapia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2005; 15 (1): 30-33
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-71436


To assess magnitude of tuberculosis [TB] in patients suffering from various haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant [SCT] recipients. Descriptive study. Oncology Department, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, and Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, from July 2001 to December 2002. Patients suffering from various haematological malignancies treated between July 2001 and December 2002 were included in the study. The hospital records and out-patient follow-up charts were reviewed for demographic information, diagnosis, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological and pathological examinations, sites involved in TB, methods of diagnosis, number and type of anti-tuberculosis drugs given and response to treatment. During the study period a total of 213 [including 25 allogeneic stem cell transplant [SCT] recipients] patients with different haematological disorders were treated. Out of these, 34, including 4 SCT recipients developed tuberculosis. Overall frequency of TB was 16%. Median age of TB patients was 33.5 years [range 8-80 years]. Median time between diagnosis of haematological disorders and tuberculosis was 21 weeks. Sites of involvement by TB were lung [18], disseminated [6], lymph node [5], pleura [2], spine [2] and pericardium [1]. Three of the patients died of TB; one undiagnosed, second with multi-drug resistant TB and the third soon after the start of anti-tuberculosis treatment while remaining 31 cases responded to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Tuberculosis is a major problem in immunocompromised patients and there is need to establish guidelines for TB chemoprophylaxis in our setup

Humans , Male , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Immunocompromised Host , Opportunistic Infections , Stem Cell Transplantation
Rev. méd. Chile ; 125(11): 1305-12, nov. 1997. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-210349


Background: Refractoriness continues to he a major complication of platelet transfusion therapy in patients with multiple transfusions: Despite most cases are secondary to non-immune causes, the most serious is that associated to alloimmunization. The incidence and consequences of HLA and non-HLA (platelet specific) antibodies are unknown in our country. Aim: To prospectively determinate the frequency and characteristic of post transfusion alloimmunization and the incidence of platelet specific antibodies. Patients and methods: Forty one adults and 24 children with a recently diagnosed malignancy and undergoing chemotherapy that required multiple transfusions were studied. Screening for antiplatelet antibodies (platelet membrane ELISA) was performed before the first transfusion, every four weeks or whenever the 1 hour corrected count increment for platelet transfusions was lower that 5000. Platelet specific antibodies werw identified with a monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA), with anti-GPIIb, GPIIb/IIIa, GPIa/lia and anti-HLA class I. Results: Adult patients received an averafge of 10.2 ñ 5.5 units of red blood cells and 58.6 ñ 35.4 units of platelets. Children received 4.8 ñ 3.7 units of red blood cells and 9.6 ñ 6.7 units of platelets. HLA antibodies appeared in 7 of 41 adult patients (17 percent), platelet specific alloantibodies were found in two patients (one anti GP Ia/IIa and one anti GP ib). Platelet refractoriness appeared in three alloimmunized patients. No Child had detectable serum antibodies during follow up. Conclusions: Platel transfusion refractoriness of immune origin occurs infrequently in our population and the presence of platelet antibodies does not mean that it will appear. The use of leukocyte depleted blood components to prevent refractoriness cannot be justified at this time

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Isoantibodies/isolation & purification , Platelet Transfusion/adverse effects , Anemia, Refractory/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 30(5): 355-357, set.-out. 1997. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-464362


Immunocompromised individuals infected with Strongyloides stercoralis may develop severe hyperinfection or disseminated disease with high mortality. Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk because of immunodepression produced either by the disease or its treatment. A prospective study was undertaken at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from July 1994 to July 1995. Seventy-two (HIV negative), had 3 stool samples collected at different days and had not received recent anthelmintic therapy. Larvae, isolated in a modified Baermann method, were found in 6 patients, with a resultant prevalence of 8.3%. No complicated strongyloidosis was documented. The positive result for S. stercoralis larvae was significantly associated (p < 0.001) with eosinophilia. Knowledge of prevalence figures and incidence of severe disease is important to adequate guidelines for empirical treatment besides the rigorous search for strongyloidosis in patients with hematological malignancies.

Indivíduos imunocomprometidos infectados com Strongyloides stercoralis podem desenvolver quadros severos de hiperinfecção ou doença disseminada com elevada mortalidade. Pacientes portadores de neoplasias hematológicas tem imunodepressão causada pela doença básica ou pelo seu tratamento. Um estudo prospectivo foi desenvolvido no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, entre julho 1994 e julho de 1995. Setenta e dois pacientes (HIV negativos), tiveram 3 amostras de fezes coletadas em diferentes dias e não tinham recebido medicação antihelmíntica recentemente. Larvas, isoladas por método de Baermann modificado, foram encontradas em 6 pacientes, resultando em prevalência de 8,3%. Não foi documentado nenhum episódio de estrongiloidose complicada. O resultado positivo para pesquisa de S. stercoralis estava significativamente associado (p < 0,001) com eosinofilia. O conhecimento das taxas de prevalência e incidência de doença grave é importante para adequar as recomendações para tratamento empírico além da rigorosa pesquisa da estrongiloidose nos pacientes com neoplasias hematológicas.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child, Preschool , Child , Male , Middle Aged , Humans , Female , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Hematologic Neoplasms/parasitology , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Feces/parasitology , Immunocompromised Host , Larva , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Prospective Studies , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification