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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 318-324, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137199

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tranexamic Acid (TXA), an antifibrinolytic that inhibits the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin is used to decrease perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in orthopedic surgery. The aim of our study was to compare postoperative bleeding in two intra-articular doses (1 g and 2 g) of tranexamic acid in adult patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement. Method: We conducted a single-operator, randomized, and controlled, double-blind study in two groups. The G1 group received 1 g of intra-articular TXA and the G2 group 2 g of intra-articular TXA. Both groups received 15 mg kg-1 IV before the surgical incision (TXA induction dose) and then 10 mg kg-1, orally, 6 and 12 hours after the induction dose of TXA.The primary endpoint was bleeding measured by blood loss in postoperative drainage. Secondary outcomes were change in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on the first and third postoperative days, and the need for transfusion during hospitalization. Results: In total, 100 patients were randomized, and 100 were included in the analysis. Blood loss in postoperative drainage was similar in both groups (200 ± 50 vs. 250 ± 50 mL, G1 and G2 groups respectively). Change in hematocrit and hemoglobin values (% of change) between preoperative and day 3 were not statically significant between groups G1 and G2 (18 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 4; 21 ± 7 vs. 22 ± 5 respectively). No patients received blood transfusion. Conclusions: Our study did not show superiority of 2 g of intra-articular tranexamic acid compared to 1 g.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04085575


Resumo Introdução: O Ácido Tranexâmico (TXA), agente antifibrinolítico que inibe a atividade fibrinolítica da plasmina, é usado para reduzir a perda sanguínea perioperatória e a necessidade de transfusão em cirurgia ortopédica. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o efeito de duas doses intra-articulares (1 g e 2 g) de ácido tranexâmico no sangramento pós-operatório de pacientes adultos submetidos a prótese total unilateral de joelho. Método: Realizamos estudo com operador único, randomizado, controlado e duplo-cego em dois grupos. O grupo G1 recebeu 1 g de TXA intra-articular e o grupo G2, 2 g de TXA intra-articular. Os dois grupos receberam 15 mg.kg-1 IV antes da incisão cirúrgica (dose de indução de TXA) e 10 mg.kg-1 por via oral, 6 e 12 horas após a dose de indução de TXA. O desfecho primário foi o sangramento medido pela perda sanguínea na drenagem pós-operatória. Os desfechos secundários foram alteração nos níveis de hemoglobina e hematócrito no primeiro e terceiro dias de pós-operatório e necessidade de transfusão durante a hospitalização. Resultados: Cem pacientes foram randomizados e 100 foram incluídos na análise. A perda sanguínea pela drenagem pós-operatória foi semelhante nos dois grupos (200 ± 50 mL vs. 250 ± 50 mL, grupos G1 e G2, respectivamente). A variação nos valores de hematócrito e hemoglobina (% de variação) entre o pré-operatório e o dia 3 não foi estatisticamente significante entre os grupos G1 e G2 (18 ± 5 vs. 21 ± 4; 21 ± 7 vs. 22 ± 5, respectivamente). Nenhum paciente recebeu transfusão de sangue. Conclusões: O estudo não mostrou superioridade na dose de 2 g de ácido tranexâmico intra-articular em comparação à dose de 1 g. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04085575.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Double-Blind Method , Hematocrit , Injections, Intra-Articular
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 21-27, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899569

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o relacionamento entre os níveis cerebrais de ferro e heme e a resposta inflamatória sistêmica e no sistema nervoso central, assim como o papel dos sistemas de defesa contra a toxicidade do ferro e do heme, no sistema nervoso central. Métodos: Avaliamos uma coorte prospectiva de pacientes com quadro de hemorragia intracraniana e subaracnóidea. Realizamos ensaios em amostras de plasma e líquido cefalorraquidiano quanto à presença de ferro, heme, hemopexina, haptoglobina, enolase, S100-β e citocinas nos primeiros 3 dias após um acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico. Analisamos também as alterações dinâmicas em todos os componentes de ambos os líquidos e seu relacionamento com as taxas de mortalidade precoce. Resultados: As concentrações de hemopexina e haptoglobina foram quase desprezíveis no cérebro após hemorragia intracraniana e subaracnóidea. As concentrações de ferro e heme no líquido cefalorraquidiano se correlacionaram com resposta pró-inflamatória no sistema nervoso central, e os perfis inflamatórios no líquido cefalorraquidiano no terceiro dia após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico se correlacionaram com as taxas de mortalidade precoce. Identificamos que os níveis de interleucina 4 no líquido cefalorraquidiano durante as primeiras 24 horas após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico foram mais altos nos sobreviventes do que nos que não sobreviveram. Conclusão: Os níveis de ferro e heme se associaram com resposta pró-inflamatória no sistema nervoso central após acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico, e o cérebro humano não tem proteção contra hemoglobina e heme. Os perfis inflamatórios dos pacientes se associaram com prognósticos piores, e as respostas inflamatórias locais pareceram ter um papel protetor.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relationships of brain iron and heme with the inflammatory response of the systemic and central nervous systems and to investigate the role of defensive systems against the toxicity of iron and heme in the central nervous system. Methods: We assessed a prospective cohort of patients presenting with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. We assayed plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples for the presence of iron, heme, hemopexin, haptoglobin, enolase, S100-β and cytokines for the first three days following hemorrhagic stroke. We also analyzed the dynamic changes in these components within both fluids and their relationship with early mortality rates. Results: Hemopexin and haptoglobin concentrations were nearly negligible in the brain after intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid iron and heme concentrations correlated with a pro-inflammatory response in the central nervous system, and plasmatic and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory profiles on the third day after hemorrhagic stroke were related to early mortality rates. Interleukin 4 levels within the cerebrospinal fluid during the first 24 hours after hemorrhagic stroke were found to be higher in survivors than in non-survivors. Conclusion: Iron and heme are associated with a pro-inflammatory response in the central nervous system following hemorrhagic stroke, and protections against hemoglobin and heme are lacking within the human brain. Patient inflammatory profiles were associated with a poorer prognosis, and local anti-inflammatory responses appeared to have a protective role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , Hemopexin/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Heme/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Middle Aged
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3637-3647, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-974714

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente estudio buscó identificar en niños preescolares la asociación de las concentraciones de hemoglobina con características socio-ambientales, maternas, biológico-nutricionales y las condiciones de salud; así como con las concentraciones séricas de zinc y retinol. Estudio transversal con muestra de 335 individuos, representativa de los niños de jardines infantiles del municipio de Campina Grande, Paraíba. En los 294 niños estudiados, el modelo ajustado mostró menores concentraciones de hemoglobina en casos de tipo de casa diferente de ladrillo; ausencia de red de escoto; colecta no pública de la basura; no tratamiento del agua para beber; dificultades maternas para leer, escribir o hacer cuentas; edad entre 9-24 meses; peso/edad < - 2 escore Z y problemas de salud en los últimos 15 días, bien como en casos de bajas concentraciones séricas de zinc y retinol. La multicausalidad de concentraciones inferiores de hemoglobina comprendió condiciones socio-ambientales y características materno-infantiles que refuerzan la importancia de medidas que prioricen los niños de menor edad, de madres con menor nivel educacional y con prejuicios en su peso, estado de salud y condición nutricional de otros micronutrientes importantes en el crecimiento.


Abstract This study sought to identify the association between the concentration of hemoglobin and socio-environmental, maternal, biological-nutritional and health condition characteristics in preschool children; as well as the serum concentrations of zinc and retinol. It involved a cross-sectional study with 335 individuals, a representative sample of children enrolled in child day care centers in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. In the 294 children studied, the adjusted model showed lower concentrations of hemoglobin when the house was not made of bricks; there was no sewerage system; no public garbage collection; no treatment of drinking water; maternal difficulties for reading, writing and making calculations; age between 9 - 24 months; weight/age < - 2 score Z and health problems in the last 15 days, as well as in cases of lower serum concentrations of zinc and retinol. The multicausality of lower hemoglobin levels included socio-environmental conditions and child-maternal characteristics that reinforce the importance of measures that prioritize the younger children of mothers with lower education levels and prejudiced in weight, health and nutritional status of other important micronutrients for growth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vitamin A , Zinc/blood , Nutritional Status , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Body Weight , Brazil , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Child Day Care Centers , Health Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Educational Status
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 236-242, abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844605

ABSTRACT

La diálisis peritoneal (DP) es la terapia de reemplazo renal más usada en niños portadores de enfermedad renal crónica terminal. La enfermedad cardiovascular es la principal causa de mortalidad en estos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar pacientes pediátricos en DP crónica desde el punto de vista cardiovascular. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio de corte transversal en pacientes en DP, estables según criterios DOQI. Se registraron variables epidemiológicas, dialíticas, bioquímicas y cardiovasculares. Se evaluó hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI) por ecocardiografía. El índice de masa ventricular izquierda (IMVI) se calculó por índice talla/edad (g/m2.7). Se consideró HVI > 38,6 g/m2.7, y severa HVI > 51 g/m2.7. Se analizaron las variables continuas mediante ANOVA, y categóricas por χ2 o método exacto de Fisher. Se analizaron los datos en STATA 11.0. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 21 pacientes, 11 varones, edad 9,2 ± 3,5 años. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue displasia renal (52%). El KtV residual promedio fue de 0,8, y peritoneal 1,9. En la ecocardiografía, un 52% presentó HVI, un 91% de ellos en rango severo. Se demostró una relación significativa entre ultrafiltración y presión arterial sistólica, y entre IMVI y hemoglobina (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio reportamos una incidencia de HVI mayor al 50%, en su mayoría grado severo, lo cual evidencia el importante compromiso cardiovascular en estos pacientes. La hipertensión arterial y falla de ultrafiltración destacan como importantes factores relacionados a la hipertrofia ventricular izquierda.


Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the most common renal replacement therapy used in pediatric patients with end stage renal disease. This population has a mortality rate 1,000 times greater compare to pediatric population, mainly due to cardiovascular causes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize pediatric patients on chronic PD in relation to dialysis and cardiovascular outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross sectional study. Patients in stable PD according to DOQI criteria were selected. Epidemiological, dialytic, biochemical and cardiovascular variables were registered. Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMI) was calculated by height/age (g/m2.7). Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed with > 38.6 g/m2.7, severe LVH > 51 g/m2.7. Data were analyzed using STATA 11.0. continuous variables using ANOVA test and categorical variables were analyzed using χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 21 patients, 11 males. Mean age 9.2 ± 3.52 years. The most frequent diagnosis was renal dysplasia (52%). Residual and Peritoneal KtV were 0.8 and 1.9 respectively. Fifty-two percent of patients showed LVH, 91% in severe range. A significant relationship between ultrafiltration/m2 and systolic blood pressure was depicted. Also a significant relationship between left ventricular mass index and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) was founded. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the population showed left ventricular hypertrophy -particularly severe LVH-, which confirms an increased CV risk in this population. Blood pressure and loss of ultrafiltration were founded to be correlated to LVH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Pressure , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(1): 11-18, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-779999

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Explorar os fatores associados aos níveis sanguíneos da pressão parcial de oxigênio e da pressão parcial de gás carbônico. Métodos: Os fatores associados com a regulação do oxigênio e de gás carbônico foram investigados em um modelo com porcos em apneia com suporte de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venovenosa. Foi testada uma sequência predefinida de fluxos de sangue e gás. Resultados: A oxigenação associou-se principalmente com o fluxo da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea (coeficiente beta = 0,036mmHg/mL/minuto), débito cardíaco (coeficiente beta = -11,970mmHg/L/minuto) e shunt pulmonar (coeficiente beta = -0,232mmHg/%). As mensurações iniciais da pressão parcial de oxigênio e da pressão parcial de gás carbônico também se associaram com oxigenação, com coeficientes beta de 0,160 e 0,442mmHg/mmHg, respectivamente. A pressão parcial de gás carbônico se associou com débito cardíaco (coeficiente beta = 3,578mmHg/L/minuto), fluxo de gás (coeficiente beta = -2,635mmHg/L/minuto), temperatura (coeficiente beta = 4,514mmHg/°C), pH inicial (coeficiente beta = -66,065mmHg/0,01 unidade) e hemoglobina (coeficiente beta = 6,635mmHg/g/dL). Conclusão: Elevações nos fluxos de sangue de gás em um modelo de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venovenosa durante apneia resultaram em aumento da pressão parcial de oxigênio e redução da pressão parcial de gás carbônico, respectivamente. Ainda, sem a possibilidade de uma inferência causal, a pressão parcial de oxigênio associou-se negativamente com o shunt pulmonar e o débito cardíaco, e a pressão parcial de gás carbônico teve associação positiva com o débito cardíaco, temperatura central e hemoglobina inicial.


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with blood oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure. Methods: The factors associated with oxygen - and carbon dioxide regulation were investigated in an apneic pig model under veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested. Results: Oxygenation was mainly associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow (beta coefficient = 0.036mmHg/mL/min), cardiac output (beta coefficient = -11.970mmHg/L/min) and pulmonary shunting (beta coefficient = -0.232mmHg/%). Furthermore, the initial oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure measurements were also associated with oxygenation, with beta coefficients of 0.160 and 0.442mmHg/mmHg, respectively. Carbon dioxide partial pressure was associated with cardiac output (beta coefficient = 3.578mmHg/L/min), sweep gas flow (beta coefficient = -2.635mmHg/L/min), temperature (beta coefficient = 4.514mmHg/ºC), initial pH (beta coefficient = -66.065mmHg/0.01 unit) and hemoglobin (beta coefficient = 6.635mmHg/g/dL). Conclusion: In conclusion, elevations in blood and sweep gas flows in an apneic veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation model resulted in an increase in oxygen partial pressure and a reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure 2, respectively. Furthermore, without the possibility of causal inference, oxygen partial pressure was negatively associated with pulmonary shunting and cardiac output, and carbon dioxide partial pressure was positively associated with cardiac output, core temperature and initial hemoglobin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxygen/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Cardiac Output/physiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Partial Pressure , Swine , Blood Gas Analysis , Body Temperature/physiology , Hemoglobins/metabolism
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1070-1078, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy (DTX) improves overall survival (OS) of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Considering the potential existence of androgen receptors that remain active at this stage, we aimed to assess the impact of the combined use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with DTX for mCRPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a single-institutional retrospective analysis of patients with mCRPC who received either DTX alone (DTX group, n=21) or concurrent DTX and ADT (DTX+ADT group, n=26) between August 2006 and February 2014. All patients received DTX doses of 75 mg/m2 every three weeks for at least three cycles. In the DTX+ADT group, all patients used luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist continuously as a concurrent ADT. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 24.0 months (interquartile range 12.0-37.0) for the entire cohort. The median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) was 9.0 months and 6.0 months in the DTX+ADT and DTX groups, respectively (log-rank p=0.036). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, concurrent administration of ADT was the only significant predictor of rPFS [hazard ratio (HR)=0.525, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.284-0.970, p=0.040]. The median OS was 42.0 and 38.0 months in the DTX+ADT and DTX groups, respectively (log-rank p=0.796). On multivariable analysis, hemoglobin level at the time of DTX initiation was associated with OS (HR=0.532, 95% CI 0.381-0.744, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In chemotherapy-naive patients with mCRPC, the combined use of ADT with DTX improved rPFS. Our result suggests that the concurrent administration of ADT and DTX is superior to DTX alone.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/blood , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/blood , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Taxoids/administration & dosage
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 580-590, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, different serotypes have been described based on LPS antigenicity. Recently, our research group has reported a differential immunogenicity when T lymphocytes were stimulated with these different serotypes. In particular, it was demonstrated that the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans has a stronger capacity to trigger Th1- and Th17-type cytokine production. Objective This study aimed to quantify the expression of different CC chemokines (CCLs) and receptors (CCRs) in T lymphocytes stimulated with the different A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3, master-switch genes implied in the Th1, Th2, Th17, and T-regulatory differentiation, respectively, was analyzed in order to determine T-cell phenotype-specific patterns of CCL and CCR expression upon A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation. Material and Methods Human naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes were obtained from healthy subjects and stimulated with autologous dendritic cells primed with the different A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. The expression levels for the chemokines CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, and CCL28, as well as the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9, and CCR10 were quantified by qPCR. Similarly, the expression levels for the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3 were quantified and correlated with the CCL and CCR expression levels. Results Higher expression levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL21, CCL28, CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CCR9 were detected in T lymphocytes stimulated with the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with the other serotypes. In addition, these higher expression levels of CCLs and CCRs positively correlated with the increased levels of T-bet and RORC2 when T lymphocytes were stimulated with the serotype b. Conclusion A T-lymphocyte response biased towards a Th1- and Th17-pattern of CCL and CCR expression was detected under stimulation with the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation , Age Factors , Anticoagulants , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Veins/physiology
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(1): 36-43, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744693

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos imediatos da transfusão de hemácias nos níveis de saturação venosa central de oxigênio e de lactato em pacientes com choque séptico usando diferentes níveis gatilho de hemoglobina para indicar transfusão. Métodos: Incluímos pacientes com diagnóstico de choque séptico nas últimas 48 horas e níveis de hemoglobina abaixo de 9,0g/dL. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber imediatamente transfusão se as concentrações se mantivessem acima de 9,0g/dL (Grupo Hb9) ou adiar a transfusão até que a hemoglobina caísse abaixo de 7,0g/dL (Grupo Hb7). Os níveis de hemoglobina, lactato e saturação venosa central de oxigênio foram determinados antes e 1 hora após cada transfusão. Resultados: Incluímos 46 pacientes, totalizando 74 transfusões. Os pacientes do Grupo Hb7 tiveram uma redução significante nos níveis medianos de lactato de 2,44 (2,00 - 3,22) mMol/L para 2,21 (1,80 - 2,79) mMol/L; p = 0,005. Isto não foi observado no Grupo Hb9 [1,90 (1,80 - 2,65) mMol/L para 2,00 (1,70 - 2,41) mMol/L; p = 0,23]. A saturação venosa central de oxigênio aumentou no Grupo Hb7 [68,0 (64,0 - 72,0)% para 72,0 (69,0 - 75,0)%; p < 0,0001], mas não no Grupo Hb9 [72,0 (69,0 - 74,0)% para 72,0 (71,0 - 73,0)%; p = 0,98]. Pacientes com elevados níveis de lactato ou saturação venosa central de oxigênio menor que 70% na avaliação basal tiveram um aumento significante nessas variáveis, independentemente dos níveis basais de hemoglobina. Pacientes com valores normais não demonstraram diminuição em quaisquer dos grupos. Conclusão: A transfusão de hemácias aumentou a saturação venosa central de oxigênio e diminuiu os níveis de lactato em pacientes com hipoperfusão, independentemente de seus níveis basais de hemoglobina. A transfusão não pareceu influenciar essas variáveis em pacientes sem hipoperfusão. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01611753 .


Objective: To evaluate the immediate effects of red blood cell transfusion on central venous oxygen saturation and lactate levels in septic shock patients with different transfusion triggers. Methods: We included patients with a diagnosis of septic shock within the last 48 hours and hemoglobin levels below 9.0g/dL Patients were randomized for immediate transfusion with hemoglobin concentrations maintained above 9.0g/dL (Group Hb9) or to withhold transfusion unless hemoglobin felt bellow 7.0g/dL (Group Hb7). Hemoglobin, lactate, central venous oxygen saturation levels were determined before and one hour after each transfusion. Results: We included 46 patients and 74 transfusions. Patients in Group Hb7 had a significant reduction in median lactate from 2.44 (2.00 - 3.22) mMol/L to 2.21 (1.80 - 2.79) mMol/L, p = 0.005, which was not observed in Group Hb9 [1.90 (1.80 - 2.65) mMol/L to 2.00 (1.70 - 2.41) mMol/L, p = 0.23]. Central venous oxygen saturation levels increased in Group Hb7 [68.0 (64.0 - 72.0)% to 72.0 (69.0 - 75.0)%, p < 0.0001] but not in Group Hb9 [72.0 (69.0 - 74.0)% to 72.0 (71.0 - 73.0)%, p = 0.98]. Patients with elevated lactate or central venous oxygen saturation < 70% at baseline had a significant increase in these variables, regardless of baseline hemoglobin levels. Patients with normal values did not show a decrease in either group. Conclusion: Red blood cell transfusion increased central venous oxygen saturation and decreased lactate levels in patients with hypoperfusion regardless of their baseline hemoglobin levels. Transfusion did not appear to impair these variables in patients without hypoperfusion. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01611753 .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oxygen/blood , Shock, Septic/therapy , Erythrocyte Transfusion/methods , Lactic Acid/blood , Shock, Septic/blood , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
11.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 525-532, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171066

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate surgical outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) groups for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient in the RIRS group was matched to one in the PNL group on the basis of calculated propensity scores by use of age, sex, body mass index, previous treatment history, stone site, maximum stone size, and stone volume. We compared perioperative outcomes between the unmatched and matched groups. RESULTS: Patients underwent PNL (n=87, 66.4%) or RIRS (n=44, 33.6%). After matching, 44 patients in each group were included. Mean patient age was 54.4+/-13.7 years. Perioperative hemoglobin drop was significantly higher and the hospital stay was longer in the PNL group than in the RIRS group. The operative time was significantly longer in the RIRS group than in the PNL group. Stone-free rates were higher and complications rates were lower in the RIRS group than in the PNL group without statistical significance. The presence of a stone located in the lower-anterior minor calyx was a predictor of stone-free status. CONCLUSIONS: RIRS and single-session PNL for patients with a main stone of 15 to 30 mm located in the lower-pole calyx showed comparable surgical results. However, RIRS can be performed more safely than PNL with less bleeding. Stones in the lower-anterior minor calyx should be carefully removed during these procedures.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Calculi/pathology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The course of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is rather variable, and the factors that predict radiographic progression remain largely obscure. In this study, we tried to determine the clinical factors and laboratory measures that are useful in predicting the radiographic progression of patients with AS. METHODS: In 64 consecutive patients with AS, we collected radiographic and laboratory data over 3 years. Radiographic data included images of the sacroiliac (SI) and hip joints and laboratory data included areas under the curve (AUC) of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hemoglobin (Hb). We investigated associations among changes in radiographic scores, initial clinical manifestations and laboratory measurements. RESULTS: Changes in scores for the SI joint and lumbar spine did not correlate with AUC for ESR, CRP, or ALP. AUC for Hb did not significantly correlate with radiographic progression in any joint. Patients with hip arthritis at the initial visit showed significantly higher radiographic score changes after 3 years in the SI and hip joint compared to those without hip arthritis. Patients who had shoulder arthritis as the initial manifestation had significantly increased AUCs for ESR and CRP compared to those without shoulder arthritis. However, at 3 years, the change of the lumbar spine score was significantly higher in patients without shoulder arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that hip arthritis at presentation is a useful clinical marker for predicting the structural damage to the SI and hip joint, and suggest that initial shoulder arthritis correlates with slower radiographic progression of the lumbar spine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hip Joint/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis, Hip/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sacroiliac Joint/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/blood , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 526-529, Oct-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731253

ABSTRACT

Sarcocystis neurona is the major agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. It infects several mammalian species in the Americas, where the definitive hosts, marsupials of the genus Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris) are found. Domestic cats are one of the confirmed intermediate hosts of the parasite; however, antibodies against S. neurona had never before been demonstrated in Brazilian cats. The aim of this study was to determine whether cats in Bahia, Brazil, are exposed to the parasite. A total of 272 feline serum samples (134 from feral and 138 from house cats) were subjected to an indirect fluorescent antibody test using cultured merozoites of S. neurona as antigen. Positivity was detected in 4.0% (11/272) of the tested samples, with titers ranging from 25 to 800. The feline sera were also tested for antibodies against the protozoan Neospora caninum, with an observed antibody frequency of 2.9%. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to report antibodies against S. neurona in Brazilian cats. We conclude that cats are exposed to the parasite in the region of this study. Further investigations are needed to confirm the role of cats in the transmission cycle of S. neurona in Brazil.


Sarcocystis neurona é o principal agente da mieloencefalite protozoária equina. Esse parasito infecta várias espécies de mamíferos nas Américas, onde são encontrados os hospedeiros definitivos, os marsupiais do gênero Didelphis (D. virginiana and D. albiventris). O gato doméstico é um dos hospedeiros intermediários do parasito. Contudo, anticorpos contra S. neurona ainda não tinham sido demonstrados em gatos brasileiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se gatos da Bahia, Brasil, são expostos ao parasito. Amostras séricas de 272 felinos (134 de gatos errantes e 138 de gatos domiciliados) foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta, utilizando-se como antígeno, merozoítos produzidos em cultura celular. Entre as amostras testadas, 4,0% (11/272) foram positivas com títulos entre 25 e 800. Os soros dos felinos foram também testados para anticorpos contra o protozoário Neospora caninum, cuja frequência de anticorpos foi de 2,9%. Esse é o primeiro relato de anticorpos contra S. neurona em gatos brasileiros. Conclui-se que os gatos da região estudada são expostos a S. neurona. Estudos futuros são necessários, a fim de se confirmar o papel dos gatos no ciclo de transmissão de S. neurona no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/enzymology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Cysteine Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hydrolysis , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Leupeptins/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Time Factors
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1113-1129, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732519

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo examino como geneticistas contemporâneos que pesquisam a história e a configuração da população brasileira interagem com outras disciplinas. Para tanto, tomei como estudo de caso artigos publicados por geneticistas que investigam a presença de variantes da hemoglobina S no Brasil, os quais pretendem claramente contribuir para a análise de questões como escravidão ou identidade étnica no país. Contrastando esses estudos com trabalhos contemporâneos da história e das ciências sociais, problematizo a centralidade explanatória da “origem” nos estudos genéticos analisados, bem como a falta de interação com questões epistemológicas de outras áreas do saber.


In this article I examine how contemporary geneticists investigating the history and configuration of the Brazilian population engage with other academic disciplines. To do so I use as a case study some articles published by geneticists researching the presence of hemoglobin S variants in Brazil, in which there is a clear pretension to contribute to the analysis of issues such as slavery or Brazil’s ethnic identity. By contrasting these studies with contemporary works from history and the social science, the explanatory centrality of “origin” in the genetic studies analyzed is problematized, as is the lack of interaction with the epistemological characteristics of other areas of knowledge.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Iron-Binding Proteins , Iron/metabolism , Reticulocytes/metabolism , Biological Transport , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Ferric Compounds/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Transferrin/metabolism
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(5): 429-501, sep.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733322

ABSTRACT

Objective. To compare the costs and number of undetected cases of four cervical cancer screening strategies (CCSS) in Mexico. Materials and methods. We estimated the costs and outcomes of the following CCSS: a) conventional Papanicolaou smear (Pap) alone; b) high-risk human papilloma virus testing (HR-HPV) as primary screening with Pap as reflex triage; c) HR-HPV as primary screening with HPV-16/18 typing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and immunostaining for p16/Ki67 testing as reflex triage, and d) co-testing with HR-HPV and LBC with HPV-16/18 typing and immunostaining for p16/Ki67 as reflex triage. The outcome of interest was high-grade cervical lesions or cervical cancer. Results. HR-HPV testing, HPV typing, LBC testing and immunostaining is the best alternative because it is the least expensive option with an acceptable number of missed cases. Conclusions. The opportunity costs of a poor quality CCSS is many false negatives. Combining multiple tests may be a more cost-effective way to screen for cervical cancer in Mexico.


Objetivo. Comparar los costos y los casos no detectados de cuatro estrategias de tamizaje de cáncer cervical (ETCC) en México. Material y métodos. Se estimaron los costos y resultados en salud de las siguientes ETCC: a) citología convencional como único procedimiento de tamizaje; b) detección de virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) como tamizaje primario y citología convencional como procedimiento de triage; c) detección de VPH-AR como tamizaje primario y tipificación de VPH-16/18, citología en base líquida e inmunotinción para p16/Ki67 como procedimientos de triage, y d) evaluación conjunta con VPH-AR y citología en base líquida como tamizaje primario y tipificación de VPH-16/18 e inmunotinción para p16/Ki67 como procedimientos de triage. El resultado en salud analizado fueron los casos de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (CIN 2/3) o cáncer cervical detectados. Resultados. La ETCC basada en la detección de VPH-AR como prueba primaria y seguida de la tipificación de VPH-16/18, la citología en base líquida y la inmunotinción para p16/Ki67 como procedimientos de triage es la mejor alternativa, ya que es la menos costosa y la que tuvo un nivel aceptable de casos perdidos. Conclusiones. El costo de oportunidad de una ETCC de mala calidad es un alto número de falsos negativos. La combinación seriada de varias pruebas de tamizaje y triage puede ser una alternativa costo-efectiva para la detección oportuna de cáncer cervical en México.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Butadienes/pharmacokinetics , Carcinogens/pharmacokinetics , Epoxy Compounds/blood , Glutathione/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Body Burden , Butadienes/toxicity , Models, Biological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Species Specificity
16.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 26(3): 287-291, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-723280

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Para desenvolver modelos experimentais de transfusão de hemácias, o primeiro passo é assegurar a viabilidade dos eritrócitos transfundidos. Avaliamos a viabilidade de eritrócitos transfundidos com validação in vitro e in vivo de eritrócitos suínos homólogos armazenados por 14 dias. Métodos: Neste estudo piloto, o sangue coletado de um suíno Agroceres® foi estocado em duas unidades de hemácias. A validação in vivo foi realizada pela marcação dos eritrócitos com Na2 51CrO4 e recuperação dos eritrócitos viáveis após 24 horas da infusão em um animal autólogo e quatro homólogos. A validação in vitro foi realizada na avaliação basal e após 14 dias, pela mensuração da hemoglobina, hematócrito, índice de hemólise e hemoglobina livre em seis unidades de hemácias. Foi realizada uma esplenectomia post-mortem para avaliar o sequestro esplênico de eritrócitos, e a radioatividade das amostras de sobrenadante foi contada para avaliar a hemólise intravascular. Resultados: Após 14 dias de estocagem, as unidades de hemácias tinham volumes menores e concentração total de hemoglobina equivalente em comparação aos padrões humanos. A concentração de hemoglobina livre aumentou de 31,0±9,3 para 112,4±31,4mg/dL (p<0,001) e o índice de hemólise aumentou de 0,1±0,1 para 0,5±0,1% (p<0,001). Entretanto, esses testes se encontravam dentro da faixa aceitável para os padrões humanos. A percentagem de radioatividade nas amostras de sobrenadante foi similar na avaliação basal e após 24 horas, afastando, assim, a presença de hemólise significante. Não se encontraram evidências de sequestro esplênico de eritrócitos radioativos. ...


Objective: To develop experimental models of erythrocyte transfusion, the first step is to ensure the viability of the red blood cells transfused. In this pilot study, we assessed the viability of transfused red blood cells with validation in vitro and in vivo of homologous swine erythrocytes stored for 14 days. Methods: Blood collected from one Agroceres® swine was stored in two red blood cell units. In vivo validation was performed by labeling the red blood cells with Na2 51CrO4 and recovering the viable erythrocytes after 24 hours of infusion in one autologous and four homologous animals. In vitro validation was performed at baseline and after 14 days in sixteen red blood cell units by measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis index and free hemoglobin. A post-mortem splenectomy was performed to evaluate the splenic sequestration of erythrocytes, and the radioactivity of the supernatant samples was counted to evaluate intravascular hemolysis. Results: After 14 days of storage, the red blood cell units had lower volumes and equivalent total concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to human standards. The free hemoglobin concentration increased from 31.0±9.3 to 112.4±31.4mg/dL (p<0.001), and the hemolysis index increased from 0.1±0.1 to 0.5±0.1% (p<0.001). However, these tests were within the acceptable range for human standards. The percentage of radioactivity in supernatant samples was similar at baseline and after 24 hours, thus excluding significant hemolysis. No evidence of splenic sequestration of radioactive erythrocytes was found. Conclusion: Swine red blood cells stored for 14 days are viable and can be used in experimental studies of transfusion. These validation experiments are important to aid investigators in establishing experimental models of transfusion. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Erythrocyte Transfusion/methods , Erythrocytes/cytology , Blood Preservation/methods , Cell Survival/physiology , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hemolysis/physiology , Models, Animal , Pilot Projects , Species Specificity , Swine , Spleen/cytology , Time Factors
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(4): 241-246, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15 mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60 min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. RESULTS: Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, ...


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: o bloqueio central proporcionado pela raquianestesia possibilita a realização de muitos procedimentos cirúrgicos, enquanto as alterações hemodinâmicas e respiratórias influenciam a oferta de oxigênio sistêmico, levando ao desenvolvimento em potencial de uma série de problemas, como isquemia cerebral, infarto do miocárdio e insuficiência renal aguda. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar potenciais efeitos adversos das alterações hemodinâmicas e respiratórias sobre a oferta de oxigênio sistêmico, usando métodos oximétricos cerebrais em pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia. MÉTODOS: vinte e cinco pacientes, 65-80 anos de idade, estado físico ASA I-II, programados para correção de hérnia inguinal unilateral sob raquianestesia foram incluídos no estudo. De acordo com o monitoramento padrão, os níveis de oxigênio cerebral foram medidos no início do estudo usando métodos oximétricos cerebrais. O Mini Teste Padronizado do Estado Mental (Standardized Mini Mental Test - SMMT) foi aplicado antes e depois da operação para determinar o nível de funcionamento cognitivo dos casos. Usando uma técnica padrão e quantidades iguais de um fármaco anestésico local (15 mg de bupivacaína a 5%), o bloqueio intratecal foi realizado. Pressão arterial média (PAM), frequência cardíaca máxima (FCM), saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2) e níveis cerebrais de oxigênio (rSO2) foram monitorados no pré-operatório por 60 min. Os níveis pré- e pós-operatórios de hemoglobina foram medidos. As variações nos dados obtidos e suas correlações com os níveis cerebrais de oxigênio foram investigadas. RESULTADOS: não observamos ...


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVO: el bloqueo central proporcionado por la raquianestesia posibilita la realización de muchos procedimientos quirúrgicos, mientras que las alteraciones hemodinámicas y respiratorias influyen en la administración de oxígeno sistémico conllevando el desarrollo potencial de una serie de problemas, como la isquemia cerebral, el infarto de miocardio y la insuficiencia renal aguda. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar potenciales efectos adversos de las alteraciones hemodinámicas y respiratorias sobre la administración de oxígeno sistémico, usando métodos oximétricos cerebrales en pacientes sometidos a la raquianestesia. MÉTODOS: veinticinco pacientes, entre 65 y 80 años de edad, estado físico ASA I-II, programados para la corrección de hernia inguinal unilateral bajo raquianestesia fueron incluidos en el estudio. De acuerdo con la monitorización estándar, los niveles de oxígeno cerebral fueron medidos al inicio del estudio usando métodos oximétricos cerebrales. El Mini Test Estandarizado del Estado Mental se aplicó antes y después de la operación para determinar el nivel de funcionamiento cognitivo de los casos. Usando una técnica estándar y cantidades iguales de un anestésico local (15 mg de bupivacaína al 5%), se realizó el bloqueo intratecal. La presión arterial media (PAM), frecuencia cardíaca máxima (FCM), saturación periférica de oxígeno (SpO2) y niveles cerebrales de oxígeno (rSO2) fueron monitorizados en el preoperatorio durante 60 min. Se midieron los niveles pre y postoperatorios de hemoglobina. Las variaciones en los datos obtenidos y sus correlaciones con los niveles cerebrales de oxígeno fueron investigadas. RESULTADOS: no observamos alteraciones significativas en las medidas de hemoglobina, puntuaciones ...


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Oxygen/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Oximetry
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(3): 183-189, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715666

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: anemia is a common clinical finding in intensive care units. The red blood cell transfusion is the main form of treatment, despite the associated risks. Thus, we proposed to evaluate the profile of transfusional patients in different intensive care units. Methods: prospective analysis of patients admitted in the intensive care units of a tertiary university hospital with an indication for transfusion of packed red blood cells. Demographic profile and transfusional profile were collected, a univariate analysis was done, and the results were considered significant at p = 0.05. Results: 408 transfusions were analyzed in 71 patients. The mean hemoglobin concentration on admission was 9.7 ± 2.3 g/dL and the pre-transfusional concentration was 6.9 ± 1.1 g/dL. The main indications for transfusion were hemoglobin concentration (49%) and active bleeding (32%). The median number of units transfused per episode was 2 (1-2) and the median storage time was 14 (7-21) days. The number of patients transfused with hemoglobin levels greater than 7 g/dL and the number of bags transfused per episode were significantly different among intensive care units. Patients who received three or more transfusions had longer mechanical ventilation time and intensive care unit stay and higher mortality after 60 days. There was an association of mortality with disease severity but not with transfusional characteristics. Conclusions: the practice of blood products transfusion was partially in agreement with the guidelines recommended, although there are differences in behavior between the different profiles of intensive care units. Transfused patients evolved with unfavorable outcomes. Despite the scarcity of blood in blood banks, the mean storage time of the bags was high. .


Justificativa e objetivos: Anemia é um achado clínico frequente nas UTIs. A transfusão de hemácias é a principal forma de tratamento, apesar dos riscos a ela associados. Dessa forma, propusemos avaliar o perfil transfusional dos pacientes em diferentes UTIs. Métodos: Análise prospectiva dos pacientes internados nas UTIs de um hospital universitário terciário com indicação de transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Foram coletados características demográficas e o perfil transfusional, foi feita análise univariada e foram considerados significativos resultados com p = 0,05. Resultados: Foram analisadas 408 transfusões em 71 pacientes. A concentração média de hemoglobina na internação foi 9,7 ± 2,3 g/dL e a concentração pré-transfusional 6,9 ± 1,1 g/dL. As principais indicações de transfusão foram a concentração de hemoglobina (49%) e o sangramento ativo (32%). O número mediano de unidades transfundidas por episódio foi 2 (1-2) e a mediana do tempo de estocagem foi 14 (7-21) dias. O número de pacientes transfundidos com hemoglobina acima de 7 g/dL e o número de bolsas transfundidas por episódio foram significativamente diferentes entre as UTIs. Pacientes que receberam três ou mais transfusões tiveram maior tempo de ventilação mecânica e de permanência na UTI e maior mortalidade em 60 dias. Houve associação da mortalidade com gravidade da doença, mas não com as características transfusionais. Conclusões: A prática transfusional de hemocomponentes esteve parcialmente de acordo com as diretrizes preconizadas, embora haja diferença de conduta entre os diferentes perfis de UTIs. Pacientes transfundidos evoluíram com desfechos desfavoráveis. Apesar da escassez de sangue ...


Justificación y objetivos: la anemia es un hallazgo clínico común en las UCI. La transfusión de hematíes es la principal forma de tratamiento, a pesar de los riesgos que están asociados a ella. Así, nos propusimos evaluar el perfil transfusional de los pacientes en diferentes UCI. Métodos: análisis prospectivo de los pacientes ingresados en las UCI de un hospital universitario terciario con indicación de transfusión de concentrado de hematíes. Se recolectaron características demográficas y el perfil transfusional, haciéndose el análisis univariado considerando como significativos los resultados con p = 0,05. Resultados: se analizaron 408 transfusiones en 71 pacientes. La concentración promedio de hemoglobina en el ingreso fue de 9,7 ± 2,3 g/dL y la concentración pretransfusional de 6,9 ± 1,1 g/dL. Las principales indicaciones de transfusión fueron la concentración de hemoglobina (49%) y el sangrado activo (32%). El número intermedio de unidades transfundidas por episodio fue 2 (1-2) y la mediana del tiempo de almacenaje fue de 14 (7-21) días. El número de pacientes transfundidos con hemoglobina por encima de 7 g/dL y el número de bolsas transfundidas por episodio fueron significativamente diferentes entre las UCI. Los pacientes que recibieron 3 o más transfusiones tuvieron más tiempo de ventilación mecánica y de permanencia en la UCI y una mayor mortalidad en 60 días. Hubo una asociación de la mortalidad con la gravedad de la enfermedad, pero no así con las características transfusionales. Conclusiones: la práctica transfusional de hemocomponentes estuvo parcialmente a tono con las directrices preconizadas, aunque exista una diferencia de conducta entre los diferentes perfiles de UCI. Pacientes transfundidos evolucionaron con resultados desfavorables. ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anemia/therapy , Blood Transfusion/methods , Hemorrhage/therapy , Blood Preservation , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Erythrocyte Transfusion/methods , Erythrocyte Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
19.
Acta ortop. mex ; 28(2): 106-112, mar.-abr. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-720711

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La utilización de torniquete neumático (TN) en la artroplastía total de rodilla (ATR) ha sido tema de controversia, describiendo ventajas, desventajas y complicaciones asociadas. Con la finalidad de evaluar los beneficios de su utilización se estudió el tiempo quirúrgico, volumen de sangrado transquirúrgico, postquirúrgico y total, así como los valores de hemoglobina y hematocrito pre y postquirúrgicos de pacientes a los que se les realizo ATR primaria utilizando TN y se compararon con un grupo control. Material y métodos: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de expedientes clínicos de casos sometidos a ATR; en apego a los criterios de inclusión se obtuvo un grupo de estudio (n = 19) y control (n = 19) según la utilización o no de TN. Se compararon el tiempo quirúrgico, el sangrado transquirúrgico y postquirúrgico así como el sangrado total; valores de hemoglobina y hematocrito iniciales y finales. Resultados: Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas a favor del grupo en quienes se utilizó TN en 7 de 8 variables estudiadas, siendo el tiempo empleado (t = 2.08 p < 0.050); sangrado transquirúrgico (t = -6.44, p < 0.010); postquirúrgico (t = -2.170 p < 0.050) y total (t = /7.52, p < 0.010), las más relevantes. Conclusiones: Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos a quienes se les aplicó TN durante la ATR requirieron menos tiempo quirúrgico y que el sangrado total, trans y postquirúrgico, así como la perdida sanguínea calculada fueron menores que los controles. Mayores conjeturas sobre los beneficios del TN ameritan la realización de más investigaciones prospectivas.


Background: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet (PT) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been controversial; its advantages, disadvantages and associated complications have been described. In order to assess its benefits we analyzed operative time; intraoperative, postoperative and total bleeding volume, as well as pre- and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values in patients who had undergone primary TKA using the PT, and they were compared with a control group. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical records of cases who underwent TKA was conducted. Based on the inclusion criteria and the use or non-use of PT, two groups were formed: a study group (n = 19) and a control group (n = 19). The following variables were compared: operative time, intra and postoperative bleeding and total bleeding; initial and final hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Results: Significant differences in favor of the group with PT use were obtained in 7 out of the 8 variables studied. The most relevant ones were operative time (t = 2.08 p < 0.050); intraoperative bleeding (t = -6.44, p < 0.010); postoperative bleeding (t = -2.170 p < 0.050) and total bleeding (t = /7.52, p < 0.010). Conclusions: The results showed that patients in whom PT was used during TKA had a shorter operative time, and their total, intra- and postoperative bleeding and the estimated blood loss were lower than in controls. Additional suppositions on the benefits of PT warrant the conduction of more prospective research studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Blood Loss, Surgical , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Tourniquets , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Operative Time , Retrospective Studies
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Feb; 52(2): 112-124
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150339

ABSTRACT

Chlorambucil is an anticancer drug with alkylating and immunosuppressive activities. Considering various reports on the possible antioxidant/protective functions of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), it was aimed at to explore the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity induced by chlorambucil. Dalton’s ascites lymphoma tumor serially maintained in Swiss albino mice were used for the present experiments. The result of antitumor activity showed that combination treatment with ascorbic acid and chlorambucil exhibited enhanced antitumor activity with 170% increase in life span (ILS), which is significantly higher as compared to chlorambucil alone (ILS 140%). Analysis of apoptosis in Dalton’s lymphoma tumor cells revealed a significantly higher apoptotic index after combination treatment as compared to chlorambucil alone. Blood hemoglobin content, erythrocytes and leukocytes counts were decreased after chlorambucil treatment, however, overall recovery in these hematological values was noted after combination treatment. Chlorambucil treatment also caused morphological abnormalities in red blood cells, majority of which include acanthocytes, burr and microcystis. Combination treatment of mice with ascorbic acid plus chlorambucil showed less histopathological changes in kidney as compared to chlorambucil treatment alone, thus, ascorbic acid is effective in reducing chlorambucil-induced renal toxicity in the hosts. Based on the results, for further devel­opment, hopefully into the clinical usage, the administration of ascorbic acid in combination with chlorambucil may be recommended.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Ascites/blood , Ascites/drug therapy , Ascites/pathology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Blood Cell Count , Chlorambucil/administration & dosage , Chlorambucil/metabolism , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lymphoma/blood , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma/pathology , Mice
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