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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1121875

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Hemiprótese de ombro ajustável. Próteses de cabeça excêntrica reproduzem a anatomia da extremidade proximal do úmero. Indicação: Reconstrução da extremidade proximal do úmero no tratamento de fraturas complexas de úmero. Pergunta: o tratamento cirúrgico é superior ao tratamento conservador, para tratamento de fratura proximal de úmero, com melhores desfechos funcionais, menos complicações, menor mortalidade? Os efeitos terapêuticos da prótese de ombro excêntrica são superiores aos da prótese de ombro Neer II em pacientes com fratura proximal de úmero submetidos a hemiartroplastia de ombro nos desfechos de resultados funcionais e complicações cirúrgicas? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bases de dados Pubmed, BVS e Google com estratégias estruturadas de busca. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta AMSTAR e para os estudos econômicos, foi utilizado o QHES checklist. Resultados: Foram identificados 485 registros nas bases de dados internacionais e nacionais. Após a remoção de duplicatas e exclusão dos não elegíveis, pela análise de título e resumo, foram selecionadas quatro revisões sistemáticas e um estudo econômico. Conclusão: Não há evidências suficientes de ensaios clínicos para informar qual a melhor escolha entre as intervenções (não cirúrgicas, cirúrgicas ou de reabilitação) para essas fraturas. Não foram encontrados estudos brasileiros sobre eficácia e custo-efetividade das diferentes abordagens cirúrgicas bem como os tipos e marcas de próteses entre si


Technology: Adjustable shoulder hemi prosthesis. Eccentric head prostheses reproduce the anatomy of the proximal extremity of the humerus. Indication: Reconstruction of the proximal extremity of the humerus in the treatment of complex humerus fractures. Question: Is surgical treatment superior to conservative treatment, for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures, with better functional outcomes, less complications, less mortality? Are the therapeutic effects of the eccentric shoulder prosthesis superior to those of the Neer II shoulder prosthesis in patients with proximal humerus fractures who underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty in the outcomes of functional results and surgical complications? Methods: Bibliographic survey was carried out in Pubmed, BVS and Google databases with structured search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR tool and for economic studies, the QHES checklist was used. Results: Were they identified 485 records in international and national databases. After removing duplicates and excluding the ineligible ones, by analyzing the title and summary, four systematic reviews and one economic study were selected. Conclusion: There is not enough evidence of clinical trials to inform which is the best choice between interventions (nonsurgical, surgical or rehabilitation) for these fractures. No brazilian studies were found about the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the different surgical approaches, as well as the types and brands of prostheses between them


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shoulder Fractures/therapy , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , Shoulder Prosthesis/adverse effects , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Evidence-Based Medicine
2.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 356-362, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879658

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#By comparing the outcomes of total hip arthroplasty with hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture to investigate the one-year mortality, dislocation, infection, reoperation rate, and thromboembolic event.@*METHODS@#The PubMed, EMBASE databases, and Cochrane library were systematically searched from the inception dates to April 1, 2020 for relevant randomized controlled trials in English language using the keywords: "total hip arthroplasty", "hemiarthroplasty" and "femoral neck fracture" to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Two reviewers independently selected articles, extracted data, assessed the quality evidence and risk bias of included trials using the Cochrane Collaboration' stools, and discussed any disagreements. The third reviewer was consulted for any doubts or uncertainty. We derived risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mortality was defined as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were other complications, dislocation, infection, reoperation rate, and thromboembolic event.@*RESULTS@#This meta-analysis included 10 studies with 1419 patients, which indicated that there were no significant differences between hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty in reoperation, infection rate, and thromboembolic event. However, there was a lower mortality and dislocation rate association with total hip arthroplasty at the one-year follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on our results, we found that total hip arthroplasty was better than hemiarthroplasty for a hip fracture at one-year follow-up.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(4): 241-246, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284947

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La hemiartroplastía bipolar (HA) es una alternativa para el tratamiento de las fracturas desplazadas de cuello femoral en pacientes de edad avanzada con baja demanda funcional y comorbilidades asociadas. El objetivo fue describir la funcionalidad en pacientes mayores de 65 años con fracturas intracapsulares de cadera tratados con HA. Material y métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de pacientes mayores de 65 años entre Enero de 2012 y Mayo de 2017. Se evaluó con la escala de Harris (HHS) y Oxford a los seis meses y al año posterior a la cirugía. Se documentaron las complicaciones y la mortalidad durante el primer año postquirúrgico. Resultados: 48 casos (12 hombres; 36 mujeres), edad promedio de 80.8 ± 7.7 años. Comorbilidades más frecuentes: hipertensión arterial (77.1%), osteoporosis (37.5%), diabetes (33.3%) e hipotiroidismo (29.2%). El porcentaje de complicaciones postoperatorias asociadas fue de 8.3% (cuatro casos). La mediana del HHS a los seis y 12 meses fue de: 90.5 (DE: 77.5-96.0) y 96 (DE: 92-98), respectivamente. La escala de Oxford fue de 45.5 (DE: 38.5-48.0) a los seis meses y de 47.0 (DE: 43.5-48) al año postoperatorio. El 4.2% (dos casos) fallecieron durante el primer año postquirúrgico y ninguno estuvo asociado al procedimiento. Discusión: La HA ofrece buenos resultados funcionales en pacientes mayores de 65 años, con una tasa baja de complicaciones. En nuestra serie y en el corto plazo no se observó mortalidad asociada al procedimiento quirúrgico.


Abstract: Introduction: Bipolar hemiarthroplasty is an alternative for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with low functional demand and associated comorbidities. The goal was to describe functionality in patients over 65 years of age with intracapsular fractures of the hip. Material and methods: Retrospective review of patients over 65 years of age between January 2012 and May 2017. It was evaluated with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Oxford scale at six months and the year after surgery. Complications and mortality were documented during the first post-surgical year. Results: 48 cases (12 men; 36 women), average age of 80.8 ± 7.7 years. Most common diseases: high blood pressure (77.1%), osteoporosis (37.5%), diabetes (33.3%) hypothyroidism (29.2%). The percentage of associated postoperative complications was 8.3% (four cases). The median HHS at six and 12 months was: 90.5 (DE: 77.5-96.0) and 96 (DE: 92-98), respectively. The Oxford scale was 45.5 (DE: 38.5-48.0) at six months and 47.0 (DE: 43.5-48.0) per postoperative year. 4.2% (two cases) died during the first post-surgical year and none were associated with the procedure. Discussion: HA provides good functional outcomes in patients over 65 years of age, with a low rate of complications. No mortality associated with the surgical procedure was observed in our series and in the short term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Femoral Neck Fractures , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Hip Fractures/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(4): 520-527, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical and functional behavior of patients undergoing cuff tear arthroplasty at different stages of the disease. Methods Cuff tear arthroplasty hemiarthroplasties were performed in 34 patients with rotator cuff arthropathy and associated comorbidities, classified according to Seebauer. The mean age was 76.3 years, and the sample comprised 23 females (67.6%) and 11 males (32.4%). The mean follow-up period was 21.7 months, and evaluations were performed using the Visual Analog Scale for pain and the Constant scale. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the mean reduction in the Visual Analog Scale or in the Constant scale increase between the female and male groups. The variation between the pre- and postoperative Visual Analog Scale and Constant scale evaluations was significant. There was also no statistically significant difference between the Seebauer classification groups regarding the mean Visual Analog Scale reduction, or the mean Constant scale increase. Conclusion Cuff tear arthroplasty shoulder hemiarthroplasty is a good option for rotator cuff arthropathy in patients with comorbidities.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o comportamento clínico e funcional dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia do tipo cuff tear arthroplasty para o tratamento da artropatia do manguito rotador em diferentes estágios da afecção. Métodos Foram realizadas 34 hemiartroplastias do tipo cuff tear arthroplasty em 34 pacientes com artropatia do manguito rotador e comorbidades associadas, classificadas de acordo com Seebauer. A média de idade foi de 76,3 anos, sendo 23 pacientes do sexo feminino (67,6%) e 11 do sexo masculino (32,4%). O seguimento médio foi de 21,7 meses e a avaliação foi realizada por meio da Escala Visual Analógica da dor e pela escala de Constant. Resultados Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos feminino e masculino, tanto nas médias de redução na Escala Visual Analógica quanto nas de aumento na escala de Constant. A variação entre as avaliações da Escala Visual Analógica e da escala de Constant pré e pós-operatórias foi significante. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos de classificação de Seebauer quanto às médias de redução na Escala Visual Analógica e nem quanto às médias de aumento na escala de Constant, e não houve casos de infecção. Conclusão A hemiartroplastia do ombro tipo cuff tear arthroplasty é boa uma opção nos pacientes com artropatia do manguito rotador, especialmente em pacientes com comorbidades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Rotator Cuff Injuries/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/methods , Muscular Diseases/surgery , Postoperative Period , Pain Measurement , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Recovery of Function , Preoperative Period , Humeral Head/surgery , Rotator Cuff Injuries/complications , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology
5.
Acta ortop. mex ; 29(3): 148-154, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773375

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cabeza radial es un estabilizador primario e importante del codo mayormente para la estabilidad en valgo, desplazamiento postero-lateral, axial del radio y carga en varo. Las fracturas de cabeza radial representan de 1.7 al 5% de todas las fracturas en adultos, de 17 al 19% en los traumas de codo y 33% de todas las fracturas del codo, siendo ésta la más común a este nivel. Para una fractura de cabeza radial que no se puede reconstruir, las opciones de tratamiento son excisión de la cabeza radial o hemiartroplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar la funcionalidad de los pacientes con hemiartroplastía de cúpula radial por fracturas tipo III y IV según Mason-Johnston, por medio de las escalas de Índice de Mayo de desempeño del codo (Mayo Elbow Performance Índex (IMDC)) y Quick-Dash (QD). Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio, observacional, transversal y ambiespectivo, en el Servicio de Miembro Torácico del Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes", en un período de un año, se incluyeron pacientes de 18 a 60 años de edad, con diagnóstico de fractura de cúpula radial tipo III y IV según Mason-Johnston manejados con hemiartroplastía de cúpula radial. Resultados: Fueron incluidos siete pacientes, de los cuales 3 fueron del sexo femenino (42.9%) y 4 fueron del sexo masculino (57.1%). De la clasificación de funcionalidad IMDC se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados. Excelente, 6 pacientes (85.7%); Bueno, 1 paciente (14.3%). La escala de funcionalidad y sintomatología de QD se obtuvieron seis pacientes con puntuación de 0 a 5 y un paciente con puntuación de más de 10. Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico consistente en hemiartroplastía de cúpula radial por fracturas tipo III y IV según Mason-Johnston es un buen tratamiento quirúrgico a corto plazo, debido a que nos ofrece una funcionalidad de excelente a buena, estabilidad en valgo y varo del codo, así como sintomatología mínima del codo.


Introduction: The radial head is a primary and important stabilizer of the elbow, mainly for valgus stability, posterolateral and axial displacement of the radius and varus loading. Radial head fractures account for 1.7-5% of all fractures in adults, 17-19% of elbow trauma, and 33% of all elbow fractures. The latter is the most common one at this level. The alternatives for a radial head fracture that cannot be reconstructed include excision of the radial head or hemiarthroplasty. Objective: To assess the function of patients who underwent radial head hemiarthroplasty for Mason-Johnston types III and IV fractures, using the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and Quick-Dash (QD). Material and methods: A one-year long observational, cross-sectional and ambispective study was conducted at the Thoracic Limb Service, "Lomas Verdes" Orthopedics and Traumatology Hospital. The patients included were ages 18 to 60 years, had a diagnosis of Mason-Johnston types III and IV radial head fractures and were treated with radial head hemiarthroplasty. Results: A total of seven patients were included, 3 females (42.9%) and 4 males (57.1%). The results of elbow function according to the MEPI were as follows: Excellent, 6 patients (85.7%); Good, one patient (14.3%). The results of the QD functionality and symptoms scale were: 6 patients had a score of 0-5, and one patient more than 10. Conclusions: Surgical treatment consisting of radial head hemiarthroplasty for Mason-Johnston types III and IV fractures yields good short-term results, because it provides excellent to good function, valgus and varus elbow stability, and minimum elbow symptoms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Elbow Joint/surgery , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Radius Fractures/surgery , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elbow Joint/injuries , Mexico , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742493

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las fracturas de cadera son muy frecuentes en ancianos. La hemiartroplastia es un tratamiento aceptado para las fracturas mediales desplazadas en pacientes ancianos y con baja demanda funcional. El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar la tasa de mortalidad a los 30 días y al año, y las complicaciones asociadas en pacientes con mal estado general. Materiales y Métodos: Desde 2003 hasta 2010, se operaron 1134 pacientes con diagnóstico de fractura medial de cadera. El 9% (101) fue tratado con hemiprótesis de Austin Moore, y 91 de ellos fueron incluidos en esta serie. Todos eran deambuladores intradomiciliarios y tenían múltiples comorbilidades asociadas. La supervivencia fue evaluada con el método de Kaplan-Meier; y la asociación entre mortalidad y sexo, infección y luxación, con un modelo de regresión de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Resultados: Setenta pacientes eran mujeres (77 %) y la media de la edad era de 85 años. La mortalidad fue del 7 % a los 30 días y del 36 % al año. Diez pacientes (11 %) presentaron algún episodio de luxación protésica y 13 (14,3 %) sufrieron una complicación infecciosa. La asociación entre infección/mortalidad y sexo masculino/mortalidad fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,009 y p = 0,013). Los pacientes con infección tuvieron una tasa más alta de luxación (p = 0,00001). Conclusión: La hemiartroplastia con prótesis de Austin Moore es una alternativa válida para pacientes con fractura medial desplazada, baja demanda funcional y mal estado general, pues es un procedimiento rápido, que elimina el dolor, y permite una movilidad precoz...


Background: Hip fractures are common in elderly people. Hemiarthroplasty is an accepted treatment for intracapsular fractures of the hip in elderly patients with low functional demands. The objective of this study is to show the 30-day and 1-year mortality rates and associated complications in patients with bad performance status. Methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 1,134 patients with intracapsular fractures of the hip were treated. One hundred and one patients (9 %) were treated with Austin Moore hemiprosthesis and 91 of them were included in this series. All were toddlers in their homes and they had multiple comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to evaluate survival. Mortality was then related to sex, age, infection and dislocation using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: Seventy patients were women (77 %) and the mean age of the series was 85 years. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 7 % and 36 %, respectively. Ten patients (11 %) had an episode of prosthetic dislocation and 13 (14.3 %) had an infectious complication. Infection/mortality and male/mortality associations were statistically significant (p = 0.009 and p = 0.013). Patients who suffered an infection had a higher rate of dislocation (p = 0.00001). Conclusion: Hemiarthroplasty with Austin Moore prosthesis is a good option for patients with displaced intracapsular hip fractures, low activity demand and multiple comorbidities, since it is a quick procedure that eliminates pain, allowing early mobility...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femoral Neck Fractures/mortality , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Hip Dislocation/diagnosis , Prosthesis Failure , Prosthesis-Related Infections , Follow-Up Studies , Mortality , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemiarthroplasty is a common operation to treat femoral neck fracture in elderly patients. The choice of whether to use cemented stem or cementless stem in hemiarthroplasty has been controversial in clinical practice. However, recent trends regarding stem choice in South Korea are not known or documented. In this study, we assessed the trends of stem fixation in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in South Korea. METHODS: Data of patients with femoral neck fractures, who were operated on between the years of 2007 and 2011 and were > or = 50 years old at the time of operation, were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. All new visits or admissions to clinics or hospitals for femoral neck fractures were identified using the International Classification of Disease Tenth Revision diagnostic code (S720). The trends in the utilization of cemented and cementless hemiarthroplasty were then analyzed. RESULTS: The proportion of cementless hemiarthroplasty increased from 42.7% of all surgical procedures in 2007 to 61.4% of all surgical procedures in 2011 (p < 0.001), while the use of cemented hemiarthroplasty demonstrated a corresponding decrease. CONCLUSIONS: There was a current trends towards using cementless stems in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Cements , Cementation/trends , Female , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Hip Prosthesis/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
8.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2014; 21 (5): 874-878
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153915

ABSTRACT

Objective of this study determines the outcome of unipolar hemiarthoplasty in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad/ Jamshoro. Total 50 elderly patients were included in the study with femoral neck fracture and all the cases were selected from accident, emergency and OPD. All the patients with the history of pregnancy, those patients who were unfit for anesthesia, malignancy, neurological deficits of lower extremity, rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson's disease regarding with systemically disease were excluded from the study. All the patients under went surgical hemiarthoplasty treatment with Austin moor-femoral head prosthesia. In the last all postoperative complications, functional outcome and mortality were noted on proforma. Total 50 patients were included in the study. Mean age of this study was mean +/- SD 64.98 +/- 4.13. Females were found in majority with male/ female ratio 1:1.27. Post operative pain was noted in the 50% of the cases and out of them severe pain was noted only in 4% of the cases. Superficial infection was seen in 4% of the cases and deep infection was not found in the cases and death was occurred in 10% of the patients. On the outcome, excellent results were found in the 44.44% of the study participants, good and fair results were seen in 26.66% and 20% respectively, while poor results were seen in 8.88% of the patients. It is concluded that unipolar hemiarthoplasty is of the reliable procedure by use of Austin-moor femoral head prosthesia for the treatment of femoral neck fracture in elderly


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Aged , Femoral Neck Fractures/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
9.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 20(4): 149-152, dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743160

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento de las lesiones focalizadas del cartílago y la osteoartrosis unicompartimentales de rodilla en pacientes de edad media, continúa siendo un desafío. Los resultados a largo plazo de los tratamientos quirúrgicos utilizando diferentes técnicas como microfracturas, limpieza artroscópica, osteotomías son bien conocidos. Ninguna de estas garantiza una solución definitiva sin necesidad de una nueva intervención luego de los 7 años. Unicap, hemi-prótesis de superficie, es una alternativa prometedora para la restauración del compartimiento medial de la rodilla, en pacientes de edad madura con lesiones osteocondrales, necrosis ósea focalizada y osteoartritis unicompatimental. Objetivo: Describir las indicaciones y la técnica quirúrgica para la utilización de Arthrosurface Unicap femoral y platillo tibial medial.


The treatment of isolated cartilage lesions and degenerative osteoarthritis of the medial compartments of the knee in middle-aged patients remains challenging. There are a variety of operative and non-operative modalities that can be used in these cases. The long results of the different surgical techniques like microfractures, arthroscopic debridement, tibial osteotomy are well known. None of these techniques can guarantee a final solution without further intervention after 7 years. Hemicap arthrosurface arthroplasty is one of the latest alternatives designed to address the pain caused by severe, isolated osteoarthritis (OA) of the Femoro tibial joint (FTJ). Objective: This paper outlines the indications and the surgical procedure for the femoro-tibial HemiCAP arthrosurface for isolated FT chondral lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Knee Joint/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Arthroscopy/methods , Femur/surgery , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Osteochondritis/surgery , Osteonecrosis/surgery , Tibia/surgery
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty is used in the management of fractures of the proximal femur. The dual articulation is cited as advantageous in comparison to unipolar prostheses as it decreases acetabular erosion, has a lower dislocation rates and is easier to convert to a total hip arthroplasty (THA) should the need arise. However, these claims are debatable. Our study examines the rate of conversion of the bipolar hemiarthroplasty to THA and the justification for using it on the basis of future conversion to THA. METHODS: All cases of bipolar hemiarthroplasty performed in our unit for hip fractures over a 9-year period (1999-2007) were reviewed. Medical notes and radiographs of all patients were reviewed, and all surviving patients that were contactable received a telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Of all 164 patients reviewed with a minimum of 1 year from date of surgery, 4 patients had undergone a conversion of their bipolar prosthesis to THA. Three conversions were performed for infection, dislocation, and fracture. Only one (0.6%) conversion was performed for groin pain. CONCLUSIONS: Our study show that bipolar hemiarthroplasties for hip fractures have a low conversion rate to THAs and this is comparable to the published conversion rate of unipolar hemiarthroplasties.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Female , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Male , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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