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2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3083-3092, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodities exported, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States are the main coffee producers. Scale insects are important coffee pests, and 73 species of Cerococcidae (3), Coccidae (18), Diaspididae (6), Eriococcidae (1), Ortheziidae (3), Pseudococcidae (21), Putoidae (2) and Rhizoecidae (19) have been associated with roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Arabica coffee in the Neotropics. Eight species were found associated with Arabica coffee in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States in this study, and Coccidae was the most frequent family. Coccus alpinus, Cc. celatus, Cc. lizeri, Cc. viridis, and Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) were found in both states; Alecanochiton marquesi, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Diaspididae), and Dysmicoccus texensis (Pseudococcidae) were only found in Minas Gerais. Alecanochiton marquesi and P. trilobitiformis are first reported in Minas Gerais, and Cc. alpinus in Espírito Santo, on Arabica coffee. All scale insect species were associated with coffee leaves and branches, except D. texensis, associated with coffee roots. Fourty seven scale insect species have been found occurring in Brazilian Arabica coffee, and in Espírito Santo (28) and Minas Gerais (23). Widespread and geographical distribution of each species found are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coffee/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Animal Distribution , Plant Dispersal , Hemiptera/classification
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 31-39, Jan.-Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897523

ABSTRACT

ResumenEn México se han registrado 29 especies del género Amnestus, de las cuales, seis se encuentran en el estado de Veracruz. Se describen e ilustran las características morfológicas de los estadios inmaduros de A. rugosus, incluyendo notas sobre su biología y comportamiento. Las ninfas y adultos fueron recolectados en los remanentes de la vegetación riparia del bosque mesófilo en la cuenca del río La Antigua, Veracruz. El muestreo se realizó en la zona montañosa del centro del estado y en la parte media de la cuenca. Se seleccionaron 12 sitios ubicados en cinco municipios, y se realizaron muestreos en época de lluvias (julio) y en secas (abril); las muestras fueron procesadas en embudos de Berlese-Tullgren y Winkler. Se recolectaron y revisaron 419 ejemplares, 320 adultos y 99 ninfas de A. rugosus. El tamaño y coloración del cuerpo y los patrones de puntuación son las principales diferencias entre los estados inmaduros de A. rugosus, A. ficus y A. morelensis.A. rugosus representa un nuevo registro para Veracruz.


Abstract:In Mexico there are 29 species of Amnestus, of which six species are from Veracruz. The morphological features and illustrations of immature stages of A. rugosus are presented. Notes about the biology and behavior were included. The nymphal and adult stages of A. rugosus were found in remnants of riparian vegetation of the mesophilous forest in La Antigua river basin, Veracruz, Mexico. Twelve sites in five localities were selected and the specimens were sampled in rainy (July) and dry (April) seasons of 2012. The samples were processed in Berlese-Tullgren funnel and Winkler. A total of 419 individuals, 320 adults and 99 nymphs of A. rugosus were revised. The size and coloration of the body and punctuation patterns the immature stages of A. rugosus, A. ficus, and A. morelensis are the main differences among these species. A. rugosus is a first record from Veracruz. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 31-39. Epub 2017 March 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/anatomy & histology , Hemiptera/physiology , Nymph/anatomy & histology , Nymph/physiology , Rain , Seasons , Species Specificity , Forests , Age Factors , Biodiversity , Rivers , Mexico
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 787-795, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).


Resumo Foram encontrados 31 morfotipos de galhas de insetos e dois danos em flores em 16 famílias, 22 gêneros e 24 espécies de plantas, na Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias de plantas com maior riqueza de galhas (4 e 6 morfotipos, respectivamente) e maior número de espécies com galhas (quatro e três espécies, respectivamente). As galhas predominaram nas folhas e caules (77% e 10%, respectivamente). Os insetos galhadores estão representados por Diptera, Lepidoptera e Hemiptera. A maioria das galhas (81%) foi induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Plant Tumors/classification , Brazil , Plant Stems/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Myrtaceae/parasitology , Diptera/classification , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/parasitology , Lepidoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/physiology
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1209-1222, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958207

ABSTRACT

AbstractTreehoppers are known for their substrate-borne communication and some of them also for their subsocial behavior. Following a more general study of the natural history and substrate-borne signal repertoire of the treehopper Ennya chrysura, the objective of this paper was to explore in greater depth the signals and other behaviors associated specifically to egg-guarding. Theese were studied both in natural and laboratory conditions between July, 2000 and March, 2004. The spatial distribution of egg guarding females was studied in the natural population; recording equipment and playback experiments were used in the laboratory and then analyzed digitally. Under natural conditions (San Antonio de Escazú, Costa Rica), female E. chrysura guard their egg masses and egg-guarding was associated with lower parasitism of the eggs from the wasps Gonatocerus anomocerus and Schizophragma sp. (Mymaridae). Females tended to place their eggs close to other egg-guarding females and they produced substrate-borne vibrations when disturbed. An aggregated pattern under natural conditions was confirmed by calculating dispersion indices from egg-clutch data obtained from 66 leaves in the field. The disturbance signal was characterized from laboratory recordings of substrate-borne vibrations of 10 egg-guarding females. Experiments conducted in the laboratory with 18 egg-guarding females showed that those which were previously exposed to the disturbance signal of another female moved slightly or vibrated more during playbacks and that they reacted more quickly and exhibited more deffensive behaviors in response to a tactile stimulus. The signals produced while defending against egg parasites may therefore function as an alarm and favor aggregating behavior of egg-guarding females. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1209-1222. Epub 2016 September 01.


ResumenDespués de un estudio más general sobre la historia natural y la comunicación por vibraciones de sustrato del membrácido Ennya chrysura, este artículo explora con mayor profundidad los comportamientos específicamente relacionados con el cuido de los huevos. En condiciones naturales (San Antonio de Escazú, Costa Rica), las hembras de E. chrysura con frecuencia protegen sus masas de huevos, y el cuido está asociado con un menor porcentaje de parasitismo causado por las avispas parasitoides de huevos Gonatocerus anomocerus and Schizophragma sp. (Mymaridae). Las hembras tendían a poner sus huevos en la cercanía de otras hembras con huevos, y producían vibraciones de sustrato en respuesta a disturbios. Se confirmó un patrón agregado bajo condiciones naturales, calculando índices de dispersión a partir del número de masas de huevos en 66 hojas. La señal fue descrita a partir de grabaciones hechas en el laboratorio con 10 hembras que protegían sus huevos. Los experimentos conducidos con 18 hembras mostraron que aquellas que fueron expuestas a la señal de disturbio de otra hembra, se movieron ligaramente o vibraron más durante el experimento, y reaccionaron a un estímulo táctil más rápidamente y con un mayor número de comportamientos defensivos. Las señales producidas durante la defensa de huevos podrían entonces funcionar como alarma, y favorecer la agrupación con otras hembras que también protegen sus huevos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ovum/parasitology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Appetitive Behavior , Reference Values , Social Behavior , Time Factors , Vibration , Sex Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Clutch Size , Animal Distribution/physiology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 307-314, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781385

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus.


Resumo A produção massal de percevejos predadores no laboratório é priorizada para liberá-los no campo, como parte de programas de MIP. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a melhor presa para a criação do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) entre cinco espécies diferentes de insetos (três de Lepidoptera, uma de Coleoptera e uma de Diptera). Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. nigrispinus foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos transparentes de 1000 ml, adultos foram colocados em placas de Petri para o acasalamento e, ambos os estágios foram mantidos sob condições controladas (25 ± 1°C, fotofase de 12 horas e 70 ± 10% UR). Ninfas e adultos de P. nigrispinus consumiram mais larvas de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) do que as outras presas testadas. O consumo de larvas de mosca foi de 1,5 larvas/dia/ninfa e adultos 1,7 larvas/dia/adulto. No entanto, o número de ovos por fêmea foi menor quando o predador consumiu larvas de M. domestica (407,8 ovos/fêmea) e maior quando consumiu larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) (797,7 ovos/fêmea). Além disso, a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas foi maior quando as fêmeas do predador consumiram larvas de D. saccharalis larvas (90,0%). Larvas de D. saccharalis é a melhor presa para a criação de P. nigrispinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Food Chain , Hemiptera/physiology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Diptera/physiology , Life Cycle Stages/physiology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 250-255, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.


Resumo Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) e o parasitoide associado Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. Exemplares dessa cochonilha foram coletados sobre ramos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L.f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. e Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), em três municípios do Estado de Roraima. Todas as plantas aqui mencionadas são registradas pela primeira vez como hospedeiras de L. dendrobii. Caracteres morfológicos da cochonilha e sintomas das plantas hospedeiras infestadas por esta praga são incluídos neste trabalho.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/physiology , Animal Distribution , Brazil , Citrus/growth & development , Hemiptera/growth & development , Hymenoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Larva/parasitology , Larva/physiology , Ovum/classification , Pupa/growth & development , Pupa/physiology
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1077-1085, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769659

ABSTRACT

Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava.


Subject(s)
Animals/microbiology , Animals/parasitology , Animals/physiology , Animals/prevention & control , Hemiptera/microbiology , Hemiptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Hemiptera/prevention & control , Hypocreales/microbiology , Hypocreales/parasitology , Hypocreales/physiology , Hypocreales/prevention & control , Manihot/microbiology , Manihot/parasitology , Manihot/physiology , Manihot/prevention & control , Pest Control, Biological/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/parasitology , Pest Control, Biological/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Diseases/physiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 819-827, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715474

ABSTRACT

Rice cultivars are affected directly and indirectly by the insect sogata. The mechanical damage or direct loss, is produced after feeding and ovoposition on the young leaves tissues, while the indirect damage is produced after the transmission of the Rice hoja blanca virus. We studied the morpho-anatomic structures associated with the resistance of the mechanical damage produced by the insect, in six rice cultivars, including controls for resistance and susceptibility (Makalioka and Bluebonnet 50), during August 2011, in Fundacion Danac, Venezuela. Samples were taken from leaf 3, where cuticle thickness, presence of macrohair, microhair and silica bodies in the second third of the leaf was evaluated. A significant difference to thickness of the cuticle, the presence of microhair in the leaves, and presence of silica bodies was observed among cultivars, determining a significant correlation among the number of macrohair and microhair in the adaxial leaf blade with the presence of silica bodies, and thickness of the cuticle and number of posed insects. Thickness of the cuticle and presence of silica bodies in the intercostals space of microhair and macrohair showed to be the variables most related to mechanical damage and resistance mechanism.


El arroz es afectado directa e indirectamente por el insecto sogata. El daño directo o mecánico es debido a la postura de huevos y alimentación del tejido foliar por parte del insecto y el daño indirecto que ocurre es por la trasmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. El ensayo fue conducido en la Fundación DANAC en agosto 2011, con la finalidad de evaluar las estructuras morfoanatómicas asociadas con la resistencia al daño mecánico en seis cultivares de arroz que incluyen a los testigos de resistencia y susceptibilidad (Bluebonnet 50 y Makalioka). En el tercio medio de la tercera hoja, se evaluaron las variables grosor de la cutícula, presencia de macropelos, micropelos y cuerpos silíceos. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los cultivares para el grosor de cutícula, número de micropelos y presencia de cuerpos silíceos, se determinó una correlación significativa entre el número de macro-pelos y micropelos en la cara adaxial con la presencia de cuerpos silíceos y el grosor de la cutícula y el número de insectos posados a las 96h. El grosor de la cutícula y la presencia de cuerpos silíceos en los espacios intercostales de los micropelos y macropelos mostraron ser los caracteres más relacionados con la resistencia al daño mecánico y los mecanismos de resistencia al insecto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/physiology , Oryza/parasitology , Plant Epidermis/parasitology , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/classification , Oryza/cytology , Plant Epidermis/cytology , Plant Leaves/cytology , Venezuela
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 118-131, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715419

ABSTRACT

Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.


Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) es una especie neotropical perteneciente a la familia Pentatomidae con más de 4 000 especies descritas, y se distribuye desde la Florida hasta Brasil. Este estudio describe el comportamiento sexual y reporta por primera vez la producción de vibraciones de sustrato por machos y hembras durante el comportamiento precopulatorio y la cópula. Se grabó tanto el comportamiento de cortejo y de cópula como las diversas señales producidas utilizando un cartucho fonográfico, conectado a una cámara de video. Posteriormente se reprodujo las vibraciones de las hembras en ausencia de estas y se registró las respuestas de los machos. Se distinguieron al menos tres vibraciones de sustrato distintas para los machos y una para las hembras, y se caracterizaron por ser señales de baja frecuencia que van desde los 127 hasta 180Hz. Las sonidos de los machos en E. floridianus fueron significativamente diferentes en la frecuencia, duración y número de pulsos tanto en el cortejo como en la cópula para los sonidos de ronroneo y tamborileo. La producción de sonidos en esta especie se asoció principalmente con comportamientos estimulatorios- mecánicos durante el cortejo y copula. Patrones de comportamiento y su relación con las vibraciones del sustrato sugiere que estas señales pueden ser importantes para los machos en el contexto de la localización de su compañera y la selección sexual.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Copulation/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Vocalization, Animal/physiology , Brazil , Hemiptera/classification , Reproduction/physiology , Sex Factors
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(4): 1891-1900, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703935

ABSTRACT

The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.


La interpretación conjunta de la fenología y el metabolismo nutricional proporciona datos importantes sobre la reacción de tejidos vegetales y el período de inducción de agallas. En el estado de Goiás, Brasil se estudió una población de Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae con agallas foliares inducidas por un Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea. Suponiendo que la similitud morfológica entre las hojas del hospedero y las agallas intralaminares genera un gradiente de hojas sin agallas hacia hojas con agallas, se establece un continuo morfo-fisiológico. La fenología, la infestación de las agallas y el contenido de carbohidratos y nitrógeno se evaluaron mensualmente en 10-20 individuos, de septiembre 2009 a septiembre 2010. El objetivo fue analizar el estado nutricional y el establecimiento de un continuo fisiológico entre las hojas que producen agallas y las hojas sin agallas de A. macrocarpon. El período de emergencia de hojas coincidió con los niveles más altos de nitrógeno en las hojas nuevas, y los niveles más bajos de carbohidratos.Los nutrientes se consumieron previamente por las hojas en crecimiento, en el momento de inducción de las agallas. Los niveles de carbohidratos fueron más altos en las hojas con agallas que en aquellas sin agallas, en análisis basados en tiempo, lo que indica su ciclo de funcionalidad potencial. Las hojas hospederas se infestaron en octubre, el desarrollo y la senescencia de las agallas se llevó a cabo entre marzo y septiembre, en las hojas hospederas. Estas primeras hojas senescentes causaron mortalidad de insectos. Hay mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes en el momento de la inducción de las agallas y parece ser importante no sólo para el establecimiento del insecto que produce agallas, sino también para la capacidad de respuesta de los tejidos de la planta hospedera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apocynaceae/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Apocynaceae/chemistry
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 73(2): 413-418, maio 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680016

ABSTRACT

The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.


A cochonilha rosada do hibisco (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) e o himenóptero parasitoide associado, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), são registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil. Exemplares dessa cochonilha foram coletados em nove plantas hospedeiras – Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae); Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae); Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae); Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae); Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae); Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae); Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae) –, em quatro municípios do norte-nordeste do Estado de Roraima. As plantas C. paraensis, I. edulis e C. sinensis são registradas pela primeira vez como hospedeiras para PHM. Injúrias características apresentadas pelas plantas hospedeiras infestadas pela cochonilha rosada e sugestões para o seu manejo são apresentados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnoliopsida/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/classification , Hymenoptera/classification , Brazil , Hemiptera/physiology , Hymenoptera/parasitology
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(2): 162-175, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-722789

ABSTRACT

Total phenols, total tannins, proanthocyanidins, total flavonoids and total hydroxycinnamic acids of healthy leaves and galls of Schinus longifolius (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) infected by Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae) were analized. The gall presents a qualitative and quantitative change in the polyphenols analysed, with a reduction of phenols, tannins, flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids and an increased content of proanthocyanidins, whose monomer yielded cyanidin after acid cleavage. An anatomical survey was performed and clusters of sclereids and an increased vascular development respect of the healthy leaf were found. An histochemical survey showed a differential expression of polyphenolic compounds in their tissues. C. mammifex could use the gall as a shelter against adverse weather conditions and predators, and also provide food with less potentially harmful compounds in the early stages of its development.


Se analizaron los fenoles totales, taninos totales, proantocianidinas, flavonoides totales y ácidos hidroxicinámicos totales de hojas sanas y agallas de Schinus longifolius (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) infectado por Calophya mammifex (Hemiptera - Calophyidae). La agalla presenta una variación cuali-cuantitativa de los polifenoles estudiados, con una disminución de los fenoles, taninos, flavonoides y ácidos hidroxicinámicos y un aumento en el contenido de proantocianidinas, cuyo monómero se transforma en cianidina luego del clivaje ácido. Se realizó además un análisis anatómico de la agalla donde se encontraron acúmulos de esclereidas y un mayor desarrollo vascular respecto de la hoja sana y un ensayo histoquímico que mostró una expresión diferencial de metabolitos polifenólicos en sus tejidos. C. mammifex utiliza la agalla como refugio contra las condiciones climáticas adversas y predadores y provee además de alimento con menos compuestos potencialmente perjudiciales en las etapas tempranas de su desarrollo.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/parasitology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Hemiptera/physiology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Histocytochemistry , Plant Leaves/parasitology , Proanthocyanidins , Polyphenols/metabolism , Tannins/analysis
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 26-33, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697833

ABSTRACT

Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Communication , Diptera/physiology , Hemiptera/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Sound , Species Specificity , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 903-907, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660387

ABSTRACT

The whitefly Bemisia tuberculata has caused serious damage to cassava producing areas in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, little is known about the biological characteristics of this species. The objective of this study was therefore, to monitor the development of this species bred on cassava plants under controlled greenhouse conditions, and to determine its most vulnerable stages and its reproductive capacity, as well as measuring the length and width each stage of development. To obtain these data, adult individuals were kept in voile traps on cassava leaves of five different plants, totalling ten leaves. After 24 hours the leaves were removed from the traps thus making each egg-laden leaf an experimental unit. The lowest mortality rate was record in the last nymphal stage ('pupae) compared with the other development stages. The highest mortality occurred in the nymphs at the 2nd and 3rd instars. Each female laid an average of 6.3 eggs in 24 hours. Thirteen days after egg laying, every one of the nymphs was fixed on the leaves of cassava plants. From the egg laying stage up until the adult stage, the process took 26 days. The proportion of females was 73.5%. The average size of the B. tuberculata egg was 163.22 µm in length and 72.39 µm in width and the "pupae" is 915.82 µm in length and 628.71 µm in width. The measurements of males were 797.16 µm in length and 200.81 µm in width and the length females 916.12 µm in length and 338.99 µm in width. The parasitoid Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) was found in the insect stock culture.


A mosca-branca Bemisia tuberculata tem causado sérios danos a áreas produtoras de mandioca do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre as características biológicas dessa espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, portanto, acompanhar o desenvolvimento dessa espécie criada em plantas de mandioca em condições de casa de vegetação, além de determinar as suas fases mais vulneráveis e a sua capacidade reprodutiva, e medir o comprimento e a largura das fases de desenvolvimento. Para obter esses dados, os indivíduos adultos foram mantidos em armadilhas voil de folhas de mandioca, de cinco plantas diferentes (duas folhas por planta), totalizando dez folhas. Após 24 horas, as folhas foram retiradas das armadilhas, tornando-se cada folha carregada de ovos uma unidade experimental. Na última fase de ninfa (pupa), a menor taxa de mortalidade foi observada, em comparação com os outros estágios de desenvolvimento. A maior mortalidade ocorreu em ninfas, fixadas em segundo e terceiro ínstares. Cada fêmea depositou uma média de 6,3 ovos em 24 horas. Após 13 dias de postura dos ovos, todas as ninfas estavam fixas nas folhas das plantas de mandioca. A partir da postura dos ovos até a fase de aparecimento dos adultos, foram necessários 26 dias. Houve uma proporção de 73,5% de fêmeas. Os ovos de B. tuberculata medem 163,22 µm de comprimento e 72,39 µm de largura. A pupa mede 915,82 µm de comprimento e 628,71 µm de largura. O macho mede 797,16 µm de comprimento e 200,81 µm de largura, e a fêmea mede 916,12 µm de comprimento e 338,99 µm de largura. O parasitoide Encarsia porteri (Mercet, 1928) (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) foi encontrado na criação estoque.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hemiptera/physiology , Manihot/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Longevity , Oviposition , Time Factors
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 105-117, Mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657766

ABSTRACT

Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the “Rice hoja blanca virus”. During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control ‘Bluebonnet 50’ was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control ‘Makalioka’ had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and viposition. The genotype ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.


Tagosodes orizicolus es una de las principales plagas del cultivo del arroz en América tropical causando dos tipos de daños a la planta, el directo, por efecto de la alimentación y oviposición; el indirecto, por la transmisión del virus de la hoja blanca del arroz. Durante el período 2006-2007 se llevó a cabo una investigación bajo condiciones de umbráculo en la Fundación Danac, Venezuela, con el objeto de determinar los mecanismos de resistencia de antixenosis, antibiosis y tolerancia a T. orizicolus que pudieran estar actuando en líneas avanzadas y cultivares del programa de mejoramiento enético de arroz de las instituciones INIA y Fundación Danac. Para la evaluación de antixenosis se utilizó el método de libre elección, para antibiosis (efecto sobre sobrevivencia y oviposición de los insectos) el de alimentación forzada, adicionalmente se usó un método indirecto para estimar la tolerancia. Dentro de los principales parámetros determinados se encontraban: grado de daño, número de insectos posados sobre plantas de arroz, porcentaje de mortalidad de sogata en estado adulto, número de huevos y se calculó un índice de tolerancia con base en la biomasa. Los resultados mostraron que los genotipos de arroz evaluados poseen diferentes combinaciones en cuanto a los mecanismos de resistencia, así como el grado de su efecto. El testigo ‘Bluebonnet 50’ se mantuvo consistentemente susceptible en las evaluaciones y el testigo resistente ‘Makalioka’ fue el único genotipo que presentó alta antixenosis y alta antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. El resto de los genotipos presentaron un menor o mayor grado de resistencia de tipo antixenosis y antibiosis para sobrevivencia y oviposición. Se identificó el genotipo ‘FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1’ con posible tolerancia al daño directo de sogata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hemiptera/physiology , Oryza/parasitology , Antibiosis/physiology , Genotype , Oryza/genetics , Venezuela
18.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(5): 619-621, Sept.-Oct. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604492

ABSTRACT

Asopines are predators of insects, with several species with potential as biocontrol agents of a number of pests. Metrogaleruca obscura (Degeer), a neotropical species of Galerucini, was introduced in Malaysia, Asia, and Mauritius, Africa, to control the spread of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae), a native plant of the neotropics. The occurrence of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) preying on M. obscura is recorded, and Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) is mentioned as a host plant for M. obscura. A list of Chrysomelidae attacked by asopines in the neotropical region is also presented.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology
19.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(2): 288-289, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586671

ABSTRACT

Neem (Azadirachta indica) seedlings were found infested by the brown burrower bug, Scaptocoris castanea Perty, in December 2009, in the county of Tupaciguara, Minas Gerais state. Symptoms observed varied from leaf yellowing and stem drying, reduction in root size and number to plant death. This is the first report of S. castanea attacking neem plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera/physiology , Meliaceae/parasitology , Seedlings/parasitology , Brazil
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 78(1): 115-117, jan-mar, 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1396421

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho buscou desenvolver uma metodologia que possibilita a realização em laboratório, estudos de biologia e avaliação de estratégias de controle a Vatiga manihotae (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae). O trabalho foi conduzido no período de setembro de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram coletadas em campo folhas de mandioca infestadas com ninfas e adultos do percevejo de renda e acondicionadas em gaiolas revestidas com tela antiafídica. Posteriormente, os insetos foram transferidos para bandejas plásticas cobertas com tampa telada. Os pecíolos das folhas de mandioca foram envoltos com algodão hidrófilo umedecido e revestido com papel alumínio, para a manutenção da turgidez da folha, as quais eram trocadas em média a cada dois dias, a fim de garantir a alimentação dos insetos. Após a aplicação dos produtos em teste, folhas da planta de mandioca foram infestadas com ninfas e adultos do inseto, e envoltas em gaiolas foliares confeccionadas com tela antiafídica e polietileno incolor e transparente. Essa técnica mostrou-se favorável para o desenvolvimento de bioensaios com V. manihotae, permitindo obter um grande número de adultos em folhas de mandioca, facilidade de manuseio e baixa mortalidade dos indivíduos.


This study sought to develop a methodology that can be carried out in the laboratory, for studying the biology of Vatiga manihotae (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and evaluating the control strategies for this cassava pest. The study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009. Field collections were made of cassava leaves infested with nymphs and adults of the lacebug, and they were placed in cages lined with anti-aphid screen. Subsequently, the insects were transferred to plastic trays covered with a screened lid. The petioles of cassava leaves were wrapped with moistened cotton wool and covered with aluminum foil to maintain the turgidity of the leaves, which were exchanged on average every 2 days in order to ensure the supply of insects. After application of the test products, cassava leaves were infested with nymphs and adults of V. manihotae, and then wrapped in leaf cages made with colorless, transparent polyethylene screen. This technique proved to be favorable for the development of bioassays with V. manihotae, allowing for a large number of adults in cassava leaves, ease of handling and low mortality of individuals.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Hemiptera/physiology , Pest Control/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods
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