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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 951-954, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828080

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.


Resumo Gyropsylla spegazziniana (ampola da erva-mate) é uma das principais pragas da erva-mate, tanto em áreas de plantio como em viveiros. A proibição do uso de inseticidas para o controle de pragas da cultura tem levado à busca de alternativas. Este trabalho visou avaliar comparativamente, em laboratório, estratégias de aplicação de um produto comercial à base de óleo de nim sobre G. spegazziniana, em solução a 5%. Os testes foram realizados em mudas de erva-mate, tratadas pré e pós-infestação com ninfas de 5º instar do inseto, para avaliação de contato. Também, avaliou-se a ação sistêmica do óleo de nim, aplicando-se a solução do produto no solo da muda de erva-mate, seguido da transferência dos insetos após 24 h. Verificou-se que os tratamentos via pulverização foram eficientes contra a praga, principalmente na aplicação pós-infestação (80% de mortalidade), comprovando o potencial inseticida do óleo de nim contra a ampola-da-erva-mate em mudas. Entretanto, em relação à atividade sistêmica, não foram observados efeitos consideráveis sobre a praga.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycerides/pharmacology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hemiptera/drug effects , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Nymph/drug effects , Paraguay , Soil , Tea , Terpenes/pharmacology , Seedlings
2.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 430-435, May-June 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-556530

ABSTRACT

In two field-collected populations of de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B biotype previously selected with the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam (NEO-R, NEO-N), and a population susceptible to insecticides (SUSC), the level of response to the insecticide thiametoxam, as well as the life and fertility tables were determined. At LC95, the NEO-R population showed a resistance ratio (RR95) value of 8.8-fold, an intrinsic rate of increase (r m) of 0.72. The fitness of the NEO-R and NEO-N populations in relation to the SUSC was 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. The RR95 value for NEO-N was 1.9-fold; it's r m value was 0.082, while in the SUSC population was 0.041. The developmental time of egg and adult were longer in NEO-R population, while the nymph and pupa lasted longer in the NEO-N and SUSC populations. The developmental time was different in the three NEO-R, NEO-N, and SUSC populations with 19.7 d (315.84 degree days or dd), 15.7 d (250.4 dd) and 18.5 d (296.6 d), respectively. The populations previously selected with thiamethoxam did not reproduce faster than their susceptible counterpart.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Oxazines/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology
3.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 436-440, May-June 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-556531

ABSTRACT

Spiromesifen is an insecticide that inhibits the synthesis of lipids and, in Mexico, its use against the Tomato-Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), on chili pepper (Capsicum annum), tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) began in 2005; however more information is needed to understand its toxicity on this insect pest. The aim of this research was to determine the toxicity of spiromesifen against each of the biological stages of tomato-potato psyllid, its effect on fertility and viability of eggs deposited by treated females, as well as the female preference to lay eggs on treated and non treated plants. The relative toxicity at 95 percent mortality (highest LC95 value /LC95 value of the respective biological stage) of spiromesifen in egg, nymph 1, nymph 2, nymph 3, nymph 4, and nymph 5 were 517.5; 31316.2; 2950.1; 315.6; 18.2 and 1-fold, respectively. There were no differences in the toxicity of spiromesifen between adult males and females. The number of laid eggs was reduced as the spiromesifen concentration used to treat female increased and egg hatch was reduced in all tested doses. In the "no choice" test, females deposited 38.6 ± 2.01 eggs by leaf of non treated chili pepper type jalapeño, while in the treated with 360 mg L-1 we observed 0.3 ± 0.08 eggs by leaf. In the "choice" test, the oviposition decreased as the dose increased. There were no eggs on plants treated with 2400 mg L-1 of spiromesifen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/drug effects , Hemiptera/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Spiro Compounds/toxicity
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(4): 1201-1215, dic. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637755

ABSTRACT

Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agrícola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1201-1215. Epub 2009 December 01.


Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) es una plaga polífaga, cosmopolita y de gran relevancia mundial, sobre todo como vector de virus en numerosos cultivos, por lo que sería deseable un enfoque preventivo para su manejo. En tal sentido, podría recurrirse a la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas, algunas de ellas presentes en plantas tropicales, lo cual contribuiría al aprovechamiento de la rica biodiversidad mesoamericana. Por tanto, se evaluó la posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci de dos especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae: titonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray) y tora (Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth.). Para ello, en condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron los extractos crudos y cuatro fracciones (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol) de ambas especies, a los cuales se les hizo un análisis fitoquímico (tamizaje) el cual permitió determinar cuáles metabolitos presentes en T. diversifolia y M. hibiscifolia podrían causar fagodisuasión en B. tabaci. Se realizaron dos tipos de experimentos: de escogencia restringida y de escogencia irrestricta. En los primeros, cada fracción se evaluó a cuatro dosis (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5% v/v), y se comparó con cuatro tratamientos testigo: aceite agrícola, endosulfán, un emulsificante (Citowett) y un testigo absoluto (agua). Se asperjaron plantas de tomate colocadas dentro de jaulas de manga, donde se liberaron 50 adultos de B. tabaci. Para determinar si existía fagodisuasión se utilizó como criterio el número de adultos posados a las 48h. Para el experimento de escogencia irrestricta se utilizaron las dos concentraciones más altas (1.0 y 1.5%) del extracto crudo de cada especie y se compararon con el aceite agrícola y agua. Los extractos crudos de titonia y tora causaron fagodisuasión, y para ambas especies la fracción de metanol fue la que más sobresalió. En conclusión, los resultados obtenidos en los bioensayos junto con los obtenidos en el análisis de los componentes químicos presentes, sugieren que los metabolitos causantes de la fagodisuasión son algunas lactonas sesquiterpénicas, compuestos polifenólicos (flavonoides y taninos) y saponinas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asteraceae/chemistry , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Hemiptera/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Asteraceae/classification , Time Factors
5.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(4): 531-536, July-Aug. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-525844

ABSTRACT

Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.


É crescente a necessidade de desenvolvimento de métodos alternativos para o manejo de pragas com o aumento da consciência pública sobre os efeitos adversos de pesticidas à saúde humana e ao ambiente. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o óleo de sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa), uma fruta tropical comestível, para o controle de pragas. O óleo prensado de sementes foi tão eficiente quanto o pesticida recomendado para controle da mosca-branca Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestando folhas de tomate em casa-de-vegetação, com a vantagem de não apresentar fitotoxicidade. Em observações ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, o óleo de semente induziu ao ressecamento das ninfas e o seu desprendimento da superfície da folha. O óleo de sementes de fruta-do-conde também foi eficaz no controle do pulgão do algodoeiro, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), infestando folhas de melão, e do ácaro de Kanzawa, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), em folhas de soja. Este estudo revelou a possibilidade de utilizar o óleo de sementes de fruta-do-conde, um sub-produto agrícola, como produto de largo espectro de ação mas seguro ao ambiente e à saúde humana, em programas de manejo de pragas agrícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Annona , Aphids/drug effects , Hemiptera/drug effects , Pest Control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Seeds , Tetranychidae/drug effects
6.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(1): 116-125, Jan.-Feb. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-510410

ABSTRACT

O monitoramento da suscetibilidade de pragas a praguicidas é essencial para programas de manejo da resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a variabilidade genética de populações de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), oriundas de diferentes áreas agrícolas, quanto a suscetibilidade a inseticidas no Brasil, por meio de dois testes diferentes. Quatro populações de mosca-branca foram testadas em relação a uma população suscetível de referência (SusIAC); duas oriundas de Goiás (GO-1 e GO-2) e outras duas da Bahia (BA-1 e BA-2). Uma técnica de bioensaio do tipo contato residual foi empregada para realização dos testes: 1) teste diagnóstico da resistência; e 2) teste para obtenção das linhas de suscetibilidade das populações. Os produtos utilizados foram acetamipride, imidaclopride, tiametoxam, clorpirifós e endosulfam. Utilizaram-se insetos adultos não separados por sexo e nem por idade nos testes. As avaliações foram realizadas em 24h, para o teste com endosulfam, e em 48h, para os demais produtos. Ambos os testes revelaram variabilidade genética quanto à suscetibilidade de mosca-branca aos inseticidas. No entanto, a discriminação entre as populações de B. tabaci foi mais evidente com o uso de testes diagnósticos. A população GO-2 foi significativamente menos suscetível aos produtos testados que a SusIAC, principalmente em relação aos neonicotinóides. A situação mais crítica de resistência de mosca-branca foi com tiametoxam, seguida pelo imidaclopride.


Monitoring the susceptibility of a pest population to pesticides is essential for resistance management programs. The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability in pesticide susceptibility in populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collected from different Brazilian agricultural regions through the use of two different tests. Four whitefly populations, two from Goiás state (GO-1 and GO-2) e two from Bahia state (BA-1 and BA-2), were tested against a susceptible reference one (SusIAC). A residual contact bioassay was used to evaluate the pesticide susceptibility of each population by using diagnostic concentration bioassays and by estimating the baseline susceptibility data to each one of the tested insecticides, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan. Adult insects of unknown age and sex were tested. Evaluations were performed after 24h for endosulfan and 48h for the other chemicals. Both procedures showed significant differences in the susceptibility to the pesticides among B. tabaci populations. However, the discrimination among B. tabaci populations was more evident with the use of diagnosis tests. The population GO-2 was significantly less susceptible to the tested pesticides than SusIAC, mainly to neonicotinoids. The most critical resistance situation of B. tabaci was detected to thiamethoxam, followed by imidacloprid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/drug effects , Hemiptera/genetics , Insecticides/pharmacology , Brazil
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(4): 2099-2113, Dec. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637800

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol), 0.5% (water:methanol) and 1.5% (diethyl ether). However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.


Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico). Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico) del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae) fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga), tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol), 0.5% (agua:metanol) y 1.5% (éter dietílico). Sin embargo, en los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero) ninguna de las fracciones lo hizo, lo cual sugiere que los principios fagodisuasivos perdieron su actividad en esas condiciones experimentales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fabaceae/chemistry , Hemiptera/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Hemiptera/physiology
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(4): 2115-2129, Dec. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637801

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2115-2129. Epub 2008 December 12.


Bemisia tabaci es una plaga clave de hortalizas y otros cultivos, mundialmente, y representa un problema particularmente serio en los trópicos, debido a su habilidad para transmitir varios tipos de virus, especialmente begomovirus (Geminiviridae). Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría consistir en la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas en las eta-pas tempranas del desarrollo de la planta (período crítico). Así, el extracto crudo y cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico) de tacaco cimarrón (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), fueron evaluadas por su posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre B. tabaci en un invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta mostraron dicha actividad en el extracto crudo y en algunas de sus fracciones. En el primer tipo de experimento (en jaulas de manga), las fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (éter dietílico) y 0.5% (agua y agua: metanol), mientras que la fracción metanólica no la causó. Sin embargo, en los otros experimentos (plantas expuestas a B. tabaci dentro de un invernadero) ninguna de las fracciones funcionó bien, lo cual sugiere que los principios disuasivos se disiparon bajo esas condiciones experimentales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Hemiptera/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Hemiptera/physiology
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(4): 2131-2146, Dec. 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637802

ABSTRACT

Bemisia tabaci is a key virus vector on several crops worldwide. Then, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of bitterwood (Quassia amara, Simaroubaceae) were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former case (in sleeve cages), all fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1 % (methanol), 0.5 % (water: methanol and diethyl ether), and 1% (water). In the latter case (plants exposed in a greenhouse) the methanol fraction stood out, followed by the diethyl ether fraction. Nonetheless, none of the fractions performed better than the deterrent control (mineral oil). Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 2131-2146. Epub 2008 December 12.


En el plano mundial, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico). Tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua: metanol, metanol, y éter dietílico). Evaluamos extractos del árbol llamado "hombre grande" (Quassia amara, Simaroubaceae) fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci, usando tomate, en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia irrestricta e irrestrictam, el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga), todas las fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis de apenas 0.1% (metanol), 0.5% (agua: metanol y éter dietílico) y 1% (agua). En los segundos (plantas expuestas dentro de un invernadero) sobresalió la fracción metanólica, seguida por la de éter dietílico. Sin embargo, ninguna de las fracciones superó al testigo fagodisuasivo (aceite mineral).


Subject(s)
Animals , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Hemiptera/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Quassia/chemistry , Hemiptera/physiology
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(2): 373-383, jun. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637588

ABSTRACT

A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose) and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol) solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18±0.1 °C at night and 28±0.1 °C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod). In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml). As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82 % respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95 % mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10 % in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 373-383. Epub 2007 June, 29.


Se desarrolló una metodología de bioensayo para evaluar toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ingeridas por Tagosodes orizicolus, plaga del arroz y vector del virus de la hoja blanca. Se establecieron colonias del insecto en condiciones de invernadero usando plantas de arroz como alimento. Para el bioensayo, se desarrolló un sistema de alimentación in vitro para ninfas de tercer y cuarto estadío. Los insectos se alimentaron de soluciones de miel de abeja (1:48 vol/vol) y sacarosa (10 %) a través de membranas de Parafilm. Se observaron mortalidades del 10-15 % y 0-5 %, respectivamente, en ambas dietas. Los resultados fueron reproducibles en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura (18±0.1 °C de noche y 28±0.1 °C de día, 80 % H.R y a 12:12 fotoperíodo día:noche). Asimismo, se analizó la mortalidad natural de los insectos según su procedencia, sin embargo, no se observaron diferencias significativas en condiciones controladas. Finalmente, se elaboraron bioensayos para evaluar la toxicidad de una colección de cepas de Bt contra T. orizicolus. Se evaluó preliminarmente, una submuestra de 27 cepas de Bt en bioensayos burdos usando tres asadas como inóculo para 9 ml de dieta líquida. Posteriormente, las cepas que mostraron los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad se evaluaron en bioensayos usando esporas y cristales liofilizados (1 mg/ml). Como resultado, las cepas aisladas a partir de homópteros 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d y 23-O-to mostraron mortalidades de 74, 96, 44 y 82 % respectivamente, mientras que las HD-137, HD-1 y Bti mostraron 19, 83 y 95 % de mortalidad. Los controles presentaron mortalidades de 0 y 10 % en los bioensayos. Este es el primer informe de un bioensayo para evaluar la toxicidad de cepas de Bt utilizando la especie T. orizicolus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/chemistry , Bacterial Toxins/toxicity , Biological Assay/methods , Hemiptera/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Oryza/parasitology
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jun; 45(6): 554-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57923

ABSTRACT

The effect of Bt-cotton, i.e. genetically modified cotton that contain genes expressing delta-endotoxin, on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations was determined with a two-year field study at a cotton farm near Marble Hall, South Africa. Although Bt-cotton is lepidopteran specific, non-lepidopteran arthropod populations may be indirectly influenced by the endotoxin. Abundance of aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations and predator-prey interactions were used as measures to determine possible effects on the populations under investigation. The cultivation of Bt-cotton had no effect on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid or coccinellid abundance. Positive density dependent interactions occurred between aphids and coccinellids which were not influenced by Bt-cotton. A significant relationship between whitefly and coccinellid abundance, i.e. predator-prey reaction, occurred in the control and sprayed non-Bt cotton fields but was absent from the Bt-cotton fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/drug effects , Coleoptera/drug effects , Diptera/drug effects , Ecosystem , Endosulfan/pharmacology , Food Chain , Gossypium/genetics , Hemiptera/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Population Density
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