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3.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(2): 12-18, Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1006925

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el efecto que ejerce la administración de hierro hemo y la de sulfato ferroso con vitamina C en hígado y cerebro de rata. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron ratas albinas Holtzman mantenidas en un bioterio con temperatura de 22 ± 2° C, humedad entre 50 y 70 % y 12 horas de luz y 12 horas de oscuridad, que recibieron 4,0 mg de hierro elemental/kg p.c. bajo la forma de hierro hemo o como sulfato ferroso + 10 mg de vitamina C durante siete días, a cuyo término se sacrificaron y se les extrajo sangre, hígado y cerebro. Se hicieron los cortes histológicos que se trataron con hematoxilina-eosina para la observación microscópica y en el suero se midió la capacidad antioxidante.Resultados: Los cerebros de las ratas que recibieron tratamiento con hierro hemo y sulfato ferroso + vitamina C no sufrieron alteraciones significativas, mientras que los cortes histológicos de hígado de ratas tratadas con hierro hemo mostraron un parénquima sin distribución polar, algunos núcleos carentes de citoplasma y numerosas células de Küpffer a nivel del sinusoide. En cambio, las ratas que fueron tratadas con sulfato ferroso + vitamina C presentaron un parénquima hepático deteriorado notablemente, algunas áreas con núcleos sueltos sin citoplasma y otras con citoplasma cuya membrana había desaparecido. Además, en algunas zonas, el parénquima hepático se encontraba homogenizado.Conclusiones: Los cerebros de las ratas tratadas con hierro hemo y las que recibieron sulfato ferroso + vitamina C prácticamente no sufrieron modificación alguna, en cambio, el hígado de las ratas tratadas con sulfato ferroso + vitamina C presentaron mayor daño hepático que las tratadas con hierro hemo.


Objective: To determine the effect exerted by the administration of heme iron and ferrous sulfate with vitamin C in rat liver and brain. Materials and methods:The study used Holtzman albino rats housed in a bioterium with a temperature of 22 ± 2 °C, humidity between 50 and 70 %, and 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness. They received elemental iron 4.0 mg/kg b.w. as heme iron or ferrous sulfate + vitamin C 10 mg for seven days, at which time they were sacrificed, and blood, liver and brain were extracted. Histological sections were made and treated with hematoxylin-eosin for microscopic observation, and serum antioxidant capacity was measured.Results: The brains of the rats treated with heme iron and ferrous sulfate + vitamin C did not undergo significant changes, while the histological sections of the livers of the rats treated with heme iron showed a parenchyma without polar distribution, some nuclei lacking cytoplasm and numerous Küpffer cells at the sinusoidal level. In contrast, the rats treated with ferrous sulfate + vitamin C had a significantly deteriorated hepatic parenchyma, some areas with loose nuclei without cytoplasm and others with disappeared cytoplasmic membranes. In addition, in some areas, the liver parenchyma was homogenized. Conclusions: The brains of the rats treated with heme iron and those with ferrous sulfate + vitamin C did not practically undergo any change. In contrast, the liver of the rats treated with ferrous sulfate + vitamin C had greater liver damage than those treated with heme iron.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heme , Ascorbic Acid , Toxicity
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761783

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to examine the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) on the cardiac functions and morphology, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione [GSH]), and expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and connexin 43 (Cx-43) in myocardial muscles in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI). Thirty two adult male Sprague Dawely rats were divided into 4 groups (each 8 rats): normal control (NC) group, ISO group: received ISO at dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 2 successive days; ISO + Trizma group: received (ISO) and Trizma (solvent of CoPP) at dose of 5 mg/kg i.p. injection 2 days before injection of ISO, with ISO at day 0 and at day 2 after ISO injections; and ISO + CoPP group: received ISO and CoPP at a dose of 5 mg/kg dissolved in Trizma i.p. injection as Trizma. We found that, administration of ISO caused significant increase in heart rate, corrected QT interval, ST segment, cardiac enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-muscle/brain), cardiac HO-1, Hsp70 with significant attenuation in myocardial GSH, SOD, and Cx-43. On the other hand, administration of CoPP caused significant improvement in ECG parameters, cardiac enzymes, cardiac morphology; antioxidants induced by ISO with significant increase in HO-1, Cx-43, and Hsp70 expression in myocardium. In conclusions, we concluded that induction of HO-1 by CoPP ameliorates ISO-induced myocardial injury, which might be due to up-regulation of Hsp70 and gap junction protein (Cx-43).


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antioxidants , Body Weight , Cobalt , Connexin 43 , Connexins , Creatine , Electrocardiography , Glutathione , Hand , Heart Rate , Heat-Shock Proteins , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Humans , Isoproterenol , Male , Muscles , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Oxidoreductases , Rats , Tromethamine , Up-Regulation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal upregulation of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is considered to be a key oncogenic event in the development and progression of inflammation-associated human colon cancer. It has been reported that 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), an enzyme catabolizing PGE₂, is ubiquitously downregulated in human colon cancer. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J₂ (15d-PGJ₂), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, has been shown to have anticarcinogenic activities. In this study, we investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ₂ on expression of 15-PGDH in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. METHODS: HCT116 cells were treated with 15d-PGJ₂ analysis. The expression of 15-PGDH in the treated cells was measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In addition, the cells were subjected to a 15-PGDH activity assay. To determine which transcription factor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are involved in 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis of 15d-PGJ₂-treated cells. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To determine whether the AP-1 plays an important role in the 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression, the cells were transfected with siRNA of c-Jun, a major subunit of AP-1. To elucidate the upstream signaling pathways involved in AP-1 activation by 15d-PGJ₂, we examined its effect on phosphorylation of Akt by Western blot analysis in the presence or absence of kinase inhibitor. RESULTS: 15d-PGJ₂ (10 μM) significantly upregulated 15-PGDH expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HCT-116 cells. 15-PGDH activity was also elevated by 15d-PGJ₂. We observed that genes encoding C/EBP delta, FOS-like antigen 1, c-Jun, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were most highly induced in the HCT116 cells following 15d-PGJ₂ treatment. 15d-PGJ₂ increased the DNA binding activity of AP-1. Moreover, transfection with specific siRNA against c-Jun significantly reduced 15-PGDH expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. 15d-PGJ₂ activates Akt and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, abrogated 15d-PGJ₂-induced 15-PGDH expression. We also observed that an inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX, also abrogated upregulation of 15-PGDH and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by 15d-PGJ₂. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that 15d-PGJ₂ upregulates the expression of 15-PGDH through AP-1 activation in colon cancer HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cyclooxygenase 2 , DNA , Down-Regulation , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , HCT116 Cells , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oxidoreductases , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Zinc
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739654

ABSTRACT

Intestinal barrier dysfunction always accompanies cirrhosis in patients with advanced liver disease and is an important contributor facilitating bacterial translocation (BT), which has been involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and its complications. Several studies have demonstrated the protective effect of Vitamin D on intestinal barrier function. However, severe cholestasis leads to vitamin D depletion. This study was designed to test whether vitamin D therapy improves intestinal dysfunction in cirrhosis. Rats were subcutaneously injected with 50% sterile CCl₄ (a mixture of pure CCl₄ and olive oil, 0.3 mL/100 g) twice a week for 6 weeks. Next, 1,25(OH)₂D₃(0.5 µg/100 g) and the vehicle were administered simultaneously with CCl₄ to compare the extent of intestinal histologic damage, tight junction protein expression, intestinal barrier function, BT, intestinal proliferation, apoptosis, and enterocyte turnover. Intestinal heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and oxidative stress were also assessed. We found that vitamin D could maintain intestinal epithelial proliferation and turnover, inhibit intestinal epithelial apoptosis, alleviate structural damage, and prevent BT and intestinal barrier dysfunction. These were achieved partly through restoration of HO-1 and inhibition of oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that vitamin D ameliorated intestinal epithelial turnover and improved the integrity and function of intestinal barrier in CCl₄-induced liver cirrhotic rats. HO-1 signaling activation was involved in these above beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Bacterial Translocation , Cholestasis , Enterocytes , Fibrosis , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases , Olive Oil , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Tight Junctions , Vitamin D , Vitamins
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 21-27, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899569

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o relacionamento entre os níveis cerebrais de ferro e heme e a resposta inflamatória sistêmica e no sistema nervoso central, assim como o papel dos sistemas de defesa contra a toxicidade do ferro e do heme, no sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Avaliamos uma coorte prospectiva de pacientes com quadro de hemorragia intracraniana e subaracnóidea. Realizamos ensaios em amostras de plasma e líquido cefalorraquidiano quanto à presença de ferro, heme, hemopexina, haptoglobina, enolase, S100-β e citocinas nos primeiros 3 dias após um acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico. Analisamos também as alterações dinâmicas em todos os componentes de ambos os líquidos e seu relacionamento com as taxas de mortalidade precoce. Resultados: As concentrações de hemopexina e haptoglobina foram quase desprezíveis no cérebro após hemorragia intracraniana e subaracnóidea. As concentrações de ferro e heme no líquido cefalorraquidiano se correlacionaram com resposta pró-inflamatória no sistema nervoso central, e os perfis inflamatórios no líquido cefalorraquidiano no terceiro dia após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico se correlacionaram com as taxas de mortalidade precoce. Identificamos que os níveis de interleucina 4 no líquido cefalorraquidiano durante as primeiras 24 horas após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico foram mais altos nos sobreviventes do que nos que não sobreviveram. Conclusão: Os níveis de ferro e heme se associaram com resposta pró-inflamatória no sistema nervoso central após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico, e o cérebro humano não tem proteção contra hemoglobina e heme. Os perfis inflamatórios dos pacientes se associaram com prognósticos piores, e as respostas inflamatórias locais pareceram ter um papel protetor.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relationships of brain iron and heme with the inflammatory response of the systemic and central nervous systems and to investigate the role of defensive systems against the toxicity of iron and heme in the central nervous system. Methods: We assessed a prospective cohort of patients presenting with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We assayed plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples for the presence of iron, heme, hemopexin, haptoglobin, enolase, S100-β and cytokines for the first three days following hemorrhagic stroke. We also analyzed the dynamic changes in these components within both fluids and their relationship with early mortality rates. Results: Hemopexin and haptoglobin concentrations were nearly negligible in the brain after intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid iron and heme concentrations correlated with a pro-inflammatory response in the central nervous system, and plasmatic and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory profiles on the third day after hemorrhagic stroke were related to early mortality rates. Interleukin 4 levels within the cerebrospinal fluid during the first 24 hours after hemorrhagic stroke were found to be higher in survivors than in non-survivors. Conclusion: Iron and heme are associated with a pro-inflammatory response in the central nervous system following hemorrhagic stroke, and protections against hemoglobin and heme are lacking within the human brain. Patient inflammatory profiles were associated with a poorer prognosis, and local anti-inflammatory responses appeared to have a protective role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Hemopexin/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Heme/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Middle Aged
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740108

ABSTRACT

Although genetic background is known to contribute to colon carcinogenesis, the exact etiology of the disease remains elusive. The organ’s extensive interaction with microbes necessitated research on the role of microbiota on development of colon cancer. In this review, we summarized the defense mechanism of colon from foreign organism, and germ-free animal models that have been employed to elucidate microbial effect. We also comprehensively discussed the metabolic property of microbiota such as butyrate production, facilitation of heme toxicity, bile acid transformation, and nitrate reduction that has been shown to contribute to the development of the tumor. Finally, up-to-date subjects such as the effect of age and gender on microbiota are briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Butyrates , Butyric Acid , Carcinogenesis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Genetic Background , Heme , Microbiota , Models, Animal
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740083

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas gingivalis is among the major etiological pathogens of chronic periodontitis. The virulence mechanisms of P. gingivalis is yet to be identified as its activity is largely unknown in actual disease process. The purpose of this study is to identify antigens of P. gingivalis expressed only in patients with chronic periodontitis using a unique immunoscreening technique. Change Mediated Antigen Technology (CMAT), an antibody-based screening technique, was used to identify virulence-associated proteins of P. gingivalis that are expressed only during infection stage in patients having chronic periodontitis. Out of 13,000 recombinant clones screened, 22 tested positive for reproducible reactivity with rabbit hyperimmune anti-sera prepared against dental plaque samples acquired from periodontitis patients. The DNA sequences of these 18 genes were determined. CMAT-identified protein antigens of P. gingivalis included proteins involved in energy metabolism and biosynthesis, heme and iron binding, drug resistance, specific enzyme activities, and unknown functions. Further analysis of these genes could result in a novel insight into the virulence mechanisms of P. gingivalis.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Chronic Periodontitis , Clone Cells , Dental Plaque , Drug Resistance , Energy Metabolism , Heme , Humans , Iron , Mass Screening , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Virulence , Virulence Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713588

ABSTRACT

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair. This review focused on the possible role of CO/HO in the neurovascular unit in terms of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, ultimately leading to behavioral changes in CNS diseases. CO/HO may also enhance cellular networks among endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neural stem cells. This review highlights the therapeutic effects of CO/HO on CNS diseases involved in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and angiogenesis. Moreover, the cellular mechanisms and interactions by which CO/HO are exploited for disease prevention and their therapeutic applications in traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Brain Injuries , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Diseases , Endothelial Cells , Heme , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Homeostasis , Humans , Mammals , Microglia , Neural Stem Cells , Neurogenesis , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Pericytes , Regeneration , Stroke , Therapeutic Uses
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742236

ABSTRACT

Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in tropical areas on the globe. Several factors are associated with susceptibility to malaria and disease severity, including innate immunity such as blood group, hemoglobinopathy, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) polymorphisms. This study was carried out to investigate association among ABO blood group, thalassemia types and HO-1 polymorphisms in malaria. The malarial blood samples were collected from patients along the Thai-Myanmar border. Determination of ABO blood group, thalassemia variants, and HO-1 polymorphisms were performed using agglutination test, low pressure liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was the major infected malaria species in the study samples. Distribution of ABO blood type in the malaria-infected samples was similar to that in healthy subjects, of which blood type O being most prevalent. Association between blood group A and decreased risk of severe malaria was significant. Six thalassemia types (30%) were detected, i.e., hemoglobin E (HbE), β-thalassemia, α-thalassemia 1, α-thalassemia 2, HbE with α-thalassemia 2, and β-thalassemia with α-thalassemia 2. Malaria infected samples without thalassemia showed significantly higher risk to severe malaria. The prevalence of HO-1 polymorphisms, S/S, S/L and L/L were 25, 62, and 13%, respectively. Further study with larger sample size is required to confirm the impact of these 3 host genetic factors in malaria patients.


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests , Blood Group Antigens , Chromatography, Liquid , Healthy Volunteers , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Hemoglobin E , Hemoglobinopathies , Hemoglobins , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Malaria , Plasmodium vivax , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Public Health , Sample Size , Thalassemia
12.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 207-213, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50231

ABSTRACT

Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and related enzymes are associated with various forms of neuroinflammation, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to evaluate whether lithium, a non-selective inhibitor of GSK-3β, ameliorated SCI progression, and also to analyze whether lithium affected the expression levels of two representative GSK-3β–associated molecules, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (a target gene of Nrf-2). Intraperitoneal lithium chloride (80 mg/kg/day for 3 days) significantly improved locomotor function at 8 days post-injury (DPI); this was maintained until 14 DPI (P<0.05). Western blotting showed significantly increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9), Nrf-2, and the Nrf-2 target HO-1 in the spinal cords of lithium-treated animals. Fewer neuropathological changes (e.g., hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tissue loss) were observed in the spinal cords of the lithium-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated group. Microglial activation (evaluated by measuring the immunoreactivity of ionized calcium-binding protein-1) was also significantly reduced in the lithium-treated group. These findings suggest that GSK-3β becomes activated after SCI, and that a non-specific enzyme inhibitor, lithium, ameliorates rat SCI by increasing phosphorylation of GSK-3β and the associated molecules Nrf-2 and HO-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Glycogen Synthase , Glycogen , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Hemorrhage , Lithium Chloride , Lithium , Phosphorylation , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57409

ABSTRACT

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that modulates the immune response and oxidative stress associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate neuronal regeneration via transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) overexpressing HO-1. Canine MSCs overexpressing HO-1 were generated by using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Eight beagle dogs with experimentally-induced SCI were divided into GFP-labeled MSC (MSC-GFP) and HO-1-overexpressing MSC (MSC-HO-1) groups. MSCs (1 × 10⁷ cells) were transplanted at 1 week after SCI. Spinal cords were harvested 8 weeks after transplantation, after which histopathological, immunofluorescence, and western blot analyses were performed. The MSC-HO-1 group showed significantly improved functional recovery at 7 weeks after transplantation. Histopathological results showed fibrotic changes and microglial cell infiltration were significantly decreased in the MSC-HO-1 group. Immunohistochemical (IHC) results showed significantly increased expression levels of HO-1 and neuronal markers in the MSC-HO-1 group. Western blot results showed significantly decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, cycloogygenase 2, phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and galactosylceramidase in the MSC-HO-1 group, while expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, β3-tubulin, neurofilament medium, and neuronal nuclear antigen were similar to those observed in IHC results. Our results demonstrate that functional recovery after SCI can be promoted to a greater extent by transplantation of HO-1-overexpressing MSCs than by normal MSCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Dogs , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Galactosylceramidase , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Interleukin-6 , Intermediate Filaments , Lentivirus , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Product Packaging , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Transducers , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158433

ABSTRACT

Heme oxygenase-1-derived carbon monoxide prevents inflammatory vascular disorders. To date, there is no clear evidence that HO-1/CO prevents endothelial dysfunction associated with the downregulation of endothelial NO synthesis in human endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α. Here, we found that the CO-releasing compound CORM-2 prevented TNF-α-mediated decreases in eNOS expression and NO/cGMP production, without affecting eNOS promoter activity, by maintaining the functional activity of the eNOS mRNA 3′-untranslated region. By contrast, CORM-2 inhibited MIR155HG expression and miR-155-5p biogenesis in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells, resulting in recovery of the 3′-UTR activity of eNOS mRNA, a target of miR-155-5p. The beneficial effect of CORM-2 was blocked by an NF-κB inhibitor, a miR-155-5p mimic, a HO-1 inhibitor and siRNA against HO-1, indicating that CO rescues TNF-α-induced eNOS downregulation through NF-κB-responsive miR-155-5p expression via HO-1 induction; similar protective effects of ectopic HO-1 expression and bilirubin were observed in endothelial cells treated with TNF-α. Moreover, heme degradation products, except iron and N-acetylcysteine prevented H₂O₂-mediated miR-155-5p biogenesis and eNOS downregulation. These data demonstrate that CO prevents TNF-α-mediated eNOS downregulation by inhibiting redox-sensitive miR-155-5p biogenesis through a positive forward circuit between CO and HO-1 induction. This circuit may play an important preventive role in inflammatory endothelial dysfunction associated with human vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Bilirubin , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells , Heme , Humans , Iron , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Vascular Diseases
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155821

ABSTRACT

Primaquine is often administered for the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Primaquine (with clindamycin) is also an alternative drug for treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole cannot be used. Primaquine may cause methemoglobinemia, an altered state of hemoglobin in which the ferrous state of heme is oxidized to the ferric state. We report a case of methemoglobinemia caused by a standard dose of primaquine plus clindamycin in a 27-year-old female recipient of a kidney transplant who was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Clindamycin , Female , Heme , Humans , Kidney , Methemoglobin , Methemoglobinemia , Plasmodium ovale , Plasmodium vivax , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Primaquine
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 655-666, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), repeated bouts of remission and relapse occur in patients and can impose a risk of colitis-associated cancer. We hypothesized that plant extracts of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) or Taraxacum herba (TH) may be better than sulfasalazine for treating this disease because these extracts can promote additional regeneration. METHODS: Murine intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells were pretreated with AM or TH before a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced challenge. Acute colitis was induced with 7 days of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in male C57BL/6 mice, and extracts of AM and TH were administered for 2 weeks before DSS administration. RESULTS: In vitro studies demonstrated that AM or TH treatment reduced LPS-induced COX-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels but increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Oral preadministration of AM and TH rescued mice from DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via inactivated extracellular signal regulated kinase and repressed nuclear factor κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, but the effect was weaker for sulfasalazine than that for the extracts. Anti-inflammatory activities occurred via the inhibition of macrophage and T lymphocyte infiltrations. Unlike sulfasalazine, which did not induce HO-1, TH extracts afforded significant HO-1 induction. CONCLUSIONS: Because the AM or TH extracts were far superior in preventing DSS-induced colitis than sulfasalazine, AM or TH extracts can be considered natural agents that can prevent IBD relapse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atractylodes , Colitis , Dextran Sulfate , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Necrosis , Phosphotransferases , Plant Extracts , Recurrence , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Sulfasalazine , Taraxacum
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 32(1): 4-14, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794142

ABSTRACT

La existencia humana está indisolublemente unida al hierro, que es parte de una amplia variedad de enzimas claves como catalasas, aconitasas, ribonucleótido reductasa, peroxidasas y citocromos, que explotan la flexibilidad de su química redox para ejecutar un elevado número de reacciones esenciales para la vida. El cuerpo humano ha evolucionado para conservar el hierro en diferentes formas, incluido su reciclaje después de la ruptura de los eritrocitos y la retención en ausencia de un mecanismo de excreción. El metabolismo del hierro está balanceado por dos sistemas regulatorios: uno sistémico basado en la hormona hepcidina y la proteína exportadora ferroportina, y el otro que controla el metabolismo celular través de las proteínas reguladoras de hierro (IRP) que se unen a los elementos de respuesta al hierro (IRE) de los ARNm regulados. Estos sistemas funcionan de modo coordinado lo que evita, tanto la deficiencia como el exceso del mineral(AU)


Human existence is indissolubly linked to iron, which is part of a wide variety of key enzymes such as catalase, aconitases, ribonucleotide reductase, peroxidases and cytochromes, exploiting the flexibility of its redox chemistry to run a large number of reactions essential for life. Human body has evolved to keep iron in different forms, including recycling after rupture of erythrocytes and the retention without excretion mechanism. Iron metabolism is balanced by two regulatory systems: one based on systemic hormone hepcidin protein export and ferroportin, and the other, which controls cell metabolism through the iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding to the mRNAs regulated iron regulatory elements (IRE). These systems work in a coordinated manner avoiding both deficiency and excess(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Iron/metabolism , Heme , Hepcidins/metabolism
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iron pots have long been used for cooking in several countries. Early studies have shown that the use of such iron pots can increase the iron content of food cooked in them and that this increased iron content has some effect on iron uptake. This study was designed to evaluate the iron content in rice cooked in a traditional iron pot and study the iron uptake by macrophages through heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). METHODS: The iron pot used in this study was round-shaped and had no legs. The iron content of rice cooked in the iron pot was measured. Thereafter, the bioavailability of iron was measured using western blot analysis. RESULTS: A total of 35 samples were analyzed for iron concentrations, which were 10.94±18.08 mg/L (range: 0.18–56.53 mg/L). The biochemical activity in most of materials was 1.5–9 times that of the activity observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: The iron concentration of rice cooked in iron pots were found to be relatively high. The introduction of iron pots in routine cooking practices may be a promising way of increasing the supply of iron, especially for people with severe iron deficiency anemia. Further, increased activity of HO-1, induced by supplementation of iron from the cast iron, may help in maintaining iron homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Biological Availability , Blotting, Western , Cooking , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Homeostasis , In Vitro Techniques , Iron , Leg , Macrophages
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of betaxolol (betaxolol hydrochloride) under hypoxic conditions using retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) and determine whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression exerts cytoprotective effects. METHODS: In this study, cultured RGC-5 cells were incubated with different concentrations of betaxolol hydrochloride (0.1 microM, 1 microM or 5 microM) and with 10 microM zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), in a hypoxia incubator (1% O2, 5% CO2, 94% N2) for 48 hours and the cell viability of each group was determined. Additionally, cell viability was measured after RGC-5 cells were incubated with 5 microM of brinzolamide (Azopt(R)), brimonidine tartrate (Alphagan(R)) or travoprost (Travatan(R)). RGC-5 cells were divided into three groups and incubated under three different conditions, normoxia group (20% O2, 5% CO2), hypoxia group (1% O2, 5% CO2) and the group with 5 microM of Betoptic S(R) treated under hypoxic conditions (hypoxia, Betoptic S(R)). After incubation for 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours, HO-1 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. RESULTS: Cell viability significantly increased in RGC-5 cells treated with Betoptic S(R) compared with other antiglaucoma agents. Increased levels of HO-1 expression indicate its relevance in cell viability. Furthermore, increased RGC-5 cell viability by Betoptic S(R) was significantly reduced in the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: We reaffirmed the known cytoprotective effects of Betoptic S(R) and the results suggests that HO-1 expression exerts cytoprotective effects against hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Betaxolol , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Incubators , Neuroprotective Agents , Retinal Ganglion Cells , Zinc , Brimonidine Tartrate , Travoprost
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-induced steatohepatitis accompanied by activated hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrinogenesis and exacerbates metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance. Heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) modulates tissue macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that the flavonoid quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by inducing HO-1, which promotes hepatic macrophage polarization in favor of the M2 phenotype. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular diet (RD), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with quercetin (HF+Que, 0.5g/kg diet) for nine weeks. Inflammatory cytokines and macrophage markers were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. HO-1 protein was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: Quercetin supplementation decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6) and increased that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the livers of HFD-fed mice. This was accompanied by upregulation of M2 macrophage marker genes (Arg-1, Mrc1) and downregulation of M1 macrophage marker genes (TNFα, NOS2). In co-cultures of lipid-laden hepatocytes and macrophages, treatment with quercetin induced HO-1 in the macrophages, markedly suppressed expression of M1 macrophage marker genes, and reduced release of MCP-1. Moreover, these effects of quercetin were blunted by an HO-1 inhibitor and deficiency of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by promoting macrophage phenotype switching. The beneficial effect of quercetin is associated with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. Quercetin may be a useful dietary factor for protecting against obesity-induced steatohepatitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Coculture Techniques , Cytokines , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Down-Regulation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatty Liver , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Hepatocytes , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Macrophages , Male , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Obesity , Phenotype , Quercetin , Up-Regulation
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