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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e643-e647, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353061

ABSTRACT

Las neoplasias ginecológicas en niñas son raras. Representan menos del 5 % de todos los cánceres en pediatría. No existen estadísticas sobre la incidencia de tumores de vagina en esta etapa de la vida. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 9 meses con sangrado por genitales. La ecografía evidencia una masa sólida en vagina, y la vaginoscopia, un tumor friable. Presenta valores de α-fetoproteína elevados, por lo que se diagnostica tumor de saco vitelino, confirmado por biopsia. Se realiza tratamiento quimioterápico. A menos de 1 año del diagnóstico, se encuentra en remisión completa. Este caso resulta de interés no solo por la rareza, sino también porque el diagnóstico rápido de tumor de saco vitelino permite mejorar los resultados y la sobrevida de las pacientes


Gynecological neoplasms in girls are rare and represent only less than 5 % of all childhood tumors. There are no statistics on the incidence of vaginal tumors at this stage in life. We present a 9-month-old girl evaluated for genital bleeding. Ultrasound reveals a vaginal solid mass and vaginoscopy reports a friable tumor. AFP is elevated. A yolk sac tumor is confirmed by biopsy she receives chemotherapy. Within a year after diagnosis, she remains tumor-free. This is a case of interest, not only because of its rarity, but also because a rapid diagnosis of a yolk sac tumor improves outcomes and patient's survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Vaginal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endodermal Sinus Tumor/diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Hemorrhage
2.
Medisan ; 25(5)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1346541

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer colorrectal es la neoplasia más frecuente de las vías digestivas en adultos mayores, así como la cuarta más diagnosticada en hombres y la tercera en mujeres. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los adultos mayores con cáncer colorrectal egresados del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Amalia Simoni de Camagüey. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal de 145 adultos mayores egresados del Hospital Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Amalia Simoni de Camagüey con el diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal, desde enero de 2016 hasta igual mes de 2019, de los que se escogió una muestra de 103 de ellos, teniendo en cuenta criterios de inclusión y de exclusión. Las variables analizadas fueron: grupo de edades, antecedentes patológicos personales, formas de presentación de la enfermedad, localización del tumor y diagnóstico histológico. Resultados: Predominaron el grupo etario de 60- 69 años (41,7 %), las féminas (56,3 %), el adenoma velloso y la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal como antecedentes patológicos personales (36,8 y 30,1 %, respectivamente), el sangrado digestivo bajo como forma de presentación (43,6 %), el lado izquierdo del colon como localización más afectada (76,7 %) y los adenocarcinomas bien diferenciados según el diagnóstico histológico (41,7 %). Conclusiones: Resulta importante la pesquisa activa para la detección temprana del cáncer colorrectal, principalmente en pacientes de 60 años y más, con antecedentes patológicos personales de adenoma velloso y enfermedad intestinal inflamatoria, que refieran sangrado digestivo bajo.


Introduction: The colorectal cancer is the most frequent neoplasia of the digestive tract in elderly, as well as the fourth more diagnosed in men and the third in women. Objective: To characterize the patients with colorectal cancer discharged from Amalia Simoni Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Camagüey. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of 145 patients discharged from Amalia Simoni Teaching Clinical-Surgical Provincial Hospital in Camagüey with the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, was carried out from January, 2016 to the same month in 2019, a sample of 103 of them was chosen, taking into account inclusion and exclusion criteria. The analyzed variables were: age groups, personal pathological history, forms of presentation of the disease, localization of the tumor and histologic diagnosis. Results: There was a prevalence of the 60-69 age group (41.7 %), women (56.3 %), hairy adenoma and the intestinal inflammatory disease as personal pathological history (36.8 and 30.1 %, respectively), low digestive bleeding as form of presentation (43.6 %), the left side of the colon as more affected localization (76.7 %) and well differentiated adenocarcinomas according to the histologic diagnosis (41.7 %). Conclusions: It is important the active investigation for the early detection of the colorectal cancer, mainly in patients of 60 years and over, with personal pathological history of hairy adenoma and inflammatory intestinal disease that refer low digestive bleeding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Hemorrhage
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare disease with multi-systemic involvement, predominantly neurological. Little evidence exists about the anesthetic management of patients with this disorder, particularly in pregnant women. This article discusses a case of a patient with TSC admitted to our hospital for the delivery of a twin gestation. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the patient presented left-side facial-brachial hypoesthesia and headache. A brain CT revealed a right frontal cortical bleeding tumor, which was diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission and a neurosurgical approach was suggested.


Resumen La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad poco frecuente asociada con compromiso multisistémico, principalmente neurológico. Es poca la evidencia sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con este trastorno, en particular las mujeres embarazadas. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente con esclerosis tuberosa ingresada en nuestro hospital para el parto de una gestación gemelar. Veinticuatro horas después de la cirugía, la paciente presentó hipoestesia facial y braquial izquierda y cefalea. La tomografía cerebral mostró un tumor cortical sangrante en el lóbulo frontal derecho, diagnosticado como glioblastoma multiforme. La paciente fue dada de alta 15 días después de su ingreso y, con recomendación de manejo por neurocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Glioblastoma , Headache , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthetics , Neurosurgery , Tuberous Sclerosis , Brain , Rare Diseases , Parturition , Hemorrhage , Hospitals , Hypesthesia , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e303-e314, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280999

ABSTRACT

Las trombocitopenias de causa no inmunológica son ocasionadas por múltiples patologías; las más frecuentes son las debidas a infecciones extra- o intrauterinas y las secundarias a otras patologías involucradas en la interrelación niño-placenta-madre. En este segundo artículo, se enumeran sus causas y se describen en detalle las distintas patologías. La transfusión de plaquetas es ampliamente utilizada en neonatología, tanto para tratamiento como para profilaxis de hemorragias. Sin embargo, no hay aún consenso generalizado sobre el umbral de recuento plaquetario conveniente para indicar la transfusión ni sobre sus reales indicaciones. Se comentan artículos recientes sobre las distintas estrategias propuestas. Se enfatiza la discusión sobre los múltiples efectos adversos de las transfusiones de plaquetas, cuyo conocimiento está cambiando el paradigma relativo a sus indicaciones, lo que sugiere que se debe aplicar una política mucho más restrictiva al respect


Non-immune thrombocytopenia is caused by multiple pathologies; the most common causes are extra- or intrauterine infections, whereas secondary cases result from other pathologies involved in the fetal-placental-maternal interface. This second article lists its causes and provides details of the different pathologies. Platelet transfusion is widely used in neonatology, both as treatment and as bleeding prophylaxis. However, there is no general consensus about the platelet count threshold that is convenient to indicate a transfusion or actual indications. Recent articles are commented regarding the different proposed strategies. The emphasis is on discussing the multiple adverse effects of platelet transfusions because knowledge about them is changing the paradigm for indications, suggesting that a much more restrictive policy is required


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Platelet Transfusion/adverse effects , Hemorrhage
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): e202-e214, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223316

ABSTRACT

La trombocitopenia, definida como recuento plaquetario inferior a 100 x 109/l, es un hallazgo muy frecuente en el período neonatal, que ocurre, en especial, en niños críticamente enfermos y en prematuros. Sus causas son múltiples: puede deberse tanto a enfermedades del niño como a otros factores involucrados en la interrelación niño-placenta-madre. En este primer artículo, se enumeran las causas de trombocitopenia; se plantea el enfoque diagnóstico frente a un neonato trombocitopénico y se describen detalladamente las distintas entidades correspondientes a trombocitopenias de etiología inmune. Se presentan los diferentes mecanismos causales y se revisan las distintas características de la trombocitopenia secundaria a trombocitopenia inmune materna y de la trombocitopenia neonatal aloinmune. Se describen las diversas estrategias terapéuticas disponibles para cada una de ellas, tanto para su manejo posnatal como para el prenatal. Se enfatiza sobre la gravedad de la enfermedad y las serias complicaciones y secuelas asociadas a la trombocitopenia neonatal aloinmune


Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count below 100 x 109/L, is a very common finding in the neonatal period, especially in critically ill infants and preterm newborns. Its causes are multiple: it may be due both to pediatric conditions and to other factors involved in the fetal-placental-maternal interface. This initial article describes the causes of thrombocytopenia, proposes a diagnostic approach to manage a thrombocytopenic newborn infant, and provides a detailed description of the different conditions corresponding to thrombocytopenia of immune etiology. It also describes the different causative mechanisms and reviews the varying characteristics of thrombocytopenia secondary to maternal immune thrombocytopenia and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The different treatment approaches to each of the different conditions are described both for their pre- as well as their postnatal management. The severity of thrombocytopenia and the serious complications and sequelae associated with the neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune/etiology , Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune/therapy , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Platelet Transfusion , Diagnosis, Differential , Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune/diagnosis , Hemorrhage
6.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 26-32, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El tromboembolismo venoso es una complicación prevenible en pacientes hospitalizados y la estratificación del riesgo mejora la seguridad del paciente, su valoración evita su ocurrencia. OBJETIVO. Evaluar el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y uso adecuado de terapia tromboprofiláctica en pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 412 y muestra de 373 pacientes encuestados, distribuidos: 186 en Unidades Clínicas, 163 en Unidades Quirúrgicas y 24 en Obstetricia del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, desde el 21 al 23 de febrero del 2019. La tabulación y análisis de datos se realizó en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 21. RESULTADOS. Se categorizó como alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso al 76,67% (286; 373) de pacientes; 49,46% (144; 163) postquirúrgicos y 69,40% (129; 286) clínicos de alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, recibiendo tromboprofilaxis farmacológica de forma adecuada el 38,80% (56; 144) de quirúrgicos y 57,40% (74; 129) de clínicos. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó que el uso de tromboprofilaxis no farmacológica y farmacológica con heparina de bajo peso molecular en pacientes hospitalizados con riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, fue bajo.


INTRODUCTION. Venous thromboembolism is a preventable complication in hospitalized patients and risk stratification improves patient safety, its ocurrence is prevented by its assessment. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and ade-quate use of thromboprophylactic therapy in hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 412 and sample of 373 patients surveyed, distributed: 186 in clinical wards, 163 in surgical wards and 24 in obstetrics of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, from february 21 to 23, 2019. Data tabulation and analysis was performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. RESULTS. 76,67% (286; 373) of patients were categorized as high risk of venous thromboembolism; 49,46% (144; 163) post-surgical and 69,40% (129; 286) clinical patients as high risk of venous thromboembo-lism, with 38,80% (56; 144) of surgical and 57,40% (74; 129) of clinical patients receiving adequate pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS. The use of nonpharma-cological and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in hospitalized patients at risk of venous thromboembolism was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/prevention & control , Veins , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Drug Therapy , Data Analysis , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anticoagulants
7.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 19-24, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284121

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: conocer la frecuencia y los factores relacionados a hemorragia intraventricular en neonatos prematuros atendidos en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Materno Infantil C.N.S durante la gestión 2015. MÉTODO: estudio transversal. Se incluyó a todo recién nacido prematuro menor o igual a 34 semanas nacidos en la institución, que presentaron hemorragia intraventricular. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, se determinaron porcentajes en las variables nominales y medidas de tendencia central de variables maternas y neonatales. RESULTADOS: se registraron el nacimiento de 102 pacientes menores de 34 semanas de edad gestacional, presentaron hemorragia intraventricular el 13,7%; de los mismos el 43% de los pacientes presentó hemorragia intraventricular grado I, el 28,6% grado II, 21,4% grado III y 7,1% grado IV, pertenecieron al sexo masculino 78%, el 64% de pacientes con hemorragia intraventricular fueron prematuros precoces, seguido del prematuro moderado 21% y 14% prematuro extremo. Los grados severos se presentaron en el prematuro extremo con predominio. El 50% de los prematuros con hemorragia intraventricular no recibió maduración prenatal, 86% presentó alteraciones ventilatorias con hipoxemia en 42,9%, recibió soporte inotrópico 42,9%, usó de cargas con solución fisiológica en las primeras 72 horas de vida el 57% y soluciones hiperosmolares el 35%, fueron politransfundidos 42,9%. CONCLUSIONES: los factores con mayor frecuencia presentes en neonatos prematuros con hemorragia intraventricular fueron menor peso y edad gestacional; requerimiento de reanimación, alteraciones ventilatorias, hemodinámicas, uso de cargas, soluciones hiperosmolares, transfusión.


OBJECTIVE: to know the frequency and related factors with intraventricular hemorrhage in newborn premature infants treated in the Neonatology Service of the Maternal and Child Hospital C.N.S during the 2015 management. METHOD: cross sectional study. All premature infants less than or equal to 34 weeks born in the institution with intraventricular hemorrhage were included. Maternal and neonatal variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: the birth of 102 patients under 34 weeks of gestational age were registered, 13.7% presented intraventricular hemorrhage; of these, 43% of the patients presented grade I intraventricular hemorrhage, 28.6% grade II, 21.4% grade III and 7.1% grade IV, belonged to 78% male, 64% of patients with Intraventricular hemorrhage were premature, followed by moderate premature 21% and extreme 14% premature. Severe grades occurred in the extreme premature with predominance. 50% of premature infants with intraventricular hemorrhage did not receive prenatal maturation, 86% presented ventilatory abnormalities with hypoxemia in 42.9%, received inotropic support 42.9%, used loads with physiological solution in the first 72 hours of life 57 % and hyperosmolar solutions 35%, 42.9% were transfused. CONCLUSIONS: the factors most frequently related with intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infant are lower weight and gestational age; requirement of resuscitation, ventilatory, hemodynamic alterations, load use, hyperosmolar solutions, transfusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Gestational Age , Hemorrhage , Infant, Premature , Child Health Services , Child Health , Neonatology
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 605-612, May-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278352

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) in athletic horses constitutes to be a challenge to the racing industry and a source of major concern to animal welfare. Both experimental and clinical evidence indicate that the use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising effector of repair in a variety of pulmonary conditions. The present study evaluated the effect of intrabronchial instillation of PRP on EIPH endoscopic scores from 37 Thoroughbred racehorses. Inclusion criteria were for animals to be EIPH-positive in, at least, two consecutive post-exercise endoscopic exams and to receive 250mg of furosemide IV four hours before racing. Animals were randomly assigned into 3 groups: placebo, control, and PRP instillation. All 37 Thoroughbred racehorses included had EIPH endoscopic scores pre- and post- treatment compared by statistical analysis. The bleeding score from the group receiving PRP was significantly lower than in the control and placebo groups. No adverse effects were observed in any animal during or after the experiment. It was possible to conclude that the intrabronchial instillation of autologous PRP was effective in reducing EIPH scores in racehorses receiving furosemide and that this bioproduct can be considered as a promising coadjuvant in controlling EIPH in athletic horses.(AU)


A alta prevalência de hemorragia pulmonar induzida por exercício (HPIE) em cavalos atletas é um desafio de longa data para a indústria de corridas, além de figurar como grande preocupação sobre o bem-estar animal. As evidências experimentais e clínicas indicam que o uso do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) de fonte autógena é promissor na terapêutica de diversas lesões pulmonares. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar as mudanças após corrida no escore endoscópico de HPIE de 37 cavalos Puro-Sangue Inglês que receberam instilação intrabronquial de PRP autólogo. Os animais selecionados eram HPIE-positivos em, ao menos, dois exames endoscópicos consecutivos e recebiam 250mg de furosemida IV administrado quatro horas antes de cada corrida. Na comparação dos escores endoscópicos pré e pós-tratamento, verificou-se que o escore de HPIE do grupo tratado com PRP foi significantemente menor que o dos grupos controle e placebo. Nenhum efeito adverso foi observado nos animais durante ou após o experimento. Concluiu-se que a instilação intrabronquial de PRP autólogo foi efetiva na redução do escore de HPIE de cavalos de corrida usuários de furosemida e que este bioproduto pode ser considerado uma alternativa promissora no controle de HPIE em cavalos atletas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/adverse effects , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Acute Lung Injury/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Instillation, Drug , Furosemide/analysis , Hemorrhage/veterinary
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 59-62, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251548

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 68 años, sin antecedentes de importancia, que por su cuadro clínico y resultados paraclínicos fue clasificado con riesgo intermedio para coledocolitiasis. En efecto, por medio de colangiorresonancia se realizó el diagnóstico confirmatorio. Fue llevado a colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica en dos ocasiones -la primera fallida por papila intradiverticular-; en el segundo intento (exitoso con extracción del lito), el paciente presentó evolución posprocedimiento tórpida, con marcado dolor abdominal y anemización. Fue llevado a tomografía de abdomen con contraste, la cual confirmó el diagnóstico de hematoma subcapsular. Se decidió implementar el manejo conservador y se logró un control adecuado del sangrado.


Abstract This is the case of a 68-year-old female patient, with no relevant history, who was classified as intermediate risk for choledocholithiasis due to her symptoms and lab test results. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of cholangioresonance. She was taken to ERCP on two occasions; the first failed due to intradiverticular papilla, and during the second attempt (successful with the removal of the stone), the patient had a torpid post-procedure evolution, with marked abdominal pain and anemization. An abdominal tomography with contrast was performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of subcapsular hematoma. A conservative management was implemented, achieving adequate bleeding control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Hematoma , Choledocholithiasis , Hemorrhage , Methods
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 42-46, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251545

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer de endometrio es la neoplasia ginecológica maligna más frecuente en el sexo femenino. Su presentación metastásica se limita principalmente a los órganos vecinos y ganglios cercanos, y es infrecuente la invasión al tubo digestivo superior. En el presente artículo se presenta una paciente que ingresó al servicio de urgencias con cuadro de hemorragia de vías digestivas altas, enfocado inicialmente como un tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST) de la pared gástrica, pero que luego de la realización de una adecuada historia clínica, complementada con imágenes diagnósticas y avances ecoendoscópicos, se logró el diagnóstico de metástasis de cáncer de endometrio.


Abstract Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in women. Its metastatic presentation is mainly limited to neighboring organs and nearby lymph nodes, and infiltration of the upper digestive tract is uncommon. This case report depicts a patient admitted to the emergency department with upper gastrointestinal bleeding symptoms. Initially, a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the gastric wall was suspected, but endometrial cancer metastasis was discovered after a thorough medical examination, diagnostic imaging, and echoendoscopes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Endometrial Neoplasms , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Hemorrhage , Neoplasm Metastasis , Women
11.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e663, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156366

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pronóstico de morir por sangrado digestivo permite individualizar el tratamiento y disminuir la letalidad. Objetivos: Identificar los factores pronósticos de mortalidad por sangramiento digestivo no variceal en pacientes graves. Métodos: Se estudiaron casos y controles en pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Docente Clínico Quirúrgico Joaquín Albarrán Domínguez entre el 1ro de enero 2018 al 31 de diciembre de 2019. El universo estuvo constituido por 1060 pacientes, se seleccionaron 154 pacientes (137 controles y 17 casos). Se aplicó el Chi cuadrado y el Odds ratio (IC= 95 por ciento). Resultados: Del total de pacientes estudiados, 11,3 por ciento fallecieron, la edad promedio fue 69 ± 11,58 (grupo control) y 75± 11,42 (grupo casos). Las alteraciones del equilibrio ácido-base tuvieron 7,4 riesgo de morir con (IC 95 por ciento 2,5-21,9), la hipoxia 1,1 (IC 95 por ciento 0,41-3,2), las variaciones del potasio 4,9 (IC 95 por ciento 1,54-16,1), hiperlactemia 16,9 (IC 95 por ciento 5,3-52,0), las desviaciones del sodio 6,5 (IC 95 % 0,8-51,4). Con ventilación mecánica 2,17 (IC 95 por ciento 0,6-7,0), el apoyo de aminas vasoactivas 16,9 (IC 95 por ciento5,30-52,0), la trasfusión de glóbulos rojos, 11,7 (IC 95 por ciento 3,1-4,3) y con tratamiento dialítico 47,5 (IC 95 por ciento 8,6-258.0), las complicaciones 3,4 (IC 95 por ciento 1,15-10,4). El tratamiento endoscópico fue 93,5 por ciento de grupo control y 41,3 por ciento del grupo de casos, con OR en 0,04 (IC 95 por ciento 0,01-0,15). Conclusiones: Los factores pronósticos identificados fueron: alteraciones del pH, del sodio, el potasio, elevación del lactato, la ventilación mecánica, transfusiones más de 250 mL de glóbulos rojos, apoyo de aminas vasoactivas, tratamiento dialítico, y complicaciones relacionadas con el sangrado. El tratamiento endoscópico fue un factor de protección(AU)


Introduction: The prognosis of dying from digestive bleeding allows individualizing treatment and reducing mortality. Objectives: To identify the prognostic factors of mortality due to nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding in seriously-ill patients. Methods: Cases and controls were studied in patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Joaquín Albarrán Domínguez Clinical-Surgical Teaching Hospital, between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2019. The universe consisted of 1060 patients, 154 of which were selected to make up the sample (137 controls and 17 cases). Chi-square and odds ratio (CI: 95 percent) were applied. Results: Of the total of patients studied, 11.3 percent died, the average age was 69±11.58 (control group) and 75±11.42 (case group). Alterations in acid-base balance accounted for 7.4 as risk of dying (CI: 95 percent; 2.5-21.9), hypoxia accounted for 1.1 (CI: 95 percent; 0.41-3.2), variations in potassium accounted for 4.9 (CI: 95 percent; 1.54-16.1), hyperlacthemia accounted for 16.9 (CI: 95 percent; 5.3-52.0), and sodium deviations accounted for 6.5 (CI: 95 percent; 0.8-51, 4), mechanical ventilation accounted for 2.17 (CI: 95 percent; 0.6-7.0), vasoactive amines support accounted for 16.9 (CI: 95 percent; 5.30-52.0), red blood cell transfusion accounted for 11.7 (CI: 95 percent; 3.1-4.3), dialysis treatment accounted for 47.5 (CI: 95 percent; 8.6-258.0), and complications accounted for 3.4 (CI: 95 percent; 1.15-10.4). Endoscopic treatment was 93.5 percent in the control group and 41.3 percent in the case group, with odds ratio at 0.04 (CI: 95 percent; 0.01-0.15). Conclusions: The prognostic factors identified were alterations in pH, sodium, potassium, elevated lactate, mechanical ventilation, transfusions of more than 250 mL of red blood cells, vasoactive amine support, dialysis treatment, and complications related to bleeding. Endoscopic treatment was a protective factor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Digestive System Diseases/mortality , Digestive System Diseases/blood , Hemorrhage/complications , Prognosis , Case-Control Studies
12.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 237-247, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223829

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La presión arterial sistólica puede ser un factor determinante para la toma de decisiones en el manejo de pacientes con trauma severo y hemorragia no compresible del torso. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el punto óptimo de presión arterial sistólica previo a la oclusión endovascular de aorta asociado con la mortalidad a las 24 horas. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis combinado de dos bases de datos de registro de REBOA, ABO-Trauma Registry y AAST-AORTA, que incluye pacientes de Norte América, Suramérica, Europa, Asia y África. Pacientes sin efecto hemodinámico con el uso del REBOA fueron excluidos. Se describieron las características demográficas, clínicas y de la colocación del REBOA en los pacientes que fallecieron en las primeras 24 horas. Se analizó la asociación entre la presión arterial sistólica previa a la oclusión aortica y la mortalidad a través de modelos de regresión logística y se evaluó el poder predictivo de la presión arterial sistólica en un intervalo entre 60 y 90 mmHg. Resultados. Fueron identificados 871 registros, pero solo 693 pacientes cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El trauma cerrado se presentó en el 67,2 % de los pacientes y la severidad del trauma tuvo una mediana de ISS de 34 (RIQ: 25-45). La mediana de la presión arterial sistólica previa al REBOA fue de 61 mmHg (RIQ: 46-80). La mortalidad a las 24 horas fue del 34,6 %. La asociación entre la presión arterial sistólica pre-oclusión de la aorta y la mortalidad a las 24 horas tiene una capacidad predictiva de acuerdo con el área bajo la curva ROC para trauma cerrado de 0,64 (IC95% 0,59-0,70) y para trauma penetrante de 0,61 (IC95% 0,53-0,69). Se identificó que la presión arterial sistólica de 70 mmHg se asocia con un aumento por encima del 25 % de la mortalidad a las 24 horas. Discusión. La presión arterial sistólica de 70 mmHg en pacientes con trauma severo y hemorragia no compresible puede ser el punto crítico para la oclusión endovascular de aorta para mejorar la supervivencia de los pacientes, sin importar el mecanismo de trauma. Sin embargo, la presión arterial sistólica debe complementarse con otros factores clínicos para tomar la decisión oportuna


Introduction. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) can be a determining factor for decision-making in the management of patients with severe trauma and non-compressible torso bleeding (NTCH). The objective of this study was to determine the optimal SBP threshold value prior to endovascular occlusion of the aorta associated with 24-hour mortality.Methods. A combined analysis of two REBOA registry databases, ABO-Trauma Registry and AAST-AORTA, was performed, which includes patients from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Patients without hemodynamic effect with the use of REBOA were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and REBOA placement characteristics were described in patients who died in the first 24 hours. The association between SBP prior to aortic occlusion and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression models and the predictive power of SBP was evaluated in an interval between 60 and 90 mmHg.Results. 871 records were identified, but only 693 patients met the inclusion criteria. Blunt trauma occurred in 67.2% of the patients and the severity of the trauma had a median ISS of 34 (IQR: 25-45). The median systolic blood pressure prior to REBOA was 61 mmHg (IQR: 46-80). The 24-hour mortality was 34.6%. The association between systolic blood pressure pre-occlusion of the aorta and mortality at 24 hours has a predictive capacity according to the area under the ROC curve for blunt trauma of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.59-0.70) and for penetrating trauma of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.69). A systolic blood pressure of 70 mmHg was found to be associated with an increase of over 25% in mortality at 24 hours. Discussion. SBP of 70 mmHg in patients with severe trauma and non-compressible hemorrhage may be the critical point for endovascular aortic occlusion to improve patient survival, regardless of the mechanism of trauma. However, systolic blood pressure must be supplemented with other clinical factors to make the timely decision


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality , Balloon Occlusion , Hemorrhage
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 107-110, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287249

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presentan los casos clínicos de dos pacientes que ingresaron en la guardia de Emergencias del HIGA San Martín de La Plata con un cuadro clínico compatible con leptospirosis, que evolucionaron con insuficiencia respiratoria y hemorragia alveolar. En ambos se administraron glucocorticoides con buena evolución. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos publicados desde 2005 en castellano e inglés y la revisión del tema. Basada en la evidencia actual no se puede hacer una clara recomendación para el uso de corticoides en la leptospirosis grave. La bibliografía publicada es escasa y de baja calidad. Aparentemente habría un beneficio en el uso de corticoides en los casos de afectación pulmonar por leptospirosis grave. Se necesitan estudios de alta calidad para realizar recomendaciones con evidencia científica, para verificar la dosis adecuada de corticoides, tiempo de inicio, duración del tratamiento y los casos en los que se debería administrar esta terapéutica.


Abstract We present the clinical cases of two patients who were admitted to the HIGA San Martín de La Plata emergency ward with a clinical picture compatible with leptospirosis, who evolved with respiratory failure and alveolar hemorrhage. In both, glucocorticoids were administered with good evolution. A bibliographic search of articles published since 2005 in Spanish and English and a review of the topic was carried out. Based on the current evidence, no clear recommendation can be made for the use of corticosteroids in severe leptospirosis. The published bibliography is scarce and of low quality. There would appear to be a benefit in the use of corticosteroids in cases of pulmonary involvement due to severe leptospirosis. High-quality studies are needed to make recommendations with scientific evidence, to verify the adequate dose of corticosteroids, time of initiation, duration of treatment and the cases in which this therapy should be administered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency , Leptospira , Leptospirosis/complications , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Hemorrhage/chemically induced
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S48-S53, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147363

ABSTRACT

Se define la epistaxis como el sangrado proveniente del vestíbulo, la cavidad nasal o la nasofaringe. Representa el 3 % de las consultas de guardia. El 30 % de los niños menores de 5 años presentan, al menos, un episodio de epistaxis. La edad media de presentación es entre los 7,5 y los 8,5 años. Predomina en el sexo masculino (el 56-67 %). La rinorrea es el síntoma más frecuentemente asociado (el 46 %). El origen puede ser anterior o posterior, y las anteriores son las más frecuentes. Es necesario un enfoque integral para determinar la etiología (primaria o secundaria). Los principales objetivos del tratamiento son el control de la hemorragia, de la causa subyacente y la prevención de la recurrencia.La mayoría de las hemorragias son autolimitadas; sin embargo, el taponamiento nasal y la cauterización son requeridos ante casos recurrentes o graves. Cuando estas técnicas fracasan, puede utilizarse un manejo endoscópico, angiografía-embolización y ligadura quirúrgica abierta


Epistaxis is defined as bleeding from the vestibule, nasal cavity or nasopharynx. It represents 3 % of Emergency Room consultations. Thirty per cent of children under 5 years of age have an episode of epistaxis. The average age of presentation is between 7.5 and 8.5 years. It predominates in males (56-67 %). Nasal obstruction (nasal discharge) is the most associated symptom (46 %). The origin can be anterior or posterior, with the previous ones being the most frequent. An integral approach is necessary to determine the etiology (primary or secondary). The main purposes of the treatment are bleeding control and the underlying cause and the prevention of recurrence. Most hemorrhages are self-limiting; however, nasal tamponade and cauterization are required in cases of recurrence and/or severity. When these techniques fail, endoscopic management, angiography-embolization, and open surgical ligation may be used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Epistaxis/diagnosis , Epistaxis/etiology , Cautery , Epistaxis/classification , Epistaxis/therapy , Hemorrhage , Nasal Cavity
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880179

ABSTRACT

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a blood system disease mediated by autoimmune mechanism. Currently, the goal of treatment for primary ITP is to keep patients' peripheral platelet count at a safe level to prevent severe bleeding. Recently, avatrombopag and fostamatinib have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of primary ITP in adults, while new drugs such as rozanolixizumab, efgartigimod, PRTX-100, decitabine and atorvastatin have shown efficacy in early clinical trials. This review summarizes the current accepted therapies for the clinical treatment of primary ITP in adults, and briefly discuss the progress of new therapies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hemorrhage , Humans , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Splenectomy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879675

ABSTRACT

Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and patients taking anticoagulant drugs) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or in intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Networks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , Sepsis/therapy , Time Factors , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
17.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 32(3): 187-192, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353082

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia and transfusions are frequent in critically ill patients and there are avoidable causes such as routine laboratory tests. Patients and methods: Descriptive study during one continuous week including patients over 18-years old in a medical-surgical ICU. Results: 18 patients were included during a week in 12 beds in our unit, median age 62,5 years, 50% male. Median daily blood loss was 35ml, 45% in laboratory samples and 27% related to renal replacement therapy. 3 patients required 1 transfusion of red blood cells. Conclusions: There is a pattern of continuous blood loss in critically ill patients, primarily in routine laboratory tests. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hemorrhage/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Blood Transfusion , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anemia/complications
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202783, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155358

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: extremity tourniquet (TQ) use has increased in the civilian setting; the beneficial results observed in the military has influenced acceptance by EMS and bystanders. This review aimed to analyze extremity TQ types used in the civilian setting, injury site, indications, and complications. Methods: a systematic review was conducted based on original articles published in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane following PRISMA guidelines from 2010 to 2019. Data extraction focused on extremity TQ use for hemorrhage control in the civilian setting, demographic data, study type and duration, mechanism of injury, indications for use, injury site, TQ type, TQ time, and complications. Results: of the 1384 articles identified, 14 were selected for review with a total of 3912 civilian victims with extremity hemorrhage and 3522 extremity TQ placements analyzed. The majority of TQs were applied to male (79%) patients, with blunt or penetrating trauma. Among the indications for TQ use were hemorrhagic shock, suspicion of vascular injuries, continued bleeding, and partial or complete traumatic amputations. Upper extremity application was the most common TQ application site (56%), nearly all applied to a single extremity (99%), and only 0,6% required both upper and lower extremity applications. 80% of the applied TQs were commercial devices, and 20% improvised. Conclusions: TQ use in the civilian setting is associated with trauma-related injuries. Most are single-site TQs applied for the most part to male adults with upper extremity injury. Commercial TQs are more commonly employed, time in an urban setting is under 1 hour, with few complications described.


RESUMO Introdução: o uso de torniquete em extremidades (TQ) aumentou no ambiente civil; os resultados benéficos observados nas forças armadas influenciaram a aceitação por equipes de pré-hospitalar (PH) assim como pela população leiga. Esta revisão teve como objetivo analisar os tipos de TQ de extremidades usados em ambiente civil, local da lesão, indicações e complicações. Métodos: revisão sistemática foi conduzida com base em artigos originais publicados no PubMed, Embase e Cochrane seguindo as diretrizes do PRISMA de 2010 a 2019. Extração de dados focada no uso de TQ de extremidade para controle de hemorragia em ambiente civil, dados demográficos, tipo de estudo e duração, mecanismo de lesão, indicações de uso, local da lesão, tipo de TQ, tempo de TQ e complicações. Resultados: dos 1.384 artigos identificados, 14 foram selecionados para revisão com total de 3.912 vítimas civis com hemorragia nas extremidades e 3.522 colocações de extremidades TQ analisadas. A maioria foi aplicado em pacientes do sexo masculino (79%), com trauma contuso ou penetrante. Entre as indicações estavam choque hemorrágico, suspeita de lesões vasculares, sangramento contínuo e amputações traumáticas parciais ou completas. A aplicação na extremidade superior foi o local de aplicação mais comum (56%), quase todos aplicados a uma única extremidade (99%), e apenas 0,6% requereram aplicações nas extremidades superior e inferior. 80% dos TQs aplicados eram dispositivos comerciais e 20% improvisados. Conclusões: o uso de TQ em ambientes civis está associado a traumas. Os TQs comerciais são mais utilizados, com tempo menor que uma hora de uso e poucas complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tourniquets/statistics & numerical data , Vascular System Injuries/therapy , Exsanguination/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Treatment , Extremities/injuries , Vascular System Injuries/complications , Vascular System Injuries/mortality , Exsanguination/etiology , Exsanguination/mortality , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality
20.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202769, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the relation between Trauma Quality Indicators (QI) and death, as well as clinical adverse events in severe trauma patients. Methods: analysis of data collected in the Trauma Register between 2014-2015, including patients with Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16, reviewing the QI: (F1) Acute subdural hematoma drainage > 4 hours with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <9; (F2) emergency room transference without definitive airway and GCS <9; (F3) Re-intubation within 48 hours; (F4) Admission-laparotomy time greater than 60 min in hemodynamically instable patients with abdominal bleeding; (F5) Unprogrammed reoperation; (F6) Laparotomy after 4 hours; (F7) Unfixed femur diaphyseal fracture; (F8) Non-operative treatment for abdominal gunshot; (F9) Admission-tibial exposure fracture treatment time > 6 hours; (F10) Surgery > 24 hours. T the chi-squared and Fisher tests were used to calculate statistical relevance, considering p<0.05 as relevant. Results: 127 patients were included, whose ISS ranged from 17 to 75 (28.8 + 11.5). There were adverse events in 80 cases (63%) and 29 died (22.8%). Twenty-six patients had some QI compromised (20.6%). From the 101 patients with no QI, 22% died, and 7 of 26 patients with compromised QI (26.9%) (p=0.595). From the patients with no compromised QI, 62% presented some adverse event. From the patients with any compromised QI, 18 (65.4%) had some adverse event on clinical evolution (p=0.751). Conclusion: the QI should not be used as death or adverse events predictors in severe trauma patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar relação entre comprometimento de Filtros de Qualidade (FQ) com complicações e mortalidade entre vítimas de trauma grave. Métodos: análise dos dados coletados para o Registro de Trauma entre 2014 e 2015, sendo incluídos os traumatizados com Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 e analisados os FQ: (F1) drenagem de Hematoma Subdural Agudo (HSA) > 4 horas com Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG) <9, (F2) transferência da sala de emergência sem via aérea definitiva e com ECG<9, (F3) reintubação traqueal em até 48 horas, (F4) tempo entre admissão e laparotomia exploradora maior que 60 minutos em pacientes instáveis com foco abdominal, (F5) reoperação não programada, (F6) laparotomia > 4 horas, (F7) fratura de diáfise de fêmur não fixada, (F8) tratamento não operatório em Ferimento por Arma de Fogo (FAF) abdominal, (F9) tempo entre admissão e tratamento de fraturas expostas de tíbia > 6 horas, (F10) operação > 24 horas. Testes de Chi quadrado e Fisher para a análise estatística, considerando significativo p<0,05, foram usados. Resultado: foram incluídos 127 pacientes com ISS entre 17 a 75 (28,8 + 11,5). As complicações ocorreram em 80 casos (63%) e 29 morreram (22,8%). Vinte e seis pacientes apresentaram algum FQ comprometido (20,6%). Dos 101 doentes sem FQ comprometido, 22% faleceram, o que ocorreu em 7 dos 26 doentes com comprometimento dos FQ (26,9%) (p=0,595). Dos doentes sem FQ comprometido, 62% tiveram alguma complicação. Entre os pacientes com FQ comprometido, 18 (65,4%) tiveram complicações (p=0,751). Conclusão: os FQs não devem ser utilizados como preditor de mortes ou complicações evitáveis nas vítimas de traumas graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhage , Glasgow Coma Scale , Injury Severity Score , Trauma Severity Indices , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
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