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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(3): 209-214, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The study assessed the role of acute hemodilution in the blood transfusion rate in patients submitted to surgical treatment of scoliosis. Methods: Retrospective observational study performed at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMRP-USP). Medical charts of patients submitted to elective correction of scoliosis between January 1996 and December 2016 were analyzed. Variables assessed were: age, weight, sex, presence of comorbidities, data regarding anesthesia and surgery, lab data, adverse events and blood transfusion rate. The final sample consisted of 33 procedures performed by the same anesthesiologist and same surgeon, divided into two groups: Hemodilution Group (n = 16) and Control Group (n = 17). Indication of acute normovolemic hemodilution was determined by patient refusal of blood transfusion for religious reasons. Results: The sample was statistically homogeneous and the groups were compared in terms of the attributes analyzed. The volume of homologous blood used by the Hemodilution Group was significantly lower than the Control Group (p = 0.0016). The percentage of patients who required transfusion was 12.5% in the Hemodilution Group, while it was 70.69% (p = 0.0013) in the Control Group. Upon hospital discharge, mean values of hemoglobin and hematocrit between groups did not present significant differences (p = 0.0679; p = 0.1027, respectively). Conclusions: Acute normovolemic hemodilution, in scoliosis correction surgeries, reduces blood transfusion rates, meeting patient needs without increasing adverse events or infection rates.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Este estudo avaliou o papel da hemodiluição aguda na taxa de transfusão sanguínea em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de escoliose. Método: Estudo observacional retrospectivo realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMRP/USP). Analisados prontuários de pacientes submetidos à correção de escoliose no período entre janeiro de 1996 a dezembro de 2016, em regime eletivo. As variáveis avaliadas foram: idade, peso, sexo, presença de doenças concomitantes, dados referentes à anestesia e à cirurgia, dados laboratoriais, eventos adversos e taxa de transfusão sanguínea. A amostra final foi composta por 33 procedimentos realizados pelo mesmo médico anestesiologista e pelo mesmo cirurgião, divididos em dois grupos: Grupo Hemodiluição (n = 16) e Grupo Controle (n = 17). A indicação de hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda foi determinada pela recusa à transfusão sanguínea pelos pacientes, por motivos religiosos. Resultados: A amostra foi estatisticamente homogênea e os grupos foram comparados considerando os atributos analisados. O volume de sangue homólogo utilizado pelo Grupo Hemodiluição foi significativamente menor que no Grupo Controle (p = 0,0016). A porcentagem de pacientes que necessitou transfusão foi de 12,5% no grupo Hemodiluição, enquanto no Grupo Controle foi de 70,69% (p = 0,0013). Na alta hospitalar, os valores médios de hemoglobina e hematócrito entre os grupos não apresentaram diferenças significantes (p = 0,0679; p = 0,1027, respectivamente). Conclusões: A hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda, em cirurgias para correção de escoliose, reduz a taxa de transfusão sanguínea, satisfazendo as necessidades dos pacientes sem aumentar as taxas de eventos adversos e de infecção.


Subject(s)
Scoliosis/surgery , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Hemodilution/methods , Retrospective Studies
2.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 63-68, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099203

ABSTRACT

Las cirugías de cabeza y cuello presentan un alto riesgo de sangrado que puede significar el uso de transfusiones sanguíneas. Existen casos en las que éstas son rechazadas, como sucede con los Testigos de Jehová. Se expone el caso de una paciente Testigo de Jehová con un tumor rinosinusal con alto riesgo de sangrado que consultó por epistaxis recurrente. Se evidencia un tumor ocluyendo la fosa nasal derecha de aspecto vascular a la rinoscopía y la tomografía computarizada. Múltiples aferencias de la arteria esfenopalatina y etmoidales se observaron en una angiografía cerebral. Previo a la resección, se embolizó la arteria maxilar. Durante la cirugía, se contó con un sistema de recuperación de sangre autóloga, hemodilución e infusión de ácido tranexámico. Se ligó la arteria etmoidal anterior derecha vía externa con apoyo endoscópico y luego se resecó el tumor vía endoscópica. La biopsia reveló un carcinoma sinonasal escamoso. Existen alternativas terapéuticas en pacientes que rechacen el uso de hemoderivados. Destacan medidas preoperatorias como la embolización endovascular, intraoperatorias como el uso de agentes hemostáticos, técnicas quirúrgicas y anestésicas. Es importante analizar todas las opciones disponibles de forma multidisciplinara y junto con el paciente, para determinar la conducta más adecuada a seguir.


Head and neck surgeries have a high risk of bleeding, and therefore could require the use of blood transfusions. There are cases for which blood transfusions are not an acceptable option, as is the case for Jehovah's Witnesses. We present the case of a Jehovah's Witness with a sinonasal tumor with a high risk of bleeding, who presented with recurrent epistaxis. Rhinoscopy and computed tomography revealed a vascular-like tumor occluding the right nasal cavity. Cerebral angiography showed afferents of the sphenopalatine and ethmoidal arteries leading to the tumor. Prior to the resection, the maxillary artery was embolized. During surgery, we relied on an autologous blood recovery system, hemodilution and tranexamic acid. Right anterior ethmoidal artery ligation was performed by an endoscopic assisted external approach. The tumor was resected endoscopically The biopsy revealed a squamous sinonasal carcinoma. There are therapeutic alternatives for patients who cannot receive blood products. There are preoperative measures such as endovascular embolization, intraoperative measures such as the use of hemostatic agents and specific surgical or anesthetic techniques. It's important to analyze all of the available options in a multidisciplinary team approach, and to take into consideration the patient's preferences, in order to determine the best surgical conduct.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Nose Neoplasms/surgery , Jehovah's Witnesses , Religion and Medicine , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Nose Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Treatment Refusal , Embolization, Therapeutic , Hemodilution
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 516-523, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057942

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To prospectively compare the clinical and laboratorial aspects of patients undergoing spine deformity surgery, using the acute normovolemic hemodilution technique with tranexamic acid, versus a control group with tranexamic acid alone, and to evaluate the influence of hemodilution in intraoperative bleeding and the need for homologous transfusion. Materials and Methods Comparative prospective study with patients aged between 12 and 65 years undergoing spine deformity surgery with the acute normovolemic hemodilution technique associated with tranexamic acid versus a control group to which only tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg) was administered. Laboratorial exams were performed and analyzed in three different moments. Results A total of 30 patients were included in the present study: 17 in the hemodilution group, and 13 in the control group. The mean duration of the surgery in the hemodilution group was longer. The number of levels submitted to surgery ranged from 7 to 16 in the hemodilution group, and from 4 to 13 in the control group. Osteotomy, predominantly of the posterior kind, was performed in 20 patients. There was more intraoperative bleeding in the control group. All patients were stable during the procedures. Only 6 participants needed homologous blood transfusion, mostly from the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the need for blood transfusion and intraoperative bleeding. The severity of the deformity was the main determinant for homologous blood transfusion.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar de modo prospectivo os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais dos pacientes submetidos a hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda associada ao ácido tranexâmico com um grupo de controle que recebeu apenas ácido tranexâmico, durante cirurgia de correção de deformidades da coluna, e avaliar a influência da técnica de hemodiluição no sangramento perioperatório e a necessidade de transfusão de sangue homólogo. Materiais e Métodos Estudo prospectivo comparativo, com pacientes entre 12 e 65 anos submetidos a cirurgia para correção de deformidades da coluna vertebral, com a técnica de hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda associada ao ácido tranexâmico, versus grupo de controle com ácido tranexâmico isolado na dose de 15 mg/kg. Exames laboratoriais foram feitos e analisados em três momentos de avaliação diferentes. Resultados Participaram deste estudo 30 pacientes: 17 no grupo de hemodiluição e 13 no grupo de controle. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi maior para o grupo de hemodiluição. O número de níveis operados variou entre 7 e 16 no grupo de hemodiluição, e entre 4 e 13 no grupo de controle. Fez-se osteotomia, predominantemente posterior, em 20 pacientes. O valor médio de sangramento intraoperatório foi maior no grupo de controle. Os parâmetros clínicos se mantiveram estáveis durante todos os procedimentos. Apenas 6 pacientes necessitaram de transfusão sanguínea homóloga, a maioria dos quais pertencia ao grupo de controle (p > 0,05). Conclusão Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos quanto à necessidade de transfusão e sangramento intraoperatório. A gravidade da deformidade foi o principal fator determinante da transfusão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Scoliosis , Spine , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Hemodilution/methods , Hemorrhage
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759984

ABSTRACT

This is a report of a 58-year-old female with Cushing syndrome who underwent posterior lumbar fusion and lost both her vision completely. She was diagnosed with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Cushingoid features such as buffalo hump and central obesity might have attributed in triggering posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. When laid prone for surgery, perioperative high abdominal pressure causes venous hypertension leading to increase amount of blood loss. To compensate, infusion of large quantities of intravenous fluids is necessary which leads to hemodilution which decreases ocular perfusion pressure. Hypercoagulability of Cushing syndrome is also potentially a risk factor of this condition which increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism. For there is no known effective treatment for posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, means to prevent this complication must be strategically reviewed. When performing long spine surgery on patient who has Cushing syndrome or cushingoid features, caution must be taken to avoid this devastating complication.


Subject(s)
Buffaloes , Cushing Syndrome , Female , Hemodilution , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Intraocular Pressure , Middle Aged , Obesity, Abdominal , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic , Perfusion , Risk Factors , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Thrombophilia , Venous Thromboembolism
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759595

ABSTRACT

Antibodies to high-incidence red blood cell antigens should be considered if panagglutination reactions are noted in all panel cells, and negative reactions to autologous red blood cells are detected on antibody screening and identification tests. In Korea, most of those antibodies are identified through international reference laboratories. To prevent a hemolytic transfusion reaction, antigen-negative red cells should be provided for those patients who have antibodies to red cell antigens. However, this is nearly impossible when the antibody has specificity to high-incidence red cell antigen. In those cases, transfusion of autologous blood, cryopreserved rare blood and the least incompatible blood components can be considered. In the case of surgery, acute normovolemic hemodilution or intraoperative blood salvage can also be considered. For the patients who have antibodies to high-incidence red cell antigens, it should be discussed to set up a national reference laboratory to quickly identify antibody specificities, and to consider establishing rare blood donor registry and frozen rare blood storage/supply system. This article reviews characteristics of antibodies to high-incidence antigens found in Koreans and also the transfusion experiences of those patients based on literature.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibody Specificity , Blood Donors , Erythrocytes , Hemodilution , Humans , Isoantibodies , Korea , Mass Screening , Operative Blood Salvage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Transfusion Reaction
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of irrigation fluid on coagulation according to the hemodilution level using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). METHODS: Venous blood was taken from 12 healthy volunteers and divided into four specimen tubes that were diluted to various levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) using an irrigation fluid composed of 2.7% sorbitol and 0.54% mannitol. RESULTS: Significant prolongation of clotting time was observed in the 40% diluted sample using both INTEM (P = 0.009) and EXTEM (P = 0.001) assays. However, the clot formation time was prolonged significantly in the 10%, 20%, and 40% diluted samples using both INTEM (P < 0.001) and EXTEM (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively) assays. A significant decrease of α-angle of INTEM and EXTEM were observed in the 10% (P < 0.001), 20% (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively), and 40% (P < 0.001) groups compared with the 0% dilution group. The maximum clot firmness (MCF) of INTEM decreased significantly in the 20% (P < 0.001) and 40% (P < 0.001) diluted samples. In the MCF of EXTEM and FIBTEM assays, 10% (P = 0.009 and P = 0.015, respectively), 20% (P = 0.001), and 40% (P < 0.001) samples showed a significant decrease compared with the 0% sample. Nevertheless, most of the ROTEM values were within the reference range, except the 40% sample. CONCLUSIONS: Blood became hypocoagulable when it was diluted in vitro with a fluid composed of 2.7% sorbitol and 0.54% mannitol.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Healthy Volunteers , Hemodilution , In Vitro Techniques , Mannitol , Reference Values , Sorbitol , Thrombelastography
8.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2019. s.p.p Obtenção do grau de Especialista em Atenção ao Paciente Crítico Núcleo Enfermagem.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023162

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Conhecer o perfil dos pacientes adultos vítimas de trauma atendidos na emergência e submetidos à reposição volêmica; Verificar quais soluções mais utilizadas para reposição volêmica, o volume infundido e utilização de hemocomponentes; Conhecer o desfecho primário dos pacientes. MÉTODO: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal e prospectivo, realizado com usuários adultos vítimas de trauma, atendidos nas salas laranja e vermelha de uma emergência de um hospital especializado. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento previamente elaborado e foi realizada análise estatística e descritiva. RESULTADOS: Dos usuários, 84,1% eram homens, 31,9% feridos por arma de fogo. Durante reposição volêmica inicial, 24,8% receberam cristalóides e 2,7% hemoderivados. Até seis horas de atendimento, 43,4% foram encaminhados ao bloco cirúrgico e 43,4% permaneceram na emergência. CONCLUSÃO: Destaca-se que usuários taquicárdicos e/ou politraumatizados permanecem menos tempo na emergência. É utilizada proporção 1:1 para transfusão de concentrado de hemácias e plasma. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Unified Health System , Brazil , Public Health , Hemodilution , Hemorrhage
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(3): 224-232, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958406

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. Methods: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. Results: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygenators/standards , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/instrumentation , Cannula/standards , Pediatrics/instrumentation , Reference Standards , Temperature , Time Factors , Venous Pressure/physiology , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Equipment Design , Equipment Safety , Hemodilution , Models, Cardiovascular
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is an autologous transfusion method, using blood collected during surgery, to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. ANH is controversial because it may lead to various complications. Among the possible complications, anastomotic leakage is one that would have a significant effect on the operation outcome. However, the relationship between ANH and anastomotic site healing requires additional research. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study of ANH, comparing it with standard intraoperative management, undergoing gastric anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group A, surgery with ANH; group N, surgery with standard intraoperative management; and group C, sham surgery with standard intraoperative management. ANH was performed in group A animals by, removing 5.8–6.6 mL of blood and replacing it with 3 times as much crystalloid. All rats were enthanized on postoperative day 6, and histopathologic analyses were performed. RESULTS: The mean hematocrit values, after hemodilution were 22.0% (range, 18.0%–29.0%), group A; 33.0% (29.0%–35.0%), group N; and 32.5% (29.0%–34.0%), group C. There were significant differences between groups A and N (P = 0.019, P = 0.009, P = 0.004, P = 0.039, and P = 0.027), and between groups N and C (P = 0.006, P = 0.027, P = 0.04, P = 0.008, and P = 0.009) with respect to inflammatory cell numbers, neovascularization, fibroblast numbers, edema and necrosis, respectively; there were no differences between groups A and N. CONCLUSION: In rat model, anastomotic complications did not increase in the ANH group, compared with the standard intraoperative management group.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Animals , Blood Transfusion , Cell Count , Edema , Fibroblasts , Hematocrit , Hemodilution , Methods , Models, Animal , Necrosis , Prospective Studies , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 27-37, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713733

ABSTRACT

Increasingly, autologous blood transfusion has been arousing concern owing to awareness of adverse effects of allogenic blood transfusion, blood shortage and patients, having religious or personal issues. With the development of medicine, Cell Salvage and Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been proposed as an alternative to allogenic blood transfusion. This review looked at the use of ANH and cell salvage and evaluated the benefits and usefulness based on the strengths and indications. Although not consistent with all cases of ANH, there were benefits in the amount of hemorrhage and transfusion, and no supplementary plasma or platelet transfusion was needed after surgery when employing ANH. But, it showed a cutoff value only for massive bleeding surgery (at least 500 mL). In the case of cell salvage, the amount of blood transfusion was reduced in most cases and platelet or plasma transfusion was not required in most cases. When the Leukoreduction filter (LDF) was utilized, it showed the effect of removing bacterial infection or tumor cells. Nonetheless, the effectiveness and benefits for patients in certain condition of cell salvage and ANH is ambiguous with discrepancies among studies or patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide clinical knowledge relative to the procedure, measure the efficacy and usefulness of peri-operative blood management mentioned above and discuss the forthcoming prospects and challenges.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Blood Platelets , Blood Transfusion , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Hemodilution , Hemorrhage , Humans , Operative Blood Salvage , Plasma , Platelet Transfusion
12.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 49-55, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713731

ABSTRACT

Preoperative anemia should be diagnosed and treated before surgery, because anemia is associated with increased postoperative mortality and morbidity. Even if iron deficiency is not detected, the possibility of functional iron deficiency should be considered. During surgery, patients should be managed to avoid hypothermia, acidosis, and hypocalcemia, while maintaining adequate blood pressure and preventing dilutional coagulopathy. It is currently recommended to start transfusion when hemoglobin is under 7–8 g/dL in patients without cardiac problems, using restrictive strategy rather than liberal, due to dangers of complications from transfusion. For those who refuse transfusion, or when transfusion is difficult due to multiple antibodies, or when attempting to reduce allogeneic transfusion, preoperative autologous blood donation (PAD), intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH), intraoperative blood salvage, or postoperative blood salvage can be used. For patients with trauma or massive bleeding, damage control resuscitation of permissive hypotension, restriction of crystalloid infusion, transfusion of blood product in a ratio similar to whole blood (1:1:1 of FFP, platelets, PRBC) must be actively carried out.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Anemia , Antibodies , Blood Donors , Blood Pressure , Blood Transfusion , Hemodilution , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Hypotension , Hypothermia , Iron , Mortality , Operative Blood Salvage , Resuscitation
13.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 56-61, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713730

ABSTRACT

Despite improved perioperative management and surgical techniques, patients undergoing hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) surgery often need to be transfused. Although disadvantages of transfusion and advantages of patient blood management (PBM) have been recognized, study results of the effects of PBM in HBP surgery are rare. The aim of this article was to review the current status of PBM in Korea in patients having HBP surgery. PBM in HBP surgery consists of increasing preoperative hemoglobin level, preoperative blood conservation, and preoperative autologous blood donation. The main intraoperative modalities used to conserve blood in recent studies were autologous techniques of acute normovolemic hemodilution and intraoperative cell salvage (Cell Saver®). In postoperative PBM, blood augmentation with erythropoietin and iron are also used depending on the postoperative hemoglobin level. Advances in surgical, anesthesiologic and pharmacologic strategies have contributed to a reduction of blood loss during HBP surgery in all patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Erythropoietin , Hemodilution , Humans , Iron , Korea
14.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 62-66, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713729

ABSTRACT

Obstetricians and gynecologists frequently deal with hemorrhage so they should be familiar with management of patient blood management (PBM). We will review to summarize the alternative measures and interventions used in bloodless surgery in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. In the obstetric field, PBM has been developed as an evolving evidence-based approach with a number of key goals: (i) to identify, evaluate, and manage anemia; (ii) reduce iatrogenic blood loss; (iii) optimize hemostasis; and (iv) establish decision thresholds for transfusion. Transfusion, mechanical method including balloon tamponade and uterine artery embolization, and intraoperative cell salvage were introduced for PBM. In the gynecologic field, PBM is not significantly different from that in the obstetric field. Preoperative managements include iron supplement, erythropoietin administration, autologous blood donation, and uterine artery embolization. Meticulous hemostasis, short operative time, hypotensive anesthetic techniques, hemodilution during operation, blood salvage and pharmacological agents were introduced to intraoperative management. Postoperative measures include meticulous postoperative monitoring of the patient, early detection of blood loss, reduction of blood sampling, appropriate use of hemopoiesis, normalization of cardio-pulmonary function and minimization of oxygen consumption. In conclusion, each obstetrician and gynecologist should be aware about the appropriate method for blood conservation and use in practice. A comprehensive approach to coordinating all members of the bloodless agent and surgical team is essential.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Balloon Occlusion , Blood Donors , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Erythropoietin , Gynecology , Hemodilution , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Iron , Methods , Obstetrics , Operative Time , Oxygen Consumption , Uterine Artery Embolization
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 921-926, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876685

ABSTRACT

Apesar dos inúmeros benefícios da fluidoterapia transcirúrgica, sobrecarga de volume pode trazer efeitos deletérios, como a alteração de parâmetros hematimétricos. Dessa maneira, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar duas diferentes taxas de infusão de solução cristaloide no período transanestésico e seus efeitos até 24 horas pós-operatório. Foram utilizados dois grupos de seis animais cada, um deles recebeu solução de cloreto de sódio 0,9% a 10mL/kg/h (G10) e o outro a 5mL/kg/h (G5). Os valores de hematócrito foram avaliados no período de 24 horas em 10 diferentes momentos. Os resultados não apontaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos, porém foi observada redução significativa do hematócrito após indução anestésica. Foi ainda observada redução de hematócrito após o término da cirurgia em ambos os grupos, e o retorno aos valores basais de hematócrito ocorreu de forma significativa 12 horas após o procedimento cirúrgico em G10, e após oito horas em G5, mostrando uma tendência à hemodiluição mais persistente em G10.(AU)


Despite the beneficial goals of fluid therapy administered during surgery, volume overload can cause deleterious effects, such as alterations on hematimetric parameters. Thus, the objective of this paper was to evaluate two different cristaloid infusion rates during the surgical period and its effects on the 24-hour post-surgical period. Two groups of six animals each were used in the present study, one received 10mL/kg/h (G10) of 0,9% sodium chloride solution and the other 5mL/kg/h (G5) of the same solution. Packed cell volume (PCV) was evaluated in 10 different times during the 24 hours following surgery. The results did not show significant differences between groups, but they showed a major tendency of hemodilution in G10. A significant decrease of PCV was observed after induction of anesthesia. Decrease of PCV after the end of surgery in both groups was also observed, and the return to PCV basal values was observed 12 hours after the procedure in G10 and after eight hours in G5, showing a tendency of prolonged hemodilution in G10.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Dogs , Anesthesia/veterinary , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Hematocrit/veterinary , Hemodilution/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Salpingostomy/veterinary
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158002

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation is especially challenging in patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses because their religious beliefs prohibit the receipt of blood products. We present two cases of living donor liver transplantation performed in adult Jehovah's Witnesses in South Korea without the use of blood products. In the first case, preoperative erythropoiesisstimulation therapy increased hemoglobin levels from 8.1 to 13.1 g/dl after 9 weeks. In the second case, hemoglobin levels increased from 7.4 to 10.8 g/dl after 6 months of erythropoiesis-stimulation therapy. With the combination of acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative cell salvage, and use of transfusion alternatives, liver transplantation was successfully performed without transfusion of blood products.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Hemodilution , Humans , Jehovah's Witnesses , Korea , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Operative Blood Salvage , Religion
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The possible impact of hemodilution during acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) using hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on intraoperative serum concentration of creatinine (s-Cr) has not been well investigated. METHODS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomly allocated into Group-ANH (n = 15) or Group-C (control; n = 17). In Group-ANH, 5 ml/kg whole blood was collected, and they were administered 5 ml/kg of HES 130/0.4 after anesthesia induction and before initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In both groups, moderate hypothermic CPB was initiated using 1,600–1,800 ml of bloodless priming solution. The changes of s-Cr, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit (Hct), electrolytes, and osmolality were determined before ANH administration (T1), after administering ANH 5 ml/kg (T2), 30 and 60 s after the initiation of CPB (T3, T4), and at the end of surgery (T5). RESULTS: In Group-ANH, the s-Cr values at T2 (median [IQR25–75%], 0.83 [0.71–1.00] mg/dl) were not significantly different compared to those at T1 (0.84 [0.64–1.00] mg/dl), while those at T3 and T4 (0.68 [0.61–0.80] and 0.76 [0.59–0.92] mg/dl, respectively) were significantly lower than those at T2 (0.83 [0.71–1.00] mg/dl, P < 0.001). Hct at T3, T4 and T5 were significantly lower than those of T1 in both groups, and those at T2 and T4 of Group-ANH were significantly lower than those of Group-C (P < 0.001). There was no significant inter-group difference in all other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative s-Cr was not affected by the administration of ANH 5 ml/kg, although it reduced transiently at the beginning of CPB. Further study is needed to determine the clinical relevancy of our results.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Creatinine , Electrolytes , Hematocrit , Hemodilution , Humans , Osmolar Concentration , Starch , Thoracic Surgery
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 96 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846761

ABSTRACT

Durante a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea e hipotermia (CEC-H) ocorre alteração na efetividade do propofol e na sua farmacocinética realizada a partir das concentrações plasmáticas do propofol total no decurso do tempo. A ligação do propofol à proteína plasmática parece estar alterada em consequência de diversos fatores incluindo a hemodiluição e a heparinização que ocorre no início da circulação extracorpórea, uma vez que se reportou anteriormente que a concentração plasmática do propofol livre aumentou durante a realização da circulação extracorpórea normotérmica. Por outro lado, a infusão alvo controlada é recomendada para manter a concentração plasmática do propofol equivalente ao alvo de 2 µg/mL durante a intervenção cirúrgica com CEC-H. Se alterações significativas na hipnose do propofol ocorrem nesses pacientes, então o efeito aumentado desse agente hipnótico poderia estar relacionado à redução na extensão da ligação do fármaco as proteínas plasmáticas; entretanto, o assunto ainda permanece em discussão e necessita de investigações adicionais. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar as concentrações plasmáticas de propofol livre em pacientes durante a revascularização do miocárdio com e sem o procedimento de CEC-H através da abordagem PK-PD. Dezenove pacientes foram alocados e estratificados para realização de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea (CEC-H, n=10) ou sem circulação extracorpórea (NCEC, n=9). Os pacientes foram anestesiados com sufentanil e propofol alvo de 2 µg/mL. Realizou-se coleta seriada de sangue para estudo farmacocinético e o efeito foi monitorado através do índice bispectral (BIS) para medida da profundidade da hipnose no período desde a indução da anestesia até 12 horas após o término da infusão de propofol, em intervalos de tempo pré-determinados no protocolo de estudo. As concentrações plasmáticas foram determinadas através de método bioanalítico pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A farmacocinética foi investigada a partir da aplicação do modelo aberto de dois compartimentos, PK Solutions v. 2. A análise PK-PD foi realizada no Graph Pad Prisma v.5.0 após a escolha do modelo do efeito máximo (EMAX sigmóide, slope variável). Os dados foram analisados utilizando o Prisma v. 5.0, p<0,05, significância estatística. As concentrações plasmáticas de propofol total foram comparáveis nos dois grupos (CEC-H e NCEC); entretanto o grupo CEC-H evidenciou aumento na concentração do propofol livre de 2 a 5 vezes em função da redução na ligação do fármaco às proteínas plasmáticas. A farmacocinética do propofol livre mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos no processo de distribuição pelo prolongamento da meia vida e aumento do volume aparente, e no processo de eliminação em função do aumento na depuração plasmática e redução na meia vida biológica no grupo CEC-H. A escolha do modelo EMAX sigmóide, slope variável foi adequada uma vez que se evidenciou alta correlação entre os valores do índice bispectral e as concentrações plasmáticas do propofol livre (r2>0.90, P<0.001) para os pacientes investigados


During coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) profound changes occur on propofol effect and on kinetic disposition related to total drug plasma measurements in these patients. It was reported that drug plasma binding could be altered as a consequence of hemodilution and heparinization before starts CPB since free propofol plasma levels was increased by twice under normothermic procedure. In addition, the target controlled infusion (TCI) is recommended to maintain propofol plasma concentration (2 µg/mL) during CABG CPB-H intervention. However, whether significant changes that occur in propofol hypnosis in these patients could be related to the reduction on the extension of drug plasma binding remain unclear and under discussion until now. Then, the objective of this study was to investigate propofol free plasma levels in patients undergoing CABG with and without CPB by a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) approach. Nineteen patients were scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG-CPB, n=10) or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG, n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol TCI (2 µg/mL). Blood samples were collected for drug plasma measurements and BIS were applied to access the depth of hypnosis from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma drug concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a propofol pharmacokinetic analysis based on two compartment open model, PK Solutions v.2; PK-PD analysis was performed by applying EMAX model, sigmoid shape-variable slope and data were analyzed using Prisma v. 5.0, considering p<0.05 as significant difference between groups. The total propofol plasma concentrations were comparable in both groups during CABG; however it was shown in CPB-group significant increases in propofol free plasma concentration by twice to fivefold occur as a consequence of drug plasma protein binding reduced in these patients. Pharmacokinetics of free propofol in CPB-H group compared to OPCAB group based on two compartment open model was significantly different by the prolongation of distribution half-life, increases on plasma clearance, and biological half-life shortened. In addition, the kinetic disposition of propofol changes in a different manner considering free drug levels in the CPB-H group against OPCAB group as follows: prolongation of distribution half-life and increases on volume of distribution, remaining unchanged biological half-life in spite of plasma clearance increased. BIS values showed a strong correlation with free drug levels (r2>0.90, P<0.001) in CPB-H group and also in OPCAB group by the chosen EMAX model sigmoid shape-variable slope analyzed by GraphPad Prisma v.5.0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Myocardium , Propofol/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Circulation/statistics & numerical data , Hemodilution , Hypotension, Controlled/standards , Hypothermia , Pharmacokinetics , Pharmacologic Actions , Plasma
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Although perioperative therapies have improved greatly, pancreatectomies still often need blood transfusions. However, the morbidity from blood transfusions, the poor prognosis of blood transfused patients, high cost, and decreasing supply of blood products is accelerating transfusion-free (TF) surgery in the patients who have pacreatectomies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of TF pancreatectomies for patients who are Jehovah's Witness. METHODS: We investigated the possibility of TF pancreatectomies for the Jehovah's Witness patients undergoing pancreatectomies between January 2007 and Februay 2014. There were 4 cases of Whipple's operation, 4 of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, 2 of radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy and 1 of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. All were performed by one surgeon. RESULTS: Most of the TF pancreatecomies patients received perioperative blood augmentation and intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). They received no blood transfusions at any time during their hospitalization, and pre- and intra-operative data and outcomes were acceptably favorable. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first successful consecutive pancreatectomy program for Jehovah's Witness not involving blood transfusion. TF pancreatectomy can be performed successfully in selected Jehovah's Witness. Postoperative prognosis and outcomes should be confirmed in follow up studies.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodilution , Hospitalization , Humans , Pancreatectomy , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Prognosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We performed this study to evaluate the potency and time course of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block following moderate or severe acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in rabbits. METHODS: Forty five rabbits were randomly assigned to the control (C) group, the moderate ANH (M) group, or the severe ANH (S) group. After stabilization of sevoflurane anesthesia, ANH was achieved by drainage of arterial blood and an intravenous infusion of 6% hydroxyethyl starch, during which hematocrit (Hct) decreased to 26.2 ± 2.5% in the M group and 17.6 ± 2.2% in the S group. We determined dose-response relationships of rocuronium in the three groups and created a time course of the action of 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium. RESULTS: The 50% effective dose (ED50) for rocuronium was 45% and 50% lower in the M and S groups, respectively, than in the C group (50.9 ± 6.3 µg/kg) (P < 0.001). The onset time after 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was faster in the ANH groups compared with the C group (P < 0.001). The duration of neuromuscular block was prolonged by 38% and 43% in the M and S groups, respectively, compared with the C group (49.1 ± 6.9 min) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ANH resulted in high potency, rapid onset, and prolonged duration of rocuronium. However, the severity of ANH did not alter the potency and duration of action of rocuronium.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Drainage , Hematocrit , Hemodilution , Infusions, Intravenous , Neuromuscular Blockade , Rabbits , Starch
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