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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6450, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the feasibility of FGFR3 tests in the Brazilian public health context, and to sample the mutational burden of this receptor in high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods A total of 31 patients with high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer were included in the present study. Either transurethral resection of bladder tumor or radical cystectomy specimens were analyzed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned, hematoxylin and eosin stained, and histologic sections were reviewed. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy DSP formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kit. Qualitative results were displayed in Rotor-Gene AssayManager software. Results Six patients were excluded. From the samples analyzed, four (16.7%) were considered inadequate and could not have their RNA extracted. Two patients presented FGFR3 mutations, accounting for 9.5% of material available for adequate analysis. The two mutations detected included a Y373C mutation in a male patient and a S249C mutation in a female patient. Conclusion FGFR3 mutations could be analyzed in 84% of our cohort and occurred in 9.5% of patients with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer in this Brazilian population. FGFR3 gene mutations are targets for therapeutic drugs in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For this reason, know the frequency of these mutations can have a significant impact on public health policies and costs provisioning.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/genetics , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/metabolism , Brazil , RNA , Prevalence , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Muscles/metabolism , Muscles/pathology , Mutation
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 271-274, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the anterior lens capsule specimens from both eyes of a patient with systemic sclerosis and compare them to the eyes of a control patient. No significant differences between systemic sclerosis and control eyes were observed in the results from the hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius staining. In the samples obtained from both systemic sclerosis and control eyes, there were expressions of caspase, a molecule expressed in cell death by apoptosis. Heparanase was overexpressed in the systemic sclerosis sample compared to the control sample. Therefore, the anterior lens capsule of the patient with systemic sclerosis is probably affected by the disease since it showed marked expression of heparanase 1.(AU)


RESUMO Analisamos as amostras das cápsulas anteriores do cristalino de uma paciente com esclerose sistêmica e comparamos com as de um paciente controle. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre esclerose sistêmica e controle nos resultados da coloração com hematoxilina-eosina e picrosirius. Nas amostras obtidas da esclerose sistêmica e do controle, obtivemos expressão de caspase, uma molécula expressa na morte celular por apoptose. A heparinase foi expressa de forma mais marcante na amostra de esclerose sistêmica quando comparada ao controle. Portanto, a cápsula anterior do cristalino da paciente com esclerose sistêmica provavelmente foi afetada pela doença, uma vez que mostrou expressão aumentada de heparinase 1.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Scleroderma, Systemic/physiopathology , Heparin Lyase/administration & dosage , Hematoxylin , Lens Capsule, Crystalline/anatomy & histology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06927, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340346

ABSTRACT

Histopathology is an old science that is still currently utilized for disease diagnosis and research. The routinely processed histologic slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin are still used worldwide in most if not every histopathology laboratory. The technique is inexpensive, quick to perform, and allows the diagnosis of a fantastic variety of tissue changes and diseases. Skills in description and interpretation in histopathology are a craft that can be learned by repeatedly and systematically observing simple rules. In this article, we offer a few advices to help trainees in veterinary pathology at the start of their careers. Those advices are drawn from our experience in the diagnostic pathology routine and from the veterinary pathology literature. To enhance the understanding of these important steps in the histopathologic description of tissues, we decided to illustrate most concepts expressed here. We hope that our effort can add a bit to the development of future pathologists. Just like Alice, let us follow the White Rabbit into his burrow for this challenging experience!(AU)


A histopatologia é uma ciência antiga, mas ainda usada para diagnosticar e investigar a patogênese de doenças. As lâminas histológicas processadas rotineiramente e coradas por hematoxilina e eosina ainda são utilizadas em virtualmente todos os laboratórios de histopatologia do mundo. A técnica não é cara, é de execução rápida e permite o diagnóstico de uma fantástica variedade de doenças. As habilidades em descrever e interpretar os achados histopatológicos é um ofício que pode ser aprendido pela observação repetida e sistemática de regras simples. Para ajudar os estudantes de patologia no início de suas carreiras, abordamos aqui algumas dessas regras, extraídas tanto de nossa experiência quanto da literatura relacionada à patologia veterinária. Para aumentar a compreensão dos tópicos, decidimos ilustrar praticamente todos os conceitos expressados neste manuscrito. Esperamos que nosso esforço possa contribuir um pouco para o desenvolvimento de aspirantes a patologistas. Assim como Alice no País das Maravilhas, vamos seguir o coelho branco até a sua toca para essa aventura desafiadora.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Pathogenesis, Homeopathic , Hematoxylin
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 778-782, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The present paper aims to evaluate and compare the histological features of fresh and frozen menisci stored in a tissue bank for 1 month and for 5 years. Methods The meniscal grafts were subjected to a histological study. A total of 10 menisci were evaluated; 2 were frozen for 5 years, 4 were frozen for 1 month, and 4 were fresh, recently harvested specimens. Histological properties were evaluated in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome methods. Results The menisci frozen for 1 month showed partially preserved collagen fiber structure and no significant hydropic tissue degeneration. The menisci frozen for 5 years presented an evident dissociation of collagen fibers and multiple foci of hydropic degeneration. Discussion Degeneration was much more significant in menisci stored for 5 years, indicating that a long freezing period results in substantial progression of tissue deterioration. This may suggest that the 5-year period, considered the maximum time for graft storage before transplant, is too long. Conclusion Grafts stored for 1 month showed a slight degenerative change in collagen fibers, whereas menisci frozen for 5 years presented significant tissue degeneration.


Resumo Objetivos Avaliar e comparar as características histológicas de meniscos frescos e meniscos congelados armazenados em banco de tecidos por 1 mês e por 5 anos. Métodos Foi feito um estudo histológico com enxertos meniscais. Avaliamos 10 meniscos, sendo 2 que ficaram armazenados sob congelamento por 5 anos, 4 armazenados congelados por 1 mês, e 4 frescos, recém captados. Foram feitos cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina e eosina e Tricrômico de Masson, para avaliação das propriedades histológicas. Resultados Os meniscos congelados por 1 mês apresentaram preservação parcial da estrutura das fibras colágenas, sem degeneração hidrópica significativa do tecido. Nos meniscos congelados por 5 anos, observamos dissociação evidente das fibras colágenas, com presença de múltiplos focos de degeneração hidrópica. Discussão Encontramos degeneração bem mais significativa nos meniscos armazenados por 5 anos, o que indica que o longo período de congelamento leva à progressão significativa da degeneração do tecido. Isto pode sugerir que o período de 5 anos, considerado período máximo que o enxerto pode permanecer armazenado antes de ser transplantado, é um período muito longo. Conclusão Nos enxertos armazenados por 1 mês, existiu apenas discreta alteração degenerativa das fibras colágenas, enquanto que nos meniscos com 5 anos de congelamento foi observada degeneração significativa do tecido. Tibiais


Subject(s)
Tissue Banks , Wounds, Penetrating , Collagen , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Transplants , Meniscus , Freezing , Goals , Hematoxylin
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e640, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138936

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La microscopía holográfica digital ha permitido a la microscopía óptica hacer uso de herramientas numéricas y computacionales; y esto, a su vez, ha favorecido múltiples avances en el estudio de las células y los tejidos en diferentes campos de la medicina y otras ciencias afines. Objetivo: Describir las características histológicas y morfométricas de los folículos tiroideos humanos con la microscopía holográfica digital. Métodos: Se realizó, desde el punto de vista histomorfométrico, un estudio descriptivo y transversal de folículos tiroideos humanos utilizando una instalación de microscopía holográfica digital. Se empleó la técnica de inclusión en parafina y tinción de hematoxilina-eosina para el procesamiento de las muestras. Se realizaron de 10 a 12 capturas de hologramas por muestra y el método de doble propagación para la reconstrucción de los hologramas. Se calculó el área, el perímetro, el diámetro mayor y menor de los folículos y cavidades foliculares y se realizaron reconstrucciones de imágenes holográficas en tres dimensiones. Se determinó como medida de tendencia central la media aritmética y como medida de dispersión la desviación típica o estándar. Resultados: Parámetros foliculares: área (5140,31 ± 1126,71 µm2); perímetro (2961,54 ± 71,2 µm); diámetro mayor:(921,17 ± 24,34 µm); diámetro menor: (746,67 ± 18,08 µm); altura del epitelio (7,92 ± 0,96). Cavidades foliculares: área (3686,18 ±1023,52 µm2); diámetro mayor: (698,86 ± 19,55 µm) y diámetro menor: (581,15 ± 13,82 µm). Conclusiones: Existen parámetros foliculares, determinados mediante la microscopía holográfica digital, no reportados por la literatura consultada, que resultan de interés en el estudio histológico de los folículos tiroideos humanos(AU)


Introduction: Digital holographic microscopy has made it possible to incorporate the use of numerical and computer tools into optical microscopy. This in turn has led to great progress in the study of cells and tissues in several fields of medicine and related sciences. Objective: Describe the histological and morphometric characteristics of human thyroid follicles using digital holographic microscopy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional histomorphometric study was conducted of human thyroid follicles using a digital holographic microscopy facility. Sample processing was based on inclusion technique by paraffin and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Ten to twelve holographic captures were made per sample, and the double propagation method was used for holographic reconstruction. Estimation was carried out of the area, perimeter, and greatest and smallest diameter of follicles and follicular cavities, and tri-dimensional reconstructions were made of holographic images. Arithmetic mean was determined as the measure of central tendency, and typical or standard deviation as the measure of dispersion. Results: Follicular parameters: area (5 140.31 ± 1 126.71 µm2); perimeter (2 961.54 ± 71.2 µm); greatest diameter (921.17 ± 24.34 µm); smallest diameter (746.67 ± 18.08 µm); epithelial height (7.92 ± 0.96). Follicular cavities: area (3 686.18 ± 1 023.52 µm2); greatest diameter (698.86 ± 19.55 µm); smallest diameter (581.15 ± 13.82 µm). Conclusions: A number of follicular parameters determined by digital holographic microscopy have not been reported by the literature consulted, and they are of interest to the histological study of human thyroid follicles(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Computers , Holography/methods , Hematoxylin/therapeutic use , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the treatment conditions of acid decalcified specimens and improve the poor quality of sections and unclear structure of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining caused by the change in pH in tooth and hard tissue after acid decalcification.@*METHODS@#A total of 20 cases of oral pathological specimens that contain hard tissues were decalcified and treated with routine treatment, concentrated ammonia water immersion treatment, and saturated lithium carbonate solution immersion treatment. The quality and HE staining effects of hard tissue sections treated with different methods were compared.@*RESULTS@#Compared with routine treatment, lithium carbonate saturated solution treatment showed complete sections. Hematoxylin is strongly stained, the nucleus is clear, and the cytoplasm is bright.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Soaking acid decalcified specimens in lithium carbonate saturated solution before embedding in dehydration can neutralize the acidic environment of the tissue. The quality of sections and HE staining effect are improved and are suitable for the pretreatment of acid decalcified tissue samples of oral pathology.


Subject(s)
Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Staining and Labeling , Tooth
7.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 10(1): 24-36, 2020. ilus, ilus, graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123490

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: establecer el tipo de patología más frecuente asociada a terceros molares incluidos extraídos en las clínicas de cirugía oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y la frecuencia de aparición de quistes dentígeros, rango de edad, sexo y la región anatómica en que predominan. Métodos: se revisaron 17 sacos foliculares de 11 pacientes atendidos en las clínicas de cirugía oral, entre agos-to del 2018 y febrero de 2019. Resultados: se recolectaron 7 biopsias de 5 pacientes masculinos y 10 de 7 pacientes femeninos, con edades comprendidas entre los 17 a 24 años (media: 20.40), se realizó estudio histopatológico con hematoxilina-eosina, cuyos datos obtenidos se analizaron para determinar frecuencia, edad, sexo y patología aso-ciada. Se encontraron 15 casos que mostraron cambios quísticos diagnosticados como quistes dentígeros y 2 casos diagnosticados como saco folicular. Conclusiones: aunque la muestra es pequeña, este estudio da indicios que los sacos foliculares asociados a terceros molares incluídos están altamente implicados en la formación de quistes dentígeros.


Objective: To establish the most frequent type of pathology associated to retained third molars extracted in the oral surgery clinics of the Dentistry School at Universidad Nacional de Colombia and the frequency of appearance of dentigerous cysts, age, sex and the anatomical region in which they predominate. Methods: A series of 17 follicular sacs were evaluated out of a total of 11 patients attended in the oral surgery clinics between August 2018 and February 2019. Results: Seven biopsies were collected from 5 male patients and ten from seven female patients aged between 17 and 24 years (mean: 20.40), histopathological study was performed with hematoxylin-eosin, the data obtained was analyzed to determine frequency, age, sex and associated pathology. It where found 15 cases that showed cystic changes diagnosed as dentigerous cysts and two cases diagnosed as follicular sac. Conclusions: Although the sample is small, this study gives indications that follicular sacs associated with retained third molars may be highly involved in the formation of dentigerous cysts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Impacted , Dentigerous Cyst , Pathology , Follicular Cyst , Diagnosis , Hematoxylin , Molar, Third
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 1-7, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115595

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las técnicas empleadas para la detección del Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) son no invasivas e invasivas. En estas últimas, la presencia del H. pylori se determina a partir de la tinción de hematoxilina-eosina (HE), prueba rutinaria, mientras que en pocas ocasiones se aplica la tinción de Warthin-Starry (WS) como coloración especial. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de H. pylori por medio de la coloración especial de la WS en biopsias de pacientes con gastritis crónica folicular, previamente negativas en la tinción HE. Materiales y métodos: se desarrolló un estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal, en un período de 12 meses. Se tomaron los bloques de parafina de las muestras de la mucosa gástrica de pacientes con diagnóstico de gastritis crónica e hiperplasia folicular. Además, se extrajo un corte histológico del mismo bloque, al cual se le aplicó HE y se determinó la presencia o ausencia de H. pylori. Así, de estar ausente, se tomó del mismo bloque un corte adicional y se aplicó WS. Esto se evaluó con el fin de identificar la existencia o no del bacilo. Resultados: se recolectaron 314 muestras; 209 fueron negativas y 105 fueron positivas para HE. El 45 % (94) de estas muestras fueron positivas respecto a la presencia del bacilo, al aplicar la segunda coloración, y el 55 % (115) de las muestras persistieron negativas. Conclusión: el hallazgo de H. pylori es significativamente alto al aplicar la coloración de WS a muestras cuyo estudio histológico evidenció la ausencia del bacilo en biopsias de la mucosa gástrica, especialmente en muestras con escasa cantidad de bacterias.


Abstract Non-invasive and invasive techniques can be used for detection of Helicobacter pylori. An invasive technique identifies the bacteria through routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. Warthin-Starry stain is rarely used. Objective: Our objective was to identify H. pylori by Warthin-Starry staining of patient's biopsies with chronic follicular gastritis who had previously tested negative in hematoxylin-eosin staining. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional descriptive study that was carried out over a period of 12 months. The study examined paraffin blocks of samples taken from the gastric mucosa of patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and follicular hyperplasia. A histological section was extracted from a block and tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining for the presence or absence of H. pylori. If absent, an additional cut was taken from the same block and Warthin-Starry staining was used to retest for the presence of the bacteria. Results: Of the 314 samples collected, 209 tested negative, and 105 tested positive for H. pylori when hematoxylin-eosin staining was used. Of the 209 negative samples, 45% (94) tested positive when Warthin Starry stain was used, and 55% (115) still tested negative. Conclusion: Findings of H. pylori are significantly higher when Warthin Starry stain was used to test samples whose previous histological study had evidenced an absence of the bacillus, especially in samples with a small amount of bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Helicobacter pylori , Gastritis , Hematoxylin , Hyperplasia , Bacteria , Gastric Mucosa
9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(6): 692-696, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present work aimed to evaluate the systemic effect of H. speciosa latex on bone neoformation. Methods For this, the latex was collected and diluted to 3% and 50%. A total of 28 Wistar rats were submitted to surgery to create a 5 mm diameter defect in the parietal bone. This experiment was conducted in 2 different periods: 1 and 2. For each period, the rats were divided into 3 groups: Control Group, Latex3 Group, and Latex50 Group, which received, respectively, daily administrations of 0.5 mL of distilled water, latex to 3% and latex to 50% by gavage, orally. The rats of periods 1 and 2 were euthanized, respectively, 15 and 30 days after the surgery, and the calvaria was collected. The results were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey tests; the significance level was 0.05. Results We show that, in each analyzed period, the experimental groups had the same amount of newly formed bone in the calvaria defect. Conclusion We conclude that daily and oral administrations of H. speciosa latex to 3% and to 50% over a period of 15 and 30 days does not contribute to the increase of the area of the newly formed bone in the calvaria defect.


Resumo Objetivo Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito sistêmico do látex de H. speciosas obre a neoformação óssea. Métodos Para isso, o látex foi coletado e diluído a 3% e a 50%. Um total de 28 ratos Wistar foi submetido a cirurgia para a criação de um defeito de 5 mm de diâmetro no osso parietal. Esse experimento foi conduzido em dois períodos distintos: 1 e 2. Para cada período, os ratos foram divididos em 3 grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Látex3 e Grupo Látex50 que receberam, respectivamente, administrações diárias de 0,5 mL de água destilada, látex a 3% e látex a 50% por gavagem, via oral. Os ratos dos períodos 1 e 2 foram eutanasiados, respectivamente, 15 e 30 dias após a cirurgia e a calvária foi coletada. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando os testes ANOVA e Tukey; o nível de significância estabelecido foi 0,05. Resultados Mostramos que, em cada período analisado, os grupos experimentais tiveram a mesma quantidade de osso neoformado no defeito da calvária. Conclusão Portanto, concluímos que administrações diárias e orais do látex de H. speciosa a 3% e a 50% durante um período de 15 e 30 dias não contribui para o aumento da área do osso neoformado no defeito da calvária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones , Complementary Therapies , Administration, Oral , Apocynaceae , Hematoxylin , Histology , Latex
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field which attracted much attention in recent years. One of the most important issue in tissue engineering is how to obtain high cell numbers and tissue regeneration while maintaining appropriate cellular characteristics in vitro for restoring damaged or dysfunctional body tissues and organs. These demands can be achieved by the use of three dimensional (3D) dynamic cultures of cells combined with cell-adhesive micro-carriers. METHODS: In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured in a wave-bioreactor system for up to 100 days, after seeding on Cultisphere-S porous gelatin micro-carriers. Cell counting was performed at the time points of 7, 12, 17, 31 days and compared to those of hMSCs cultured under static condition. Higher growth and proliferation rates was achieved in wave-type dynamic culture, when cell culture continued to day 31. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs, both live and dead and MTT assays were taken to confirm the survival and distribution of cells on porous gelatin micro-carrier surfaces. The results of histological stains such as hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Alcian blue and Alizarin red S also showed improved proliferation and tissue regeneration of hMSCs on porous gelatin micro-carriers. CONCLUSION: The experimental results demonstrated the effect and importance of both micro-carriers and bioreactor in hMSC expansion on cell proliferation and migration as well as extracellular matrix formation on the superficial and pore surfaces of the porous gelatin micro-carriers, and then their inter-connections, leading to tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Alcian Blue , Bioreactors , Cell Count , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Proliferation , Coloring Agents , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Extracellular Matrix , Gelatin , Hematoxylin , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Regeneration , Tissue Engineering
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742383

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage damage is still a troublesome problem. Hence, several researches have been performed for cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chondrogenicity of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds under cyclic hydrostatic pressure (CHP) in vitro. METHODS: In this study, CHP was applied to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) seeded on DBM scaffolds at a pressure of 5 MPa with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and 4 h per day for 1 week. Changes in chondrogenic and osteogenic gene expressions were analyzed by quantifying mRNA signal level of Sox9, collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan (ACAN), Osteocalcin, and Runx2. Histological analysis was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin, and Alcian blue staining. Moreover, DMMB and immunofluorescence staining were used for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II detection, respectively. RESULTS: Real-time PCR demonstrated that applying CHP to hBMSCs in DBM scaffolds increased mRNA levels by 1.3-fold, 1.2-fold, and 1.7-fold (p < 0.005) for Sox9, Col2, and ACAN, respectively by day 21, whereas it decreased mRNA levels by 0.7-fold and 0.8-fold (p < 0.05) for Runx2 and osteocalcin, respectively. Additionally, in the presence of TGF-β1 growth factor (10 ng/ml), CHP further increased mRNA levels for the mentioned genes (Sox9, Col2, and ACAN) by 1.4-fold, 1.3-fold and 2.5-fold (p < 0.005), respectively. Furthermore, in histological assessment, it was observed that the extracellular matrix contained GAG and type II collagen in scaffolds under CHP and CHP with TGF-β1, respectively. CONCLUSION: The osteo-inductive DBM scaffolds showed chondrogenic characteristics under hydrostatic pressure. Our study can be a fundamental study for the use of DBM in articular cartilage defects in vivo and lead to production of novel scaffolds with two different characteristics to regenerate both bone and cartilage simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Aggrecans , Alcian Blue , Bone Marrow , Bone Matrix , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Collagen Type I , Collagen Type II , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Extracellular Matrix , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression , Hematoxylin , Humans , Hydrostatic Pressure , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteocalcin , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To achieve pulp-dentin complex regeneration with tissue engineering, treatment efficacies and safeties should be evaluated using in vivo orthotopic transplantation in a sufficient number of animals. Mice have been a species of choice in which to study stem cell biology in mammals. However, most pulp-dentin complex regeneration studies have used large animals because the mouse tooth is too small. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of the mouse tooth as a transplantation model for pulp-dentin complex regeneration research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed using 7-week-old male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice; a total of 35 mice had their pulp exposed, and 5 mice each were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days after pulp exposure. After decalcification in 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the samples were embedded and cut with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Slides were observed under a high-magnification light microscope. RESULTS: Until 1 week postoperatively, the tissue below the pulp chamber orifice appeared normal. The remaining coronal portion of the pulp tissue was inflammatory and necrotic. After 1 week postoperatively, inflammation and necrosis were apparent in the root canals inferior to the orifices. The specimens obtained after experimental day 14 showed necrosis of all tissue in the root canals. CONCLUSIONS: This study could provide opportunities for researchers performing in vivo orthotopic transplantation experiments with mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biology , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Edetic Acid , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Mammals , Mice , Necrosis , Pulpitis , Regeneration , Safety , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Tooth
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 93-96, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738807

ABSTRACT

Thymus is an encapsulated organ having its bilateral origin from the third pharyngeal pouch. It appears to be a single organ but actually it is bilobed. It attains its maximum development at puberty and then it begins to involute. The parenchyma is replaced by adipocytes and lymphocyte production declines. Here we present a large thymus with a small area of persistent active tissue in it which was obtained during routine undergraduate dissection class. Tissues taken from different quadrants of the large thymic mass were processed, embedded in paraffin and sections were taken for hematoxylin and eosin staining which showed presence of thymic tissue in only one quadrant. Further sections from that quadrant was treated with cytokeratin to confirm its epithelial origin. Therefore knowledge of a large persistent thymus will be helpful to the radiologists and surgeons for making differential diagnosis and in avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adolescent , Aged , Cadaver , Diagnosis, Differential , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymphocytes , Paraffin , Puberty , Surgeons , Thymus Gland
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719629

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and its variants (ARVs) in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues according to disease status, and its prognostic significance following radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 282 PCa cases were evaluated, which included 252 localized PCa, 8 metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases. Samples were collected from patients who underwent RP or transurethral resection and were stored in ethically approved tissue banks. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were performed for AR and ARVs. Each tissue was confirmed as cancerous (greater than 80%) using hematoxylin and eosin staining. AR and ARVs expression was compared according to disease status. The biochemical recurrence free survival (BCRFS) rates in men with localized PCa was analyzed according to AR and ARV7 expression using the Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: Only 58 of the 252 localized PCa were included in the analysis because of insufficient cancer tissue. AR and ARV7 mRNA expression was higher in the CRPC tissue than in the localized PCa tissue (p=0.025, p=0.002, respectively). In localized PCa tissue, high AR mRNA and protein level was associated with a low BCRFS rate (log-ranked, p=0.019, p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Overall AR and ARV7 mRNA expression levels were increased in CRPC tissues compared to localized PCa and BPH tissues. High AR protein and mRNA expression in the tumor tissue may be considered a predictive factor of BCRFS following RP.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Castration , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Prostatic Neoplasms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Androgen , Recurrence , RNA, Messenger , Tissue Banks
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer cells and determined the potential mechanism involved in the metastatic process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of target proteins. We used transwell assay to evaluate the migration of cancer cells under specific conditions. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expressions of cytokines and EMT-related markers in mRNA level. Animal assay was performed for analysis in vivo and hematoxylin and eosin was used to visualize the effect of TAMs on tumor metastasis. We also used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to detect the expression of target proteins. RESULTS: Here, we observed enrichment of TAMs in colorectal tumor tissues, resulting in high metastasis in clinical therapy. Moreover, those TAMs could facilitate the EMT progression of colorectal cancer cells, which is induced by the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) derived from TAMs, leading to the invasion and migration of cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that TAMs contributed the EMT progression through a TGF-β/Smad2,3-4/Snail signaling pathway, and disrupting this pathway with TGF-β receptor inhibitor could suppress metastasis, readjusting our focus to the connection of TAMs and cancer metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cytokines , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Flow Cytometry , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Macrophages , Neoplasm Metastasis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized as chronic recurrent upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of any organic disorder. We hypothesized that duodenal low-grade inflammation activates superficial afferent nerve sprouting, thereby contributing to hypersensitivity in patients with FD. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. FD was defined using the Rome III criteria. Standardized endoscopic biopsies were performed in the stomach and duodenum. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining for major basic proteins were performed to detect granulated eosinophil-derived granules, and S-100 staining was performed to detect fine nerve fibers. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients with FD (82% female; mean age 35.8 ± 13.4 years) and 35 controls were enrolled. Activated eosinophil counts in the duodenum were significantly higher in patients with FD than in controls (41.4% vs 17.1%, P = 0.005). Microscopic duodenitis was more frequently detected in patients with FD than in controls. Fine nerve fibers were more abundant in patients with FD than in controls (45.1% vs 11.4%, P = 0.029). The abundance of fine nerve fibers highly correlated with the degree of activated eosinophils. CONCLUSION: Duodenal low-grade inflammation, such as mucosal eosinophilic accumulation with degranulation, promoted mucosal enteric nerve fiber density and sprouting in patients with FD.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Duodenitis , Duodenum , Dyspepsia , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Eosinophils , Female , Hematoxylin , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Mucous Membrane , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nervous System , Prospective Studies , Stomach , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765625

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of microelectric treatment by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on functional recovery and histological changes in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The effects of TENS on spasticity and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SCI was induced by a 1.5-mm impactor with 200,000–260,000 dyne after laminectomy. Rats were divided into the following groups: group I (normal control), group II (microelectric treatment of 0 A), group III (microelectric treatment of 100 µA for 1 hr/day), group IV (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 1 hr/day), and group V (microelectric treatment of 400 µA for 24 hr/day). After inducing SCI, rats were assessed by a sensory test with von Frey filaments and the locomotor recovery test (BBB rating scale) at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. To evaluate spinal cord damage, histopathological studies were performed with hematoxylin and eosin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB immunohistochemistry studies were performed at 28 days. RESULTS: In groups IV and V, the BBB score had significantly improved on days 21 and 28 after SCI, and the TENS-treated groups showed significant neuronal recovery. After SCI, groups IV and V showed a significant recovery of locomotor function and the motor sensory response of the withdrawal threshold to 3.5 g. In addition, necrotic tissue and cystic spaces in the spinal cord were significantly reduced and BDNF/TrkB-positive cells were highly expressed in groups III, IV, and V. CONCLUSIONS: Microelectric treatment can play a role in facilitating the recovery of locomotion following SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Laminectomy , Locomotion , Models, Animal , Muscle Spasticity , Neurons , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare black rice (Oryza sativa L) extract with three different staining methods for human sperm head assessment. METHODS: Semen samples were collected from 34 volunteers. Four smears of each ejaculate were prepared for staining using the rapid Papanicolaou (PAP) stain, SpermBlue, DipQuick, and black rice extract. The percentage of defective sperm heads (mean±standard deviation) was compared. RESULTS: Black glutinous rice extract, a natural dye, was used instead of hematoxylin to stain the nuclei of the sperm heads. The percentage of defective sperm heads showed a significant difference between black rice extract and DipQuick (p=0.000). In contrast, black rice extract and rapid PAP showed no statistically significant difference (p=0.974). A strong correlation (r =0.761) was found between the findings obtained using rapid PAP and black rice extract. In contrast, a weak correlation (r =0.248) was obtained between DipQuick and black rice extract for the percentage of defective sperm heads. CONCLUSION: The results showed good agreement and a strong correlation between the rapid PAP and black rice extract stains. The advantages of black rice extract as a novel substitute for hematoxylin for nuclear staining include ease of preparation, local availability, and favorable nuclear staining properties. Further studies could also focus on comparing staining techniques in clinical samples.


Subject(s)
Coloring Agents , Hematoxylin , Humans , Semen , Sperm Head , Spermatozoa , Volunteers
19.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 662-665, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762390

ABSTRACT

Hair follicle nevus (HFN) is a rare, benign, follicular hamartoma that most frequently presents as a congenital nodule on the face. We experienced a rare case of HFN on the neck of a 14-year-old boy and performed a pilot immunohistochemical study with cytokeratin 19 (CK19) to compare the staining pattern of hair follicles in HFN and its differential diagnoses, accessory tragus, cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants (CCBR) and trichofolliculoma. With hematoxylin and eosin stain, HFN showed numerous tiny hair follicles in the dermis with several sebaceous and eccrine glands, and perifollicular fibrous thickening. With CK19 stain, some hair follicles in HFN and CCBR showed positive expression, a few hair follicles in accessory tragus showed weak expression, and no hair follicles in trichofolliculoma showed expression. The present report supports the view that HFN, accessory tragus and CCBR are within the same spectrum of hamartomas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Dermis , Diagnosis, Differential , Eccrine Glands , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hair Follicle , Hair , Hamartoma , Hematoxylin , Humans , Keratin-19 , Male , Neck , Nevus
20.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 174-180, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762320

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Analysis of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was proposed for more accurate staging and tailored lymphadenectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the ability to predict lymph node (LN) involvement through analysis of the SLN with a one-step nucleic acid (OSNA) technique in combination with peritumoral injection of indocyanine green (ICG) and near-infrared (NIR) lymphangiography in CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Overall, 51 LNs were analyzed with OSNA. LNs of 17 patients (50%) were examined simultaneously with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and OSNA. RESULTS: SLN analysis of 17 patients examined with H&E and OSNA revealed that OSNA had a higher sensitivity (1 vs. 0.55), higher negative predictive value (1 vs. 0.66) and higher accuracy (100% vs. 76.4%) in predicting LN involvement. Overall, OSNA showed a sensitivity of 0.69, specificity of 1, accuracy of 88.2%, and stage migration of 8.8%. Compared to those who were OSNA (−), OSNA (+) patients had a greater number of LN metastases (4.8 vs. 0.16, P = 0.04), higher G3 rate (44.4% vs. 4%, P = 0.01), more advanced stage of disease (stage III: 77.8% vs. 16%; P = 0.00) and were more rapidly subjected to adjuvant chemotherapy (39.1 days vs. 50.2 days, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: SLN analysis with OSNA in combination with ICG-NIR lymphangiography is feasible and can detect LN involvement in CRC patients. Furthermore, it allows for more accurate staging reducing the delay between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colorectal Neoplasms , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Fluorescence , Hematoxylin , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Lymphography , Neoplasm Metastasis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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