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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206

ABSTRACT

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.


O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oviposition , Behavior , Eucalyptus/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development
2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 98-106, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095831

ABSTRACT

El complejo de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) incluye algunas de las principales plagas del ejote francés (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Dentro de las cuales, Bemisia tabaci es vector del virus del mosaico dorado que afecta la calidad y rendimiento del cultivo, con pérdidas hasta del 100% y un control difícil debido a la resistencia adquirida por las plagas hacia algunos agroquímicos. El ejote francés ocupa el segundo lugar entre de los productos no tradicionales de exportación de Guatemala. Su manejo agronómico ha sido principalmente a través del control químico, el cual afecta insectos y otros organismos que no son el objetivo del control, tales como: polinizadores, insectos benéficos, humanos y fauna silvestre. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: determinar la presencia de enemigos naturales nativos de la mosca blanca e identificar las especies de mosca blanca presentes en el cultivo del ejote francés en Chimaltenango. Para el estudio se establecieron cuatro parcelas de 300 m², se realizaron muestreos semanales durante dos ciclos del cultivo. En cada parcela se muestrearon cinco sitios y en cada sitio cinco plantas. Las especies de parasitoides nativos encontrados fueron: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose y Zolnerowuch y Amitus fuscipennis MacGown y Nebeker, la especie más abundante fue A. fuscipennis. Los depredadores identificados fueron Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) e Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. La especie más abundante fue H. convergens. Estas especies podrían ser herramientas valiosas para ser empleadas en programas de control biológico, producciones orgánicas o en programas de manejo integrado de plagas.


The whitefly complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) includes some of the main pests of the French green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Among which, Bemisia tabaci is a vector of the golden mosaic virus that affects the quality and yield of the crop, with losses up to 100% and difficult control due to the resistance acquired by pests towards some agrochemicals. The French green bean ranks second among the non-traditional export products of Guatemala. Its agronomic management has been mainly through chemical control, which affects insects and other organisms that are not the objective of the control, such as: pollinators, beneficial insects, humans and wildlife. The objectives of the study were: to determine the presence of natural enemies native to the whitefly and identify the species of whitefly present in the cultivation of the French bean in Chimaltenango. For the study, four 300 m² plots were established, weekly sampling was carried out during two crop cycles. Five sites were sampled on each plot and five plants on each site. The native parasitoid species found were: Encarsia Formosa Gahan, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowuch and Amitus fuscipennis MacGown and Nebeker, the most abundant species was A. fuscipennis. The predators identified were Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville. The most abundant species was H. convergens. These species could be valuable tools to be used in biological control programs, organic productions or in integrated pest management programs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phaseolus/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phaseolus/growth & development , Diptera , Hemiptera/parasitology , Mosaic Viruses
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 951-954, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828080

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.


Resumo Gyropsylla spegazziniana (ampola da erva-mate) é uma das principais pragas da erva-mate, tanto em áreas de plantio como em viveiros. A proibição do uso de inseticidas para o controle de pragas da cultura tem levado à busca de alternativas. Este trabalho visou avaliar comparativamente, em laboratório, estratégias de aplicação de um produto comercial à base de óleo de nim sobre G. spegazziniana, em solução a 5%. Os testes foram realizados em mudas de erva-mate, tratadas pré e pós-infestação com ninfas de 5º instar do inseto, para avaliação de contato. Também, avaliou-se a ação sistêmica do óleo de nim, aplicando-se a solução do produto no solo da muda de erva-mate, seguido da transferência dos insetos após 24 h. Verificou-se que os tratamentos via pulverização foram eficientes contra a praga, principalmente na aplicação pós-infestação (80% de mortalidade), comprovando o potencial inseticida do óleo de nim contra a ampola-da-erva-mate em mudas. Entretanto, em relação à atividade sistêmica, não foram observados efeitos consideráveis sobre a praga.


Subject(s)
Animals , Glycerides/pharmacology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hemiptera/drug effects , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Nymph/drug effects , Paraguay , Soil , Tea , Terpenes/pharmacology , Seedlings
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 250-255, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.


Resumo Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) e o parasitoide associado Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. Exemplares dessa cochonilha foram coletados sobre ramos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L.f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. e Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), em três municípios do Estado de Roraima. Todas as plantas aqui mencionadas são registradas pela primeira vez como hospedeiras de L. dendrobii. Caracteres morfológicos da cochonilha e sintomas das plantas hospedeiras infestadas por esta praga são incluídos neste trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Citrus/growth & development , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/parasitology , Larva/physiology , Ovum/classification , Pupa/growth & development , Pupa/physiology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 903-907, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660387

ABSTRACT

The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata has caused serious damage to cassava producing areas in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, little is known about the biological characteristics of this species. The objective of this study was therefore, to monitor the development of this species bred on cassava plants under controlled greenhouse conditions, and to determine its most vulnerable stages and its reproductive capacity, as well as measuring the length and width each stage of development. To obtain these data, adult individuals were kept in voile traps on cassava leaves of five different plants, totalling ten leaves. After 24 hours the leaves were removed from the traps thus making each egg-laden leaf an experimental unit. The lowest mortality rate was record in the last nymphal stage ('pupae) compared with the other development stages. The highest mortality occurred in the nymphs at the 2nd and 3rd instars. Each female laid an average of 6.3 eggs in 24 hours. Thirteen days after egg laying, every one of the nymphs was fixed on the leaves of cassava plants. From the egg laying stage up until the adult stage, the process took 26 days. The proportion of females was 73.5%. The average size of the B. tuberculata egg was 163.22 µm in length and 72.39 µm in width and the "pupae" is 915.82 µm in length and 628.71 µm in width. The measurements of males were 797.16 µm in length and 200.81 µm in width and the length females 916.12 µm in length and 338.99 µm in width. The parasitoid Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was found in the insect stock culture.


A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata tem causado sérios danos a áreas produtoras de mandioca do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características biológicas dessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, portanto, acompanhar o desenvolvimento dessa espécie criada em plantas de mandioca em condições de casa de vegetação, além de determinar as suas fases mais vulneráveis e a sua capacidade reprodutiva, e medir o comprimento e a largura das fases de desenvolvimento. Para obter esses dados, os indivíduos adultos foram mantidos em armadilhas voil de folhas de mandioca, de cinco plantas diferentes (duas folhas por planta), totalizando dez folhas. Após 24 horas, as folhas foram retiradas das armadilhas, tornando-se cada folha carregada de ovos uma unidade experimental. Na última fase de ninfa (pupa), a menor taxa de mortalidade foi observada, em comparação com os outros estágios de desenvolvimento. A maior mortalidade ocorreu em ninfas, fixadas em segundo e terceiro ínstares. Cada fêmea depositou uma média de 6,3 ovos em 24 horas. Após 13 dias de postura dos ovos, todas as ninfas estavam fixas nas folhas das plantas de mandioca. A partir da postura dos ovos até a fase de aparecimento dos adultos, foram necessários 26 dias. Houve uma proporção de 73,5% de fêmeas. Os ovos de B. tuberculata medem 163,22 µm de comprimento e 72,39 µm de largura. A pupa mede 915,82 µm de comprimento e 628,71 µm de largura. O macho mede 797,16 µm de comprimento e 200,81 µm de largura, e a fêmea mede 916,12 µm de comprimento e 338,99 µm de largura. O parasitoide Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) foi encontrado na criação estoque.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/physiology , Manihot/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Longevity , Oviposition , Time Factors
6.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(4): 445-451, July-Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599804

ABSTRACT

Fifth-instars of the cicada species Dorisiana drewseni (Stål), Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar) are described and illustrated. Moreover, a key to the nymphs of these species along with Quesada gigas (Olivier) is also provided.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Coffea/parasitology , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Brazil , Nymph/anatomy & histology
7.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 89-96, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578839

ABSTRACT

Ovary development and maturation of Nezara viridula (L.) were evaluated by examining ovariole morphology and the alterations in the biochemical (protein synthesis related to reproduction) composition of the hemolymph. Quantitative and qualitative protein analyses were performed and ovary structural alterations for the pre-reproductive and reproductive stages were recorded. Total concentration of proteins in female hemolymph gradually increased until the end of the pre-mating stage, remaining unaltered thereafter. Proteins linked to reproduction (vitellogenins) appeared in the hemolymph 10 days after adult emergence and indicated the end of the pre-mating stage. After mating, total protein concentration in the hemolymph was lower compared to virgin females; vitellogenin levels were similar during most of the observation period. Oocyte development and maturation were gradual and age dependent. Ten-day-old females had chorionated oocytes ready for fertilization. Mating did not stimulate oocyte development in N. viridula, but the lack of mating activity appeared to have stimulated oocyte resorption in 17-day-old females.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hemiptera/growth & development , Ovary/growth & development , Age Factors , Sexual Maturation
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(2): 239-242, abr.-jun. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578961

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da cigarrinha Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.) no município de Bandeirantes-PR. Plantas com cerca de dois anos, na fase reprodutiva, com inflorescências, flores, frutos e sementes, serviram como fonte para a coleta de ninfas e adultos das cigarrinhas. Registrou-se em alfavaca-cravo a espécie Aethalion reticulatum e a interação com as formigas Camponotus rufipes e C. crassus.


The aim of this work was to report the occurrence of the leafhopper Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum) in Bandeirantes Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Plants around two years old, in the reproductive phase, presenting inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds, were used as source for collection of leafhopper nymphs and adults. In clove basil, the species Aethalion reticulatum was recorded, in addition to its interaction with the ants Camponotus rufipes and C. crassus.


Subject(s)
Ants , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hemiptera/parasitology , Ocimum/growth & development , Symbiosis
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 414-419, May-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-556527

ABSTRACT

As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Copulation , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hemiptera/physiology , Ovary/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary/ultrastructure
10.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 436-440, May-June 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-556531

ABSTRACT

Spiromesifen is an insecticide that inhibits the synthesis of lipids and, in Mexico, its use against the Tomato-Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), on chili pepper (Capsicum annum), tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) began in 2005; however more information is needed to understand its toxicity on this insect pest. The aim of this research was to determine the toxicity of spiromesifen against each of the biological stages of tomato-potato psyllid, its effect on fertility and viability of eggs deposited by treated females, as well as the female preference to lay eggs on treated and non treated plants. The relative toxicity at 95 percent mortality (highest LC95 value /LC95 value of the respective biological stage) of spiromesifen in egg, nymph 1, nymph 2, nymph 3, nymph 4, and nymph 5 were 517.5; 31316.2; 2950.1; 315.6; 18.2 and 1-fold, respectively. There were no differences in the toxicity of spiromesifen between adult males and females. The number of laid eggs was reduced as the spiromesifen concentration used to treat female increased and egg hatch was reduced in all tested doses. In the "no choice" test, females deposited 38.6 ± 2.01 eggs by leaf of non treated chili pepper type jalapeño, while in the treated with 360 mg L-1 we observed 0.3 ± 0.08 eggs by leaf. In the "choice" test, the oviposition decreased as the dose increased. There were no eggs on plants treated with 2400 mg L-1 of spiromesifen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/drug effects , Hemiptera/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Spiro Compounds/toxicity
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(2): 254-261, Mar.-Apr. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-515107

ABSTRACT

A mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, foi detectada no Brasil em 2001. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biologia, a biometria e a preferência hospedeira de A. woglumi em três plantas hospedeiras (laranja doce, lima ácida Tahiti e manga). Para isso, foram montados experimentos em laboratório, de janeiro a junho de 2006, com insetos coletados em plantas de limão-cravo, C. limonia na área de produção da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias - UFAM. No estudo da preferência hospedeira, foram avaliados: número de espirais (posturas) e de ovos por planta, número de ovos por espiral por planta, sobrevivência dos imaturos (ovos, ninfas de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º estádios), enquanto no experimento de biologia foram avaliadas a duração e sobrevivência da fase imatura. O período embrionário foi de 15 dias em média para os três hospedeiros. O estádio de ninfa 4 (pupário) foi o mais longo quando comparado com as outras fases de desenvolvimento. A sobrevivência foi maior nas fases de ninfa 3, ovo e ninfa 2. A duração média do ciclo ovo-adulto foi de 70 dias para os três hospedeiros avaliados. Os ovos são colocados em forma de espiral na face inferior das folhas. As ninfas de 1º estádio locomovem-se a pequenas distâncias da espiral, enquanto as de 2º, 3º e 4º são sésseis e têm cerdas em todo o corpo. Com base na maior oviposição e sobrevivência da fase imatura da mosca-negra em lima ácida Tahiti, esta planta pode ser considerada o hospedeiro mais favorável para A. woglumi.


The citrus blackfloy, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovopositions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immatures (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfloy in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Citrus/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Mangifera/parasitology , Citrus sinensis/parasitology
12.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(1): 74-82, Jan.-Feb. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-510404

ABSTRACT

Chinavia longicorialis (Breddin) is recorded only in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay on host plants of at least three different families. Adults and nymphs were reared under standard controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10 percent RH; 12hL:12hD), and fed on green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Eggs and first instars of C. longicorialis are very similar to those of other species of Chinavia; however, the presence of orange maculae at the thoracic pleura is exclusive of first instars of C. longicorialis. Third to fifth instars have abdominal maculae divided by pseudo-sutures, a diagnostic feature of C. longicorialis nymphs. Light and dark morphs were observed for third, fourth and fifth instars. Head width measurements did not overlap between consecutive instars. The most frequent size of an egg clutch was 14; we suggest the adoption of the mode as the best and useful estimate of the egg clutch size for Pentatomidae. Average duration of the immature stages (egg to adult) was 39.4 ± 3.20 days. The high mortality observed from second to fifth instar (82.4 percent) and the lack of reproduction of the second generation indicate that green beans are unsuitable to proper development and reproduction of C. longicorialis by itself.


Chinavia longicorialis (Breddin) é encontrada apenas no Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai, sobre plantas hospedeiras de pelo menos três famílias diferentes. Adultos e ninfas dessa espécie foram coletados no Parque Estadual do Espinilho (Barra do Quaraí, RS) e na região da Serra do Sudeste (Canguçu e Caçapava do Sul, RS) e mantidos sob condições controladas (24 ± 1°C; UR 70 ± 10 por cento; 12hL:12hE), alimentados com vagens verdes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Os ovos e as ninfas de primeiro ínstar de C. longicorialis são muito semelhantes àqueles das demais espécies de Chinavia; porém apresentando manchas alaranjadas na margem lateral dos segmentos torácicos. As manchas abdominais, a partir do terceiro ínstar, são nitidamente divididas pelas pseudo-suturas do abdome, o que constitui caráter diagnóstico para C. longicorialis. Ninfas do terceiro ao quinto ínstar apresentaram formas claras e escuras. Não foi observada sobreposição nas medidas de largura da cabeça entre diferentes estádios. O número de ovos por postura mais freqüente foi 14; sugere-se a adoção da moda como melhor estimativa para o tamanho das posturas em Pentatomidae. A duração média da fase imatura (ovo a adulto) foi de 39,4 ± 3,20 dias. A alta mortalidade do segundo ao quinto ínstar (82,4 por cento) e a ausência de desempenho reprodutivo nos adultos da segunda geração de laboratório indicam que vagens de feijão constituem alimento inadequado para a sobrevivência e reprodução de C. longicorialis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Nymph
13.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 53(1): 144-146, 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-511785

ABSTRACT

Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 ºC e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'). Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas) tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus). As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.


Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD), with temperature of 26 ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'). Initially 100 replications (nymphs) per treatment (Eucalyptus species) were prepared. The evaluations were daily and the following biological parameters were measured: nymph phase duration and viability, adult longevity, number of eggs/female, duration of incubation period, egg number and viability, total cycle, longevity and duration of adults. The results demonstrated that, except for C. citriodora, the other eucalypt species offer conditions to G. brimblecombei biological development, being E. camaldulensis the most adequate species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus , Hemiptera/growth & development , Pest Control, Biological , Biology , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources
14.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Sep; 29(5): 811-2
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113232

ABSTRACT

Idioscopus clypealis (Lethierry) is commonly known as mango leaf hopper. The hopper reduces mongo production by causing non setting of flower and dropping of immature fruits. The first appearance of hoppers (0.12 and 0.16) on the branches of mango trees was recorded in February which is correlated with increase in maximum (23.89 degrees C and 24.29 degrees C) and minimum temperature (11.46 degrees C and 11.88 degrees C) and decrease in relative humidity (88.15% and 86.85%). Peak hopper population (5.88 and 6.46) was recoded in May on temperature range of(40.34 degrees C and 40.88 degrees C) and (27.22 degrees C and 27.62 degrees C) as maximum and minimum, which was very high, whereas, relative humidity was very low (55.80% and 55.09%). With the increase in maximum and minimum temperature and decrease in relative humidity hopper population raised. Thus, maximum and minimum temperature positively affected the hopper population, whereas, relative humidity had negative effect, but rainfall showed no significant effect, as it was fluctuating.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/growth & development , Humidity , India , Mangifera , Population Density , Seasons , Temperature
15.
Neotrop. entomol ; 37(2): 191-195, Mar.-Apr. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-483206

ABSTRACT

A mosca-branca é um dos insetos mais prejudiciais à cultura do feijoeiro, devido principalmente à intensa sucção de seiva e à transmissão do vírus do mosaico dourado. O uso de cultivares resistentes ao inseto é uma ferramenta importante no seu controle. Ensaios foram conduzidos em laboratório, avaliando-se aspectos biológicos de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para os seguintes genótipos de feijoeiro: Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056, Arc 1 e Porrillo 70. As plantas (estágio IV-1) foram infestadas por moscas-brancas durante um dia e os ovos e ninfas foram observados até a emergência dos adultos. A longevidade e a fecundidade dos insetos emergidos também foram avaliadas. Ninfas alimentadas no genótipo Arc 3s (26,5 dias) tiveram o período de desenvolvimento mais longo, seguidas de G11056 (25,9 dias) e G13028 (25,3 dias). Houve um alongamento de 5,5 dias no período de desenvolvimento dos insetos em Arc 3s quando comparado com Porrillo 70. Altas taxas de mortalidade das ninfas nos genótipos Arc 3s e G11056 (94,7 e 83,1 por cento, respectivamente) indicam que tais materiais podem apresentar resistência do tipo não-preferência para alimentação e/ou antibiose. Assim, embora a longevidade e a fecundidade do inseto não tenham sido afetadas quando criado nos genótipos resistentes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 e Arc 5s), sugere-se que tais materiais sejam utilizados em programas de melhoramento de feijoeiro visando à resistência a B. tabaci biótipo B.


The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germoplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf whiteflies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7 percent and 83.1 percent, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding nonpreference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fabaceae/parasitology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Genotype
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(1): 161-167, Feb. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482198

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to evaluate the stimuli that orient Gryon gallardoi females to the eggs of Spartocera dentiventris and allow their discrimination. Using a four-arm olfactometer connected to four odor sources - S. dentiventris eggs; hexane washed eggs; tobacco leaves; and tobacco leaves with eggs - the arrestment of female parasitoids with previous oviposition experience and without was individually verified. The time of permanence in each odor field was registered for a period of 15 minutes. Host discrimination, regarding age and previous parasitism, was tested using arenas, where females were exposed for 30 minutes, individually, to egg groups with different treatments. To evaluate age discrimination, three groups of eggs, previously washed with hexane, were employed in the following conditions: one day-old eggs; one-day brushed with 12-days-old egg extract; 12-days-old eggs with extract of one day-old eggs; and control (washed eggs, one day-old). The same procedure was done using five and eight days-old eggs jointly with control. Age-dependent egg discrimination was verified exposing four egg groups in the following treatments: parasitized, parasitized and washed with hexane, not parasitized, and not parasitized with extract of parasitized eggs. Olfactometer tests showed that inexperienced females remained more time next to tobacco leaves when compared to experienced ones. Experienced females responded to odors that emanated from eggs. Egg extracts did not promote age discrimination; however, non parasitized eggs, with extract of parasitized eggs were partially avoided. The results obtained indicate that G. gallardoi females might modify their responses upon contact with host. This fact suggests learning occurs; however, the acceptance and discrimination of host may be influenced by a complex array of stimuli, difficult to evaluate in isolation.


Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os estímulos que direcionam as fêmeas Gryon gallardoi aos ovos de Spartocera dentiventris e promovem discriminação deles. Através de um olfatômetro de quatro braços conectado a quatro fontes de odor (ovos de S. dentiventris não lavados, ovos lavados com hexano, folhas de fumo e folhas de fumo com ovos) verificou-se, individualmente, o arrestamento dos parasitóides, experientes em oviposição e não experientes, registrando-se o tempo de permanência em cada campo de odor por 15 minutos. Para avaliar a discriminação do hospedeiro, em relação à idade e parasitismo prévio, utilizaram-se arenas, onde as fêmeas foram expostas por 30 minutos, individualmente, a grupos de ovos com diferentes tratamentos. Para a avaliação da idade, utilizaram-se três grupos de ovos, lavados com hexano, nas seguintes condições: ovos de um dia de idade pincelados com extrato de ovos de 12 dias, ovos de 12 dias com extrato de ovos de um dia e controle (ovos lavados de um dia). O mesmo procedimento foi feito utilizando-se ovos de cinco e oito dias de idade, juntamente com o controle. A discriminação de ovos previamente parasitados foi verificada expondo quatro grupos de ovos com os seguintes tratamentos: parasitados, parasitados e lavados com hexano, não parasitados e não parasitados com extrato de ovos parasitados. Testes em olfatômetro demonstraram que as fêmeas inexperientes permaneceram mais tempo junto às folhas de fumo que as experientes. As fêmeas experientes responderam aos odores oriundos dos ovos. Os extratos de ovos não promoveram a discriminação da idade, porém ovos não parasitados, impregnados com extrato de parasitados, foram parcialmente evitados. Os resultados deste trabalho apontam que as fêmeas de G. gallardoi podem modificar suas respostas diante do contato prévio com o seu hospedeiro, sugerindo aprendizagem, porém a aceitação e a discriminação do hospedeiro podem ser influenciadas por uma complexa combinação de estímulos,...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Odorants , Ovum/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/growth & development
17.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 52(2): 139-181, 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-486015

ABSTRACT

As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866), mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871), é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871) n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848), C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848) n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Espécies redescritas: C. agrestis...


The species of Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from the state of São Paulo are revised. Thirty-six species are studied, 9 are synonymyzed, 8 new species are described and 19 known species are redescribed. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 and C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866) were not studied because the type material or other specimens were not found. Our studies indicate that C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 and C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 were erroneously cited by Hempel, 1900 as occurruing in the state of São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, currently Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871), is transferred to Ceroplastes as Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871) n. comb. Ceroplastes flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and Ceroplastes cassiae (Chavannes, 1848), C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 and C. quadratus Green, 1935 are recorded for the first time for state of São Paulo. The Ceroplastinae is now represented by 31 species in the state of São Paulo, all included in the genus Ceroplastes. Identification key and illustrations for species are included. New synonyms are proposed: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. syn.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848) n. syn. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. syn.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. syn. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. syn. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. syn and C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. syn.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. syn.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. syn. New species described are: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Redescribed species are: C. agrestis Hempel, 1932; C. cassiae; ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/growth & development , Residence Characteristics , Brazil , Species Specificity
18.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(6): 972-975, Nov.-Dec. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-473552

ABSTRACT

Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer) é amplamente distribuída na região Neotropical, sendo uma importante praga de Solanaceae. Foram descritas variações na coloração das ninfas para essa e outras espécies de pentatomídeos e seu conhecimento é essencial para a identificação precoce. Foram coletadas ninfas e adultos de A. albopunctatus em fragmentos florestais em Criciúma, Içara, Maracajá e Araranguá, SC, de dezembro de 2005 a julho de 2006. Foram observadas as formas de coloração conhecidas das ninfas de 4º e 5º ínstares, bem como três tipos novos, aqui descritos e denominados forma vermelha (4º e 5º ínstares), forma verde (4º e 5º ínstares) e forma laranja (5º ínstar).


Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer) is widely distributed in the Neotropical region, being an important pest of Solanaceae. Color variation of nymphs was described for this and other pentatomid species and their knowledge is essential for an early identification. From December 2005 to July 2006 nymphs and adults of A. albopunctatus were collected in forest fragments in Criciúma, Içara, Maracajá and Araranguá (SC, Brazil). Known morphs of nymphs of both 4th and 5th instars were observed, as well as three new morphs, here described and named red morph (4th and 5th instars), green morph (4th and 5th instars) and orange morph (5th instar).


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Color , Hemiptera/growth & development
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(4): 547-554, July-Aug. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-464617

ABSTRACT

Prosapia simulans (Walker) es una especie de salivazo que ataca los pastos del género Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. desde México hasta Colombia y ocasiona pérdidas económicas a la industria ganadera. El desarrollo de cultivares resistentes es considerado el mejor método de control del salivazo. Este trabajo tuvo los siguientes objetivos: corroborar la identificación de P. simulans originarias de México y Colombia, probar nuevos híbridos de Brachiaria por resistencia a esta especie y caracterizar los mecanismos de resistencia presentes en ellos. Mediante la combinación de caracteres morfológicos (uso de claves taxonómicas, disección de la genitalia del macho) y técnicas moleculares (RAPD-PCR) se logró corroborar que P. simulans es plaga de Brachiaria spp. desde México hasta Colombia. Para probar híbridos de Brachiaria y caracterizar los mecanismos de resistencia se realizó un ensayo de selección donde se sometieron 34 híbridos al ataque del salivazo. La metodología utilizada fue desarrollada en el CIAT. En el ensayo se infestó con seis huevos maduros de la especie P. simulans por planta. Se usaron diez repeticiones por genotipo en un diseño completamente al azar. En el ensayo de selección de los híbridos se detectaron siete híbridos susceptibles, 16 con resistencia intermedia y 11 resistentes. El mecanismo de resistencia que se expresó en los híbridos resistentes y en los testigos CIAT 6294 y CIAT 36062 fue el de antibiosis. BRX 4402 y CIAT 0606 fueron clasificados como muy susceptibles.


Prosapia simulans (Walker) is an important spittlebug species that attacks forage grasses of the genus Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb. from Mexico to Colombia. This, and several other species of spittlebugs, cause important economic losses to the livestock production industry. Development of resistant cultivars is regarded as the best method of control. In the present study we used taxonomic keys, dissection of male genitalia and RAPD-PCR patterns to reconfirm the identity of P. simulans specimens collected in Colombia and Mexico. We were able to reconfirm that P. simulans occurs as a pest of Brachiaria from Mexico to Colombia. We also studied the levels and mechanisms of resistance present in 34 Brachiaria hybrids developed by CIAT. Infestations were made with six eggs per plant. We used 10 replications (plants) per genotype in a completely randomized design. Seven hybrids were found to be susceptible, 16 showed intermediate resistance and 11 were resistant. Antibiosis was the mechanism of resistance expressed in resistant hybrids as well as in the resistant checks CIAT 6294 and CIAT 36062. Tolerance was absent. The genotypes BRX 4402 and CIAT 0606 were classified as highly susceptible.


Subject(s)
Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Hemiptera/growth & development , Brachiaria/parasitology
20.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(3): 445-453, May-June 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-458894

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos das fases de ovo e de ninfa de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B e avaliar a não-preferência para oviposição em testes com e sem chance de escolha e sua correlação com o número e tipo de tricomas nas cultivares de algodoeiro (BRS Ipê, BRS 186-Precoce 3, BRS Acala, BRS Verde, BRS 200-Marrom, BRS Cedro, BRS Ita 90-2 e BRS Aroeira). Os experimentos foram realizados em câmaras climatizadas (28 ± 2°C, 70 ± 10 por cento UR e fotofase de 14h), e em casa-de-vegetação. A viabilidade dos ovos não foi afetada pelas cultivares de algodoeiro, porém, a sobrevivência no período de ovo a adulto foi influenciada pelo hospedeiro. Não houve efeito das cultivares na duração da fase de ovo, do segundo, terceiro e quarto ínstares nem no período de ovo a adulto. As ninfas que se desenvolveram na cultivar BRS Ipê tiveram o primeiro ínstar alongado, diferentemente daquelas desenvolvidas nas demais cultivares. As cultivares BRS Aroeira, BRS Verde e BRS Ita 90-2 apresentaram baixo número de ovos nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência, mas não foi possível estabelecer uma correlação entre a densidade de tricomas e a não-preferência para oviposição.


The purposes of this work were to evaluate some biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B at egg and nymphal stages and to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition and its correlation with the number and type of trichomes on the cotton cultivars BRS Ipê, BRS 186-Precoce 3, BRS Acala, BRS Verde, BRS-200 Marrom, BRS Cedro, BRS Ita 90-2 and BRS Aroeira. The experiments were conducted in climatic chambers at 28 ± 2°C, 70 percent RH and photophase of 14h, and in greenhouse. Egg fertility was not affected by the cotton cultivars but survival in egg-adult period was influenced by the host plant. There was no influence of cultivars neither on the duration of egg stage, nymphs at 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars nor on the duration from egg to adult, but nymphs reared on the cultivar BRS Ipê had their 1st instar extended. Low number of eggs was detected on the cultivars BRS Aroeira, BRS Verde and BRS Ita 90-2 in both experiments with and without oviposition choice, indicating a possible mechanism of resistance, but no correlation could be established between trichome densisty and oviposition non-preference.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gossypium/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Oviposition , Hemiptera/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages
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