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1.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 341-348, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346248

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a chronic, multi-systemic, progressive and lifethreatening disease characterized by intravascular hemolysis, thrombotic events, serious infections and bone marrow failure. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria results from the expansion of a clone of hematopoietic cells that due to an inactivating mutation of the X-linked gene PIG-A are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins. Early diagnosis, using flow cytometry performed on peripheral blood, the gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, is essential for improved patient management and prognosis. The traditional therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria includes blood transfusion, anti-thrombosis prophylaxis or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The treatment that has recently become available is the complement blockade by the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. In this consensus, we are aiming to review the diagnosis and treatment of the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients, as well as the early recognition of its systemic complications. These procedures express the opinions of experts and have been based on the best available evidence and international guidelines, with the purpose of increasing benefits and reducing harm to patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/epidemiology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnostic imaging , Consensus , Antibodies, Monoclonal
2.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 67(3): e-091228, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292092

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O potencial de transformação maligna de células-tronco hematopoiéticas portadoras de mutações no gene glicosilfostatidilinositolclasse A (PIG-A) para leucemias agudas, embora raro, já é bem descrito na literatura. Objetivo: Neste estudo, porém, buscou-se evidenciar pela primeira vez na literatura o surgimento ou a manutenção de clones de hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna (HPN) em pacientes diagnosticados com leucemia aguda ou ainda após o início do tratamento quimioterápico. Método: A pesquisa de clones de HPN foi realizada por citometria de fluxo em blastos, hemácias, granulócitos ou monócitos de 47 amostras de sangue periférico e medula óssea de pacientes submetidos à investigação diagnóstica ou acompanhamento terapêutico, provenientes de dois hospitais oncológicos e públicos de Belém, no período de dezembro de 2017 a dezembro de 2018. Resultados: A presença de clones de HPN foi observada em 19/47 (40,4%) amostras de pacientes, em investigação diagnóstica ou acompanhamento terapêutico, que realizaram pelo menos um estudo de acompanhamento terapêutico e ainda tiveram o surgimento ou a manutenção do clone de HPN mesmo após iniciado o tratamento quimioterápico. Conclusão: Foi possível evidenciar, de forma primária, a presença de clones de HPN em pacientes diagnosticados com leucemia aguda tanto no período de investigação diagnóstica como durante o acompanhamento terapêutico, independentemente da ontogenia celular. Sem, porém, que se possa ainda avaliar a importância da presença desses clones de HPN para a evolução da doença primária, prognóstico ou necessidade de tratamento específico.


Introduction: The potential for malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells carrying mutations in theglycosylphosphatidylinositol class A (PIG-A) gene for acute leukemias, although rare, is already well described in the literature. Objective: In this study, however, it was attempted to show for the first time in the literature the emergence or maintenance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clones in patients diagnosed with acute leukemia or even after the beginning of the chemotherapy treatment. Method: The search of PNH clones was performed by flow cytometry in blasts, erythrocytes, granulocytes or monocytes of 47 samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow from patients undergoing diagnostic investigation or therapeutic follow-up in two oncological and public hospitals in Belém, from December 2017 to December 2018. Results: The presence of PNH clones was observed in 19/47 (40.4%) patient samples, in diagnostic investigation or therapeutic follow-up, who participated of at least one therapeutic follow-up study and still experience the appearance or maintenance of the PNH clone even after the beginning of the chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion: Primarily, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of PNH clones in patients diagnosed with acute leukemia both during the diagnostic investigation period and therapeutic follow-up, regardless of cell ontogeny. However, the importance of the presence of these PNH clones for the evolution of the primary disease, prognosis or need for specific treatment was not evaluated yet.


Introducción: El potencial de transformación maligna de las células madre hematopoyéticas que portan mutaciones en el gen glicosofosfatidilinositol (GPI) clase A (PIGA) para las leucemias agudas, aunque raro, ya está bien descrito en la literatura. Objetivo: En este estudio, sin embargo, buscamos mostrar por primera vez en la literatura la aparición o mantenimiento de clones de HPN en pacientes diagnosticados de leucemia aguda o incluso después del inicio de la quimioterapia. Método: La investigación de clones de hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN) se realizó mediante citometría de flujo en blastos, eritrocitos, granulocitos o monocitos de 47 muestras de sangre periférica y médula ósea de pacientes sometidos a investigación diagnóstica o seguimiento terapéutico de dos hospitales oncológicos y públicos de Belém, durante el período. de diciembre de 2017 a diciembre de 2018. Resultados: La presencia de clones HPN se observó en 19/47 (40,4%) muestras de pacientes, en investigación diagnóstica o seguimiento terapéutico, que realizaron al menos un estudio de seguimiento terapéutico y aún tenían la aparición o mantenimiento del clon HPN incluso después de iniciado el tratamiento de quimioterapia. Conclusión: Se pudo evidenciar, de forma primaria, la presencia de clones de HPN en pacientes diagnosticados de leucemia aguda tanto durante el período de investigación diagnóstica como durante el seguimiento terapéutico, independientemente de la ontogenia celular. Sin embargo, no podemos todavía evaluar la importancia de la presencia de estos clones de HPN para la evolución de la enfermedad primaria, el pronóstico o la necesidad de un tratamiento específico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia/diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/blood , Bone Marrow/pathology , Leukemia/drug therapy , Clone Cells , Flow Cytometry , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1601-1605, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and preliminarily explore the role of an improved post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) based conditioning regimen in PNH patients receiving transplantation.@*METHODS@#Clinical related data of PNH sufferers receiving allo-HSCT in Department of Hematology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology were collected, and hematopoietic reconstitution, chimerism, PNH cloning, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection, and survival were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Totally five PNH patients receiving allo-HSCT were enrolled, including 1 case with classic PNH, 3 cases with aplastic anemia-PNH syndrome, 1 case with myelodysplastic syndrome, three of them (case 1-3) received the improved PTCy based conditioning regimen before HSCT. All sufferers engrafted successfully within 28 days, the median time of neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 11 days and 12 days, respectively, no patient occurred acute or chronic GVHD, after a median follow-up of 16 months, all recipients survived and completely eliminated PNH cloning.@*CONCLUSION@#Allo-HSCT can completely clear PNH cloning and restore hematopoietic function with controllable complications, and the improved PTCy based conditioning regimen is proved to be effective in PNH transplantation.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/therapy , Humans , Transplantation Conditioning
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1080-1084, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia(AML) combined with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria(PNH).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 13 AML combined with PNH patients treated in our hospital from January 2017 to May 2019 were collected and retrospective analyzed. The complete remission(CR) rate for induction chemotherapy was analyzed. The level of PNH@*RESULTS@#Among the 13 patients, 11 (84.6%) cases were CR after first induction chemotherapy. The median overall survival(OS) time was 17 months(0-30 months), the median progression-free survival(PFS) time was 16 months(2-26 months). There were no significant difference in the number of PNH@*CONCLUSION@#The patients of AML combined with PNH have higher CR rate after the first induction chemotherapy. The level of WBC and LDH at first diagnosed are the factors that affecting the OS of the patients. The OS of patients with WBC lower than 10×10


Subject(s)
Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
5.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(3): 281-290, Dezembro/2020.
Article in English | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1141371

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report the outcomes of a systematic literature review of guidelines and consensus on the management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and describe the main therapeutic options available worldwide. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in April 2018 with no time limit and reported in line with the PRISMA statement. The AGREE II instrument was used to determine the quality of each guideline included in the systematic review. Results: Eight guidelines/consensus were eligible, one developed by an international group, two in Spain, and one each in Turkey, Germany, Argentina, Australia and the United Kingdom. Supportive treatment with erythrocyte transfusion, anticoagulants and steroids is indicated by all guidelines and consensus. The use of erythropoietin is suggested by three of them. Recommendations for the prescription of eculizumab were consistent in all but one guideline, published in 2005. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is reported as the only potentially curative treatment for PNH, although its association with high mortality and morbidity rates is emphasized, being indicated for a selected group of patients. The AGREE II scores applied for each domain showed in general a low and heterogeneous methodological quality among guidelines. Conclusion: Despite the low and heterogeneous methodological quality, in general the comparison of guidelines and consensus for PNH management showed consistent recommendations regarding supportive care, eculizumab and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Objetivo: Relatar os desfechos de uma revisão sistemática da literatura de diretrizes e documentos de consenso sobre o manejo da hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna (HPN) e descrever as principais opções terapêuticas disponíveis mundialmente. Métodos: Uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi conduzida em abril de 2018 sem limite temporal e realizada de acordo com a recomendação PRISMA. O instrumento AGREE II foi utilizado para determinar a qualidade de cada diretriz incluída na revisão. Resultados: Foram elegíveis oito diretrizes/consensos, um desenvolvido por um grupo internacional, dois na Espanha e um em cada um dos países a seguir: Turquia, Alemanha, Argentina, Austrália e Reino Unido. O tratamento de suporte com transfusão de eritrócitos, anticoagulantes e esteroides é indicado por todos os documentos. A eritropoetina é indicada por três deles. A recomendação de prescrição do eculizumabe foi consistente em todos, exceto em um publicado em 2005. O transplante alogênico de células-tronco hematopoéticas é reportado como o único tratamento com potencial curativo para a HPN, apesar de uma enfática associação com maiores taxas de mortalidade e morbidade, sendo indicado para grupos selecionados de pacientes. Os escores AGREE II aplicados para cada domínio demonstraram, em geral, qualidade metodológica baixa e heterogênea entre as diretrizes. Conclusão: Apesar da qualidade metodológica baixa e heterogênea, em geral, a comparação de diretrizes e consensos para o manejo da HPN demonstrou recomendações consistentes quanto ao uso de tratamento de suporte, eculizumabe e transplante alogênico de células-tronco hematopoiéticas.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Systematic Review , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal
7.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(3): 21-27, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046282

ABSTRACT

La hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN) es una enfermedad clonal y adquirida causada por una mutación somática en el gen PIG-A que se encuentra en el cromosoma X y codifica una proteína involucrada en la síntesis del glicosilfosfatidilinositol (GPI), el cual le sirve como anclaje a muchas proteínas de la membrana celular produciendo mayor sensibilidad al complemento. Los distintos signos y síntomas que se presentan tienen gran impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes, por lo que un diagnóstico correcto es de vital importancia. Actualmente, la citometría de flujo multiparamétrica es la metodología de elección para detectar y seguir al paciente con HPN.


Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal and acquired disease caused by a somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene found on the X chromosome and encoding a protein involved in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), which serves as anchoring to many proteins of the cell membrane producing greater sensitivity to complement. The different signs and symptoms that appear have a great impact on the quality of life of patients, so a correct diagnosis is of vital importance. Currently, multiparameter flow cytometry is the methodology of choice to detect and follow the patient with PNH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/classification , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/etiology
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 488-490, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020502

ABSTRACT

Abstract Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an ultra-orphan disease. We report the first case in the literature of Off-Pump Coronary Revascularization Using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. A 36-year-old man came to the emergency department with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). He presented paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria diagnosed in 2016. Coronary angiography revealed tripple vessel disease. The conduits used for coronary revascularization were both internal thoracic arteries (left ITA-right ITA [LITA-RITA]). We consider that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) using Bilateral Internal Thoracic Arteries (BITA) can be safely performed with low in-hospital mortality and complications rates, even in patient with PNH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/methods , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Disease/complications , Mammary Arteries/transplantation
9.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(1): e930, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003888

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hemoglobinuria paroxística (HPN) nocturna es una enfermedad clonal, adquirida y no maligna de la célula madre hematopoyética. En este padecimiento se encuentra afectado el anclaje a la membrana celular de moléculas como el CD55 y CD59, fundamentales en la regulación de la lisis mediada por el complemento. Por su elevada especificidad y sensibilidad, la citometría de flujo multiparamétrica (CFM) es el método de elección para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Establecer un algoritmo diagnóstico de la HPN por CMF. Métodos: Se analizó una muestra de sangre periférica para CFM de un paciente con sospecha de HPN. El inmunofenotipaje celular se realizó con un panel de anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra los antígenos que se expresan en la membrana citoplasmática mediante su anclaje al glicosilfosfatidilinositol. Las muestras se leyeron en un citómetro GALLIOS, Beckman Coulter y los datos obtenidos se analizaron con el empleo del programa informático Kaluza. Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro clones HPN. En los granulocitos se observó un clon HPN de aproximadamente 90 por ciento, con deficiencia en la expresión de CD16, CD24, CD55 y CD59. En los monocitos se observaron dos clones: (1) clon CD14_CD59_ y (2) clon CD14_CD59+ con tamaños clonales de 59,77 por ciento y 19,45 por ciento, respectivamente. En los eritrocitos se identificó un clon de 19,98 por ciento y de determinó el grado de afectación. Conclusiones: El algoritmo de análisis propuesto permite identificar las poblaciones celulares con clones HPN. Además, dichos clones pueden ser cuantificados en cuanto a tamaño clonal y expresividad de los antígenos dependientes de anclaje a glicosilfosfatidilinositol. Con la CFM se logra determinar con elevada sensibilidad el grado de afectación de los eritrocitos en la expresión de CD59 como medida directa de la susceptibilidad que experimentan a la lisis por el complemento(AU)


Introduction: The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a clonal, acquired disease and not malignant hematopoietic stem cell. In this condition, the anchor to the cell membrane of molecules such as the CD55 and CD59 is affected, This antigens are fundamental in the regulation of the complement-mediated lysis. By its high specificity and sensitivity multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) is the goal standard for the diagnosis of this disease. Objective: To establish a diagnosis of PNH by MFC algorithm. Methods: A sample of peripheral blood of a patient with suspicion of PNH was analyzed by MFC. The cell immunophenotyping was carried out using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigens that are expressed in the cytoplasmic membrane through its the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The samples were read in a Cytometer GALLIOS, Beckman Coulter and the data obtained were analyzed with the use of the Kaluza software. Results: We identified four clones HPN. A HPN clone of approximately 90 percent, was observed in granulocytes with deficiency in the expression of CD16, CD24, CD55, CD59. In the monocytes were two clones: (1) CD14-CD59- clone and (2) CD14-CD59 + clone, with size clone of 59.77 percent and 19.45 percent, respectively. A clone of 19.98 percent was identified in erythrocytes and determined the degree of involvement of the same. Conclusions: The proposed analysis algorithm allows to identify cellular populations with clones PNH. In addition, these clones can be quantified in terms of size clonal and expressiveness of anchor to glycosylphosphatidylinositol antigen dependent. With the MFC is achieved with high sensitivity to determine the degree of involvement of the erythrocytes in the expression of CD59 as a direct measure of susceptibility undergoing lysis by complement(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry analysis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is significantly affected by the methodology used. The lack of data on the effect of age and refrigeration on PNH clone stability motivated us to study these aspects using flow cytometry. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from six patients, of which two presented with PNH. All samples were tested immediately and stored at room temperature (RT, 20–25℃) and at 4℃ for re-analysis at 24, 48, 72 hr and 7 days. Anti-CD59-fluorescein isothiocyanate (Beckman Coulter, USA) and anti-CD235a-phycoerythrin (PE; Beckman Coulter) were used to stain red blood cells (RBCs). Fluorescein-labeled proaerolysin (Cedarlane, Canada), anti-CD15-PE (Beckman Coulter), anti-CD24-PE-cyanin 5 (Beckman Coulter), and anti-CD45-PE-cyanin 7 (Beckman Coulter) were used to stain granulocytes. Flow cytometry was performed using a FC500 flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter). The effects of time and temperature were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: No significant differences in the gated percentage of RBCs and PNH clone size of RBCs were observed between the RT and 4℃ groups up to 7 days of testing. The percentage of gated neutrophils decreased with specimen age (P<0.001) and a better correlation with baseline was obtained at 4℃ than at RT (P=0.014). Neutrophil PNH clones were stable until 48 hr and 72 hr at RT and 4℃, respectively, and could not be analyzed at 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: RBC analysis was successfully performed up to 7 days. For neutrophils, testing within 48 hr is recommended, because the number of gated cells decreases significantly with age.


Subject(s)
Clone Cells , Erythrocytes , Flow Cytometry , Granulocytes , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Humans , Neutrophils , Refrigeration
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1215-1219, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy of low dose combined chemotherapy(LDCC) for patients with relapsed and refractory aplastic anemia-paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria(AA-PNH) syndrome, and to analyze the advantages of LDCC in the treatment of AA-PNH syndrome.@*METHODS@#The clinical characteristics and the curative effect of LDCC in 9 patients with relapsed and refractory AA-PNH syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients were treated with MP therapy[melphalan 2 mg/(m·d); prednisone 0.5 mg/(kg·d)], and the other 4 patients were treated with HA therapy(HHT 2 mg/d iv drip, for 5 days; Ara-C 100 mg/d iv drip, for 5 days). The changes of PNH clone, dosage of corticosteroid, hemolysis and the relapse of disease, hematological parameters and adverse reactions were compared before and after therapy. All patients were treated for 1-2 courses.@*RESULTS@#Seven out of 9 patients responded well, the dosage of corticosteroid and the bilirubin concentration decreased significantly and anemia was relieved in 7 patients (P<0.05). One patient relapsed in one year. PNH clone of 3 patients turned negative. Five patients did not rely on blood transfusion in 1 year. There was no bone marrow failure to be found in all patients.@*CONCLUSION@#The LDCC has better efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with AA-PNH syndrome, moreover, the patients is more tolerant to LDCC, thus the LDCC may be a selection for treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory AA-PNH syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Anemia, Refractory , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Hemolysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(12): 1139-1146, Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976818

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired genetic disorder characterized by complement-mediated haemolysis, thrombosis and variable cytopenias. Renal involvement may occur and causes significant morbidity to these patients. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about pathophysiology and provide recommendations on diagnosis and management of renal involvement in PNH. METHODS: Online research in the Medline database with compilation of the most relevant 26 studies found. RESULTS: PNH may present with acute kidney injury caused by massive haemolysis, which is usually very severe. In the chronic setting, PNH may develop insidious decline in renal function caused by tubular deposits of hemosiderin, renal micro-infarcts and interstitial fibrosis. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for PNH, the drug Eculizumab, a humanized anti-C5 monoclonal antibody is capable of improving renal function, among other outcomes, by inhibiting C5 cleavage with the subsequent inhibition of the terminal complement pathway which would ultimately give rise to the assembly of the membrane attack complex. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of information in literature regarding renal involvement in PNH, albeit it is possible to state that the pathophysiological mechanisms of acute and chronic impairment differ. Despite not being a curative therapy, Eculizumab is able to ease kidney lesions in these patients.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna (HPN) é uma doença genética adquirida, caracterizada por hemólise mediada pelo sistema complemento, eventos trombóticos e citopenias variáveis. Envolvimento renal pode ocorrer, contribuindo com morbidade significativa nesses pacientes. OBJETIVO: Realização de revisão de literatura sobre o envolvimento renal na HPN. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa on-line na base de dados Medline, com compilação e análise dos 26 estudos encontrados de maior relevância. RESULTADOS: A HPN pode se apresentar com insuficiência renal aguda induzida por hemólise maciça, que geralmente tem apresentação grave. Em quadros crônicos, declínio insidioso da função renal pode ocorrer por depósitos tubulares de hemossiderina, microinfartos renais e fibrose intersticial. Apesar de o transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas permanecer como a única terapia curativa para a HPN, a droga Eculizumab é capaz de melhorar a função renal, entre outros desfechos, por meio da inibição de C5 e a subsequente ativação da cascata do complemento, que culminaria com a formação do complexo de ataque à membrana. CONCLUSÃO: Há poucas informações na literatura no que concerne ao envolvimento renal na HPN, apesar de ser possível estabelecer que os mecanismos fisiopatológicos das lesões agudas e crônicas são distintos. Apesar de não ser uma terapia curativa, Eculizumab é capaz de amenizar o comprometimento renal nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/therapy
13.
Immune Network ; : e11-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740201

ABSTRACT

The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria. Some protein-losing enteropathy cases are caused by CD55 deficiency, which leads to complement hyperactivation, malabsorption, and angiopathic thrombosis. In addition, CD55 has been reported to be an essential host receptor for infection by the malaria parasite. Moreover, CD55 is a ligand of the seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97. Since CD55 is present in various cells, the functional role of CD55 has been expanded by showing that CD55 is associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, malaria, protein-losing enteropathy, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of CD55 and the role of CD55 in these diseases. It also provides insight into the development of novel drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with CD55.


Subject(s)
CD55 Antigens , Autoimmune Diseases , Complement System Proteins , Diagnosis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Immune System , Immunotherapy , Malaria , Parasites , Protein-Losing Enteropathies , Thrombosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718506

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Surgery, anesthesia, infection, trauma, and pregnancy can exacerbate hemolysis and thrombotic risk by increasing complement activity. However, perioperative treatment of eculizumab can reduce risk of hemolytic event by surgical stress. Here, we present the perioperative clinical course and adequate anesthetic management of PNH complicated by spine surgery under general anesthesia. We also describe a possible role of eculizumab for PNH patients with anticipated high risks.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Complement System Proteins , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hemoglobinuria , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Hemolysis , Humans , Pregnancy , Spine , Thrombosis
16.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 130(3): 12-21, sept. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973080

ABSTRACT

La Hemoglobinuria Paroxística Nocturna (HPN) se caracteriza por hemólisis intravascular crónica mediada por complemento. Cuando se produce la hemolisis se libera a circulación Anhidrasa Carbónica- I (AC-I), una enzima que se halla en alta concentración en el eritrocito y por su bajo peso molecular filtra por el glomérulo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la excreción de la AC-I en orina de pacientes con HPN por Electroforesis Bidimensional de Utilidad Clínica (2D UC), y compararla con otras causas de hemólisis, de origen renal y postrenal. Se evaluaron 8 pacientes con HPN sin tratamiento con eculizumab un inhibidor del C5 del complemento, y 5 de ellos postratamiento, 12 orinas de pacientes con nefritis lúpica y 10 orinas de pacientes con hemólisis postrenal. La AC-I puede estar presente en la orina, en los tres grupos, sin embargo la relación AC-I/Hemoglobina en la hemólisis intravascular está invertida en comparación con la hemolisis glomerular y post-renal. Los pacientes con HPN tratados con eculizumab no presentan AC-I, y sería de utilidad en el seguimiento de los pacientes tratados con el inhibidor del C5, para evidenciar posibles escapes hemolíticos.


Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by chronic complement mediated haemolysis. In these conditions it might be expected that carbonic anhydrase-I (AC-I) would be liberated into the plasma and excreted in the urine, by its high concentration in the erythrocyte and low molecular weight. The objective of the present study was to detect the urinary excretion of AC-I from patients with PNH by wodimensional clinical utility electrophoresis (2D UC) and to compare it with other causes of renal and post-renal haemolysis. We evaluated 8 patients with PNH without eculizumab, a complement C5 inhibitor, 5 of them posttreatment, 12 urine of patients with lupus nephritis and 10 urine of patients with post-renal hemolysis. AC-I may be present in the urine, in all three groups, however, the AC-I/Haemoglobin ratio in intravascular haemolysis is reversed compared to glomerular and post-renal haemolysis. Patients with PNH treated with eculizumab do not have AC-I and would be useful in monitoring patients treated with the C5 inhibitor to evidence possible haemolytic leaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/urine , Carbonic Anhydrase I/metabolism , Carbonic Anhydrase I/urine , Hemolysis , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Electrophoresis/methods , Urinalysis/methods , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/urine , Hematuria/urine , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use
17.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 34(1): 242-252, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841447

ABSTRACT

ResumenLa hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna es una anemia hemolítica crónica, adquirida, poco común, que afecta con igual frecuencia ambos sexos. Se manifiesta a cualquier edad y con mayor incidencia en países del sudeste asiático. Es el resultado de la expansión clonal no maligna de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. Se caracteriza por anemia hemolítica intravascular, tendencia a la trombosis y un componente variable de insuficiencia medular.Se asocia a otras patologías hematológicas como anemia aplásica y síndrome mielodisplásico. La citometría de flujo es el método de elección para diagnóstico. El eculizumab y el trasplante de médula ósea alogénico son las únicas terapias efectivas.


Abstract:Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare acquired chronic hemolytic anemia, which affects both sexes with equal frequency. It occurs at any age and more frequently in Southeast Asian countries. It is the result of non malignant clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells. It is characterized by intravascular hemolytic anemia, recurrent thrombosis and a variable component of bone marrow failure. It is associated with other hematologic disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Flow cytometry is the method of choice for diagnosis. Eculizumab and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only effective therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Proteinuria/complications , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Bacteriuria/complications , Costa Rica , Myoglobinuria/complications
18.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 23(2): 55-58, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900106

ABSTRACT

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal disease causing hematopoietic cell alteration, caused by a mutation in the PIG-A gene; which does not allow certain important proteins to bind to the cells. A 58-year-old patient presented with headache, a history of malaria, and occasionally dark urine. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be an effective diagnostic method for detecting renal cortical hemosiderosis, thanks to its high spatial resolution capacity.


La hemoglobinuria paroxística nocturna (HPN) es una enfermedad clonal adquirida ocasionando la alteración de células hematopoyética, causada por una mutación en el gen GPI-A; lo cual no permite que ciertas proteínas importantes se fijen a las células. Se presenta un paciente de 58 años que acude con cefalea, antecedente de malaria y en ocasiones orinas oscuras. La resonancia magnética demostró ser un método diagnóstico eficaz para detectar la hemosiderosis renal cortical, gracias a su elevada capacidad de resolución espacial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Hematuria/diagnostic imaging , Hemoglobinuria/diagnostic imaging
20.
Blood Research ; : 207-211, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) often have concurrent aplastic anemia (AA). This study aimed to determine whether eculizumab-treated patients show clinical benefit regardless of concurrent AA. METHODS: We analyzed 46 PNH patients ≥18 years of age who were diagnosed by flow cytometry and treated with eculizumab for more than 6 months in the prospective Korean PNH registry. Patients were categorized into two groups: PNH patients with concurrent AA (PNH/AA, N=27) and without AA (classic PNH, N=19). Biochemical indicators of intravascular hemolysis, hematological laboratory values, transfusion requirement, and PNH-associated complications were assessed at baseline and every 6 months after initiation of eculizumab treatment. RESULTS: The median patient age was 46 years and median duration of eculizumab treatment was 34 months. Treatment with eculizumab induced rapid inhibition of hemolysis. At 6-month follow-up, LDH decreased to near normal levels in all patients; this effect was maintained until the 36-month follow-up regardless of concurrent AA. Transfusion independence was achieved by 53.3% of patients within the first 6 months of treatment and by 90.9% after 36 months of treatment. The mean number of RBC units transfused was significantly reduced, from 8.5 units during the 6 months prior to initiation of eculizumab to 1.6 units in the first 6 months of treatment, for the total study population; this effect was similar in both PNH/AA and classic PNH. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that eculizumab is beneficial in the management of patients with PNH/AA, similar to classic PNH.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Cohort Studies , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Hemolysis , Humans , Prospective Studies
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