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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 26-32, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El tromboembolismo venoso es una complicación prevenible en pacientes hospitalizados y la estratificación del riesgo mejora la seguridad del paciente, su valoración evita su ocurrencia. OBJETIVO. Evaluar el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y uso adecuado de terapia tromboprofiláctica en pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 412 y muestra de 373 pacientes encuestados, distribuidos: 186 en Unidades Clínicas, 163 en Unidades Quirúrgicas y 24 en Obstetricia del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, desde el 21 al 23 de febrero del 2019. La tabulación y análisis de datos se realizó en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 21. RESULTADOS. Se categorizó como alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso al 76,67% (286; 373) de pacientes; 49,46% (144; 163) postquirúrgicos y 69,40% (129; 286) clínicos de alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, recibiendo tromboprofilaxis farmacológica de forma adecuada el 38,80% (56; 144) de quirúrgicos y 57,40% (74; 129) de clínicos. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó que el uso de tromboprofilaxis no farmacológica y farmacológica con heparina de bajo peso molecular en pacientes hospitalizados con riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, fue bajo.


INTRODUCTION. Venous thromboembolism is a preventable complication in hospitalized patients and risk stratification improves patient safety, its ocurrence is prevented by its assessment. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and ade-quate use of thromboprophylactic therapy in hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 412 and sample of 373 patients surveyed, distributed: 186 in clinical wards, 163 in surgical wards and 24 in obstetrics of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, from february 21 to 23, 2019. Data tabulation and analysis was performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. RESULTS. 76,67% (286; 373) of patients were categorized as high risk of venous thromboembolism; 49,46% (144; 163) post-surgical and 69,40% (129; 286) clinical patients as high risk of venous thromboembo-lism, with 38,80% (56; 144) of surgical and 57,40% (74; 129) of clinical patients receiving adequate pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS. The use of nonpharma-cological and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in hospitalized patients at risk of venous thromboembolism was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/prevention & control , Veins , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Drug Therapy , Data Analysis , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anticoagulants
2.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 97-104, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361373

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evaluar la frecuencia y gravedad de la hemorragia parenquimatosa pulmonar tras la biopsia pulmonar con aguja transtorácica coaxial, según factores de procedimiento, aún no descritos en la literatura. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la elección de la tecnología de biopsia coaxial, el posicionamiento del paciente y la dignidad de la lesión son tres nuevas variables que influyen en el riesgo de hemorragia parenquimatosa tras biopsias coaxiales de pulmón. Métodos: Se revisaron retrospectivamente los registros de 117 pacientes que se sometieron a biopsias con aguja transtorácica del pulmón entre enero de 2018 y abril de 2020. El resultado primario fue la hemorragia pulmonar. Se ha utilizado un sistema de clasificación para clasificar la hemorragia parenquimatosa pulmonar: Grado 0 - Grado 3. Se evaluaron tres variables novedosas relacionadas con el paciente, la técnica y la lesión como predictores de hemorragia pulmonar: tecnología de biopsia coaxial, posición del paciente y dignidad de la lesión. Resultados: De los 117 pacientes, 18 (15,4%) pacientes con tecnología de biopsia coaxial de corte, versus 29 (24,8%) pacientes con tecnología coaxial de núcleo completo mostraron hemorragia significativa en las exploraciones de control posteriores a la biopsia. (IC del 95% 0,06-0,33, p <0,0001). No hubo diferencias significativas en la hemorragia pulmonar entre el diagnóstico histológico benigno y maligno (IC 95% 0,84-4,44, p = 0,1199) y la posición del paciente en decúbito prono o supino (IC 95%: 0,57-2,57, p = 0,6232). Conclusiones: La incidencia y gravedad de la hemorragia pulmonar depende de la tecnología de biopsia coaxial utilizada; siendo mayor en pacientes sometidos a una biopsia con tecnología full-core y menor después del uso de tecnología de corte. En este estudio de pronóstico no se estableció una correlación significativa entre la hemorragia pulmonar parenquimatosa y la posición del paciente o la dignidad de la lesión


Objectives: To evaluate the frequency and severity of pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage after coaxial transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung, according to procedural factors, not yet described in literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether the choice of the coaxial biopsy technology, patient positioning and the lesion dignity are three new variables influencing the risk of parenchymal hemorrhage after coaxial biopsies of the lung. Methods: Records from 117 patients who underwent transthoracic needle biopsies of the lung between January 2018 and April 2020 have been retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was pulmonary hemorrhage. A grading system has been used to classify pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage: Grade 0 ­ Grade 3. Three novel patient, technique and lesion-related variables were evaluated as predictors of pulmonary hemorrhage: coaxial biopsy technology, patient positioning and lesion dignity. Results: Out of the 117 patients, 18 (15,4%) patients with cutting coaxial biopsy technology, versus 29 (24,8%) patients with full core coaxial technology showed significant hemorrhage on the post-biopsy control scans. (95% CI 0,06-0,33, p<0,0001). No significant difference in pulmonary hemorrhage between benign and malignant histological diagnosis (95% CI 0,84-4,44, p=0,1199) and prone or supine patient positioning (95% CI: 0,57-2,57, p= 0,6232) was found. Conclusions: The incidence and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage depends on the coaxial biopsy technology used; being higher in patients undergoing a biopsy with full-core technology and lower after the use of cutting technology. No significant correlation between parenchymal pulmonary hemorrhage and patient positioning or lesion dignity was established in this prognostic study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lung Injury/therapy , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Supine Position
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202783, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155358

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: extremity tourniquet (TQ) use has increased in the civilian setting; the beneficial results observed in the military has influenced acceptance by EMS and bystanders. This review aimed to analyze extremity TQ types used in the civilian setting, injury site, indications, and complications. Methods: a systematic review was conducted based on original articles published in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane following PRISMA guidelines from 2010 to 2019. Data extraction focused on extremity TQ use for hemorrhage control in the civilian setting, demographic data, study type and duration, mechanism of injury, indications for use, injury site, TQ type, TQ time, and complications. Results: of the 1384 articles identified, 14 were selected for review with a total of 3912 civilian victims with extremity hemorrhage and 3522 extremity TQ placements analyzed. The majority of TQs were applied to male (79%) patients, with blunt or penetrating trauma. Among the indications for TQ use were hemorrhagic shock, suspicion of vascular injuries, continued bleeding, and partial or complete traumatic amputations. Upper extremity application was the most common TQ application site (56%), nearly all applied to a single extremity (99%), and only 0,6% required both upper and lower extremity applications. 80% of the applied TQs were commercial devices, and 20% improvised. Conclusions: TQ use in the civilian setting is associated with trauma-related injuries. Most are single-site TQs applied for the most part to male adults with upper extremity injury. Commercial TQs are more commonly employed, time in an urban setting is under 1 hour, with few complications described.


RESUMO Introdução: o uso de torniquete em extremidades (TQ) aumentou no ambiente civil; os resultados benéficos observados nas forças armadas influenciaram a aceitação por equipes de pré-hospitalar (PH) assim como pela população leiga. Esta revisão teve como objetivo analisar os tipos de TQ de extremidades usados em ambiente civil, local da lesão, indicações e complicações. Métodos: revisão sistemática foi conduzida com base em artigos originais publicados no PubMed, Embase e Cochrane seguindo as diretrizes do PRISMA de 2010 a 2019. Extração de dados focada no uso de TQ de extremidade para controle de hemorragia em ambiente civil, dados demográficos, tipo de estudo e duração, mecanismo de lesão, indicações de uso, local da lesão, tipo de TQ, tempo de TQ e complicações. Resultados: dos 1.384 artigos identificados, 14 foram selecionados para revisão com total de 3.912 vítimas civis com hemorragia nas extremidades e 3.522 colocações de extremidades TQ analisadas. A maioria foi aplicado em pacientes do sexo masculino (79%), com trauma contuso ou penetrante. Entre as indicações estavam choque hemorrágico, suspeita de lesões vasculares, sangramento contínuo e amputações traumáticas parciais ou completas. A aplicação na extremidade superior foi o local de aplicação mais comum (56%), quase todos aplicados a uma única extremidade (99%), e apenas 0,6% requereram aplicações nas extremidades superior e inferior. 80% dos TQs aplicados eram dispositivos comerciais e 20% improvisados. Conclusões: o uso de TQ em ambientes civis está associado a traumas. Os TQs comerciais são mais utilizados, com tempo menor que uma hora de uso e poucas complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tourniquets/statistics & numerical data , Vascular System Injuries/therapy , Exsanguination/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Treatment , Extremities/injuries , Vascular System Injuries/complications , Vascular System Injuries/mortality , Exsanguination/etiology , Exsanguination/mortality , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1142109

ABSTRACT

La hemofilia A es una coagulopatía congénita causada por la deficiencia o el mal funcionamiento del factor VIII de la coagulación. Una de las complicaciones más graves del tratamiento de la hemofilia A es el desarrollo de inhibidores que hacen que la terapia de reemplazo con FVIII sea ineficaz, dificultando la prevención y el control de los sangrados. El emicizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal humanizado biespecífico dirigido contra los factores FIXa y FX, que imita la función de cofactor del FVIII. El tratamiento profiláctico con emicizumab es seguro y eficaz para prevenir hemorragias en los pacientes con hemofilia A con y sin inhibidores. Se presenta el caso del primer paciente tratado con emicizumab en Uruguay.


Haemophilia A is a congenital coagulopathy caused by a deficiency or malfunction of coagulation factor VIII. One of the most serious complications of haemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitors that render FVIII replacement therapy ineffective, making it difficult to prevent and control bleeding. Emicizumab is a humanized bispecific monoclonal antibody directed against factors FIXa and FX, which mimics the cofactor function of FVIII. Emicizumab has been shown to be safe and effective as prophylaxis to prevent bleeding in haemophilia A patients with or without inhibitors to FVIII. We report the first patient treated with emicizumab in Uruguay.


A hemofilia A é uma coagulopatia congênita que se caracteriza pela ausência ou mau funcionamento do factor VIII da coagulação. Uma das complicações mais sérias do tratamento da hemofilia A é o desenvolvimento de inibidores que tornam a terapia de reposição do FVIII ineficaz, dificultando a prevenção e o controle do sangramento. O emicizumab é um anticorpo monoclonal biespecífico humanizado dirigido contra os fatores FIXa e FX, que imita a função de cofator do FVIII. O tratamento profilático com emicizumab é seguro e eficaz na prevenção de sangramento em pacientes com hemofilia A com e sem inibidores. É apresentado o caso do primeiro paciente tratado com emicizumabe no Uruguai.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Factor VIII/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 113-120, Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098439

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have paradoxical hemostatic potential because they have bleeding episodes but are also prone to thrombosis. Few studies have evaluated blood viscoelastic properties in dogs with kidney disease; on the other hand, hypercoagulability has been observed in these patients. It is also emphasized that the platelet function and its participation in this process have not yet been fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the Thrombin Generation Test (TGT) and also viscoelastic properties of the blood measured by thromboelastometry (TEM) in dogs with proteinuria in CKD. Twenty healthy dogs (Control Group) and 19 dogs with CKD in stage III or IV, classified according to International Renal Interest Society - IRIS, were selected, and the reference test of urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR) should be greater than one (CKD group). Blood samples for TEM, thrombin generation, Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), and fibrinogen concentration was collected at a single time for both groups after inclusion criteria being confirmed. Statistical analysis was performed according to the distribution of variables at 5% significance level. Differences were observed between healthy dogs and those with proteinuria in CKD noted in TEM. The TGT was unable to differentiate between sick and healthy groups. However, when the nephropathy was stratified, increases in TTP and peak thrombin concentration by TGT were observed in females and dogs over 30 days of diagnosis of CKD. Both tests signaled a discrete state of hypercoagulability. In fact, TEM is more sensitive to detect hypercoagulability in dogs with CKD. However, the TGT has potential clinical application by allowing long-term sample storage.(AU)


Os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) apresentam um potencial hemostático paradoxal, pois apresentam episódios de sangramento, mas também são propensos à trombose. Poucos estudos avaliaram as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas em cães com doenças renais, entretanto, a hipercoagulabilidade já foi observada nestes pacientes. Ressalta-se ainda que a função plaquetária e sua participação neste processo ainda não foram totalmente esclarecidas. O objetivo foi avaliar e comparar o teste de geração de trombina (TGT) e as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas medidas pela tromboelastometria (TEM) em cães com DRC proteinúrica. Foram selecionados 20 cães saudáveis (grupo controle) e 19 cães com DRC em estágios III ou IV classificados segundo o IRIS e a relação proteína/creatinina urinária maior que um (grupo DRC). As amostras de sangue para a realização da tromboelastometria (TEM), geração de trombina, tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) e concentração de fibrinogênio foram colhidas em momento único para ambos os grupos após os critérios de inclusão confirmados. A análise estatística foi realizada de acordo com a distribuição das variáveis, ao nível de 5% de significância. Foi observada diferença entre os cães saudáveis e os com DRC proteinúrica observados na TEM. O teste de geração de trombina não foi capaz de diferenciar os grupos doente e saudável. Entretanto, quando os nefropatas foram analisados de forma estratificada, foram observados aumentos do ETP e da concentração máxima de trombina (peak) pelo TGT em fêmeas e em cães com mais de 30 dias de diagnóstico da DRC. Ambos os testes sinalizando para um discreto estado de hipercoagulabiliade. A tromboelastometria é mais sensível para detectar a hipercoagulabilidade em cães com DRC. Entretanto, o teste de geração de trombina tem melhor aplicabilidade por permitir o armazenamento da amostra em longo prazo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/veterinary , Hemostasis , Proteinuria/veterinary , Thrombelastography/veterinary
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133784

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implementation of a care protocol based on rapid response teams, for management and resolution of bleeding. Methods A hospital protocol called Hemorrhage Code (Code H) was devised and developed. In a flow line, a multidisciplinary team provides comprehensive, fast and effective care to the patient with a severe hemorrhagic condition. In another flow line, professionals based at the hospital pharmacy focus on identifying patients at risk of bleeding, to avoid this event. Several hospital professionals and sectors were trained, each with specific roles, ensuring full support to the medical and nursing staffs. Results After implementing this protocol, we were able to significantly reduce the number of catastrophic events related to failure in bleeding management. Conclusion Code H is an example of a value-based medicine and precision medicine project by delivering comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, in addition to point-of-care testing introduced in clinical practice, optimizing patient safety and care practices at the hospital. Furthermore, it will be possible to minimize the risk of lawsuits for the hospital and physicians, as well as rationalizing resources with benefits for administrators and payers.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a implantação de um protocolo de atendimento nos moldes de times de resposta rápida, para manejo e resolução do sangramento. Métodos Foi idealizado e desenvolvido um protocolo institucional, chamado Código Hemorrágico, ou Código H, no qual, em um fluxo, um time multiprofissional e multidisciplinar foi constituído para atendimento integral, rápido e eficaz do paciente com doença hemorrágica grave. Em um outro fluxo, os profissionais, centralizados na farmácia do hospital, focavam na identificação do paciente com risco de hemorragia, no sentido de evitar o evento. Vários profissionais e setores do hospital foram treinados, e cada um, com funções específicas, deveria oferecer garantia total de apoio e suporte às equipes médica e de enfermagem. Resultados Após a implementação do protocolo, o número de eventos catastróficos relacionados à falha no manejo do sangramento reduziu significativamente. Conclusão O Código H é um exemplo de projeto de medicina baseada em valor e de medicina de precisão, por meio de atendimento integral e multidisciplinar, além de testes point of care introduzidos na prática clínica, com otimização da segurança do paciente e da prática assistencial na instituição. Ainda, por meio dele, deve ser possível minimizar o risco de ações judiciais para o hospital e os médicos, além de racionalizar recursos, com benefícios para administradores e fontes pagadoras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Patient Safety , Patient Care/standards , Hemorrhage/therapy , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
7.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 122-131, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042606

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa está comprendida por la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar, las cuales son enfermedades comunes con alta morbilidad y mortalidad, incluso antes del diagnóstico. El tratamiento está basado principalmente en la terapia anticoagulante, con diferentes opciones dependiendo del ámbito clínico y la estabilidad del paciente (terapia oral vs parenteral). Objetivo: Revisar las diferentes opciones y escenarios clínicos para la indicación de terapia anticoagulante, basados en la evidencia médica actual. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, Google Académico y Scielo sobre estudios que evaluaran la indicación de la terapia anticoagulante en pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa, principalmente, estudios aleatorizados controlados y metaanálisis. Discusión y Resultados: Fueron encontrados estudios aleatorizados controlados donde se evidencian menores tasas de sangrado y recurrencia de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa a favor de los anticoagulantes directos, excluyendo algunas situaciones especiales como cáncer y enfermedad renal crónica avanzada. Conclusión: La terapia anticoagulante es el pilar del tratamiento en la enfermedad tromboembólica, disminuyendo la morbilidad y mortalidad de esta entidad, aunque aumenta el riesgo de sangrado. Anteriormente, los anticoagulantes antagonistas de la vitamina K eran la única opción terapéutica, pero con altas tasas de sangrado, afortunadamente desde hace algunos años contamos con los anticoagulantes directos con mejores perfiles de seguridad y menor tasa de sangrado.


ABSTRACTS: Venous thromboembolic disease includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, which are common diseases with high morbidity and mortality. The treatment is based mainly on anticoagulant therapy, with different options depending on clinic context and patient stability (oral vs parenteral therapy). Objective: To review evidence based medical information regarding the use of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolism. Methods: We performed a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar and Scielo databases, of randomized controlled studies and meta-analysis evaluating anticoagulant therapy in patients with thromboembolic venous disease. Results: Except for tromboembolic disease in patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease anticoagulation with direct (new) oral agents led to less bleeding episodes and lower relapse rate. Conclusion: anticoagulant therapy is the basis of treatment for thromboembolic disease, decreasing morbidity and mortality. New oral anticoagulants' are associated to better clinical results, notwithstanding a slight increase in bleeding episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
8.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(2): 132-136, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1003829

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Not transfusing in certain medical settings can be a life-threatening decision; however, Jehovah's Witness patients who reject transfusions have led to learning and multiple medical interventions to avoid it. Despite this, heart surgery follows a specialty that is clearly related to the risk of transfusion, making operating on a Jehovah's Witness patient a challenge. Case presentation: An ascending aorta surgery was performed on a Jehovah's Witness patient, where different strategies were applied, both for blood saving and for the prevention and management of coagulopathy. Results: Surgery of the ascending aorta with extracorporeal circulation was successfully performed without requiring administration of blood components. Conclusions: Adequate planning and implementation of bleeding prevention strategies and coagulopathy management may contribute to avoid and/or reduce the administration of blood products, allowing for the absence of transfusions to not be utopia in major cardiac surgery.


Resumen Introducción: No transfundir en algunos escenarios médicos puede ser una decisión que amenaza la vida del paciente, sin embargo, los pacientes testigos de Jehová quienes rechazan las transfusiones, han conducido al aprendizaje y realización de múltiples intervenciones médicas para evitarla. A pesar de ello, la cirugía cardiaca sigue una especialidad claramente relacionada con el riesgo de transfusiones, por lo que operar a un paciente testigo de Jehová constituye un reto. Presentación del caso: Se llevó a cabo una cirugía de aorta ascendente en un paciente testigo de Jehová, donde se aplicaron diferentes estrategias, tanto de ahorro sanguíneo como de prevención y manejo de la coagulopatía. Resultados: Se llevó a cabo exitosamente una cirugía de aorta ascendente con circulación extracorpórea, sin requerir la administración de componentes sanguíneos Conclusiones: La adecuada planeación y realización de estrategias de prevención del sangrado y manejo de la coagulopatía pueden contribuir a evitar y/o reducir la administración de hemoderivados, permitiendo que en cirugía cardiaca mayor la ausencia de transfusiones no sea una utopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aorta/surgery , Religion , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 80-83, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare warfarin and dabigatran for thromboembolic event prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort of participants with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter using either warfarin or dabigatran in a reference center in Brazil. Results: There were 112 patients (mean age 65.5 years), with 55.3% using warfarin. The median duration of follow-up was 1.9 years for warfarin and 1.6 years for dabigatran (p = 0.167). Warfarin patients had a higher median of medical appointments per year (8.3 [6.8-10.4] vs 3.1 [2.3-4.2], p < 0.001) and the frequency of minor bleeding was more than four times higher (17.7% vs 4.0%, p = 0.035). Among patients with prior stroke, those using warfarin had 2.6 times more medical appointments for person-years of follow-up (8.5 vs 3.3). There was no major bleeding or embolic event during follow-up period. Conclusion: The dabigatran group had a lower frequency of minor bleeding and number of medical appointments than the warfarin group, without more embolic events or major bleeding.


RESUMO Objetivos: Comparar varfarina e dabigatrana para prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar ou flutter (FA). Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes com FA em uso de varfarina ou dabigatrana em serviço especializado no Brasil. Resultados: Foram avaliados 112 pacientes (média idade 65,5), com 55,3% no grupo varfarina. A mediana do tempo de seguimento foi de 1,9 anos para o grupo varfarina e 1,6 para dabigatrana (p = 0,167). No grupo varfarina houve maior mediana de consultas médicas (CM) por ano (8,3[6,8-10,4] vs. 3,1[2,3-4,2], p < 0,001), com frequência de sangramento menor quatro vezes maior (17,7% vs. 4,0%, p = 0,035). Nos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico prévio, o grupo varfarina teve 2,6 vezes mais CM por pessoas-ano de seguimento (8,5 vs. 3,3). Não houve sangramento maior ou eventos embólicos no período de seguimento. Conclusão: Pacientes em uso de dabigatrana tiveram menor número de sangramento menor e CM que aqueles em uso de varfarina, sem aumentar eventos embólicos ou sangramentos maiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Flutter/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40(spe): e20180322, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1004112

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Descrever a implantação de um indicador de qualidade assistencial associado ao diagnóstico de enfermagem de pacientes com alto risco de sangramento, com base nos resultados alarmantes de tempo de protombina (TP), tempo de tromboplastina parcialmente ativada (TTPa) e plaquetas. MÉTODOS Relato de experiência retrospectivo de ações multidisciplinares desenvolvidas em um hospital universitário. As etapas do estudo envolveram reuniões de equipes, busca de estratégias de comunicação efetiva e criação de um novo indicador de qualidade assistencial. RESULTADOS O indicador foi denominado "Conformidade do Diagnóstico de Enfermagem Risco de Sangramento", monitorado mensalmente desde junho de 2016. A ficha técnica contempla as características e atributos do indicador. Com base nas suas análises são estabelecidos planos de ações para sua qualificação. CONCLUSÃO A implantação do indicador de qualidade assistencial associado ao diagnóstico de enfermagem aprimorou o processo de comunicação, monitoramento e cuidado de enfermagem a pacientes com risco de sangramento.


Resumen OBJETIVO Describir la implementación de un indicador de calidad asistencial asociado al diagnóstico de enfermería de pacientes con alto riesgo de sangrado, con base en los resultados alarmantes de tiempo de protombina (Tp), tiempo de tromboplastina parcialmente activada (TTPa) y plaquetas. MÉTODO Relato de experiencia retrospectiva de acciones multidisciplinares desarrolladas en un hospital universitario. Las etapas del estudio involucraron reuniones de equipos, búsqueda de estrategias de comunicación efectiva y creación de un nuevo indicador de calidad asistencial. RESULTADOS El indicador se denominó "Conformidad del Diagnóstico de Enfermería Riesgo de Sangrado", y se monitoreó mensualmente desde junio de 2016. La ficha técnica contempla las características y atributos del indicador. Con base en los análisis del indicador se establecen planes de acción para su cualificación. CONCLUSIÓN La implementación del indicador de calidad asistencial asociado al diagnóstico de enfermería mejoró el proceso de comunicación, el monitoreo y el cuidado de enfermería a pacientes con riesgo de sangrado.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To describe the implantation of a care quality indicator associated to the nursing diagnosis of patients at high risk of bleeding, based on the alarming results of prothrombin time (PT), partially activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelets. METHODS Retrospective experience report of multidisciplinary actions developed in a university hospital. The stages of the study involved team meetings, search for effective communication strategies and creation of a new indicator of quality of care. RESULTS The indicator was called "Compliance of Nursing Diagnosis Risk for bleeding", monitored monthly since June 2016. The technical file includes the characteristics and attributes of the indicator. Based on the analyzes of the indicator, action plans are established for its qualification. CONCLUSION The implementation of the quality of care indicator associated to the nursing diagnosis improved the communication process, the monitoring and the nursing care to patients at risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Nursing Diagnosis , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Patient Safety , Hemorrhagic Disorders/nursing , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Patient Care Team , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Quality of Health Care , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Interdisciplinary Communication , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Disorders/blood , Hemorrhagic Disorders/epidemiology , Hospitals, University
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(4): e8006, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001515

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of thromboelastometry for assessing rivaroxaban concentrations. The accuracy of thromboelastometry was compared with the high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method, which is the gold standard for drug plasma monitoring (the reference standard). Forty-six clinically stable patients were treated with 10, 15, or 20 mg of rivaroxaban once daily (OD group) or 15 mg twice a day (BID group) (no particular indication for treatment). Patient samples were collected 2 h after the use of the medication (peak) and 2 h before the next dose (trough). The rivaroxaban plasma concentrations were determined via HPLC-MS/MS, and thromboelastometry was performed using a ROTEM® delta analyzer. There were significant prolongations in clotting time (CT) for the 10, 15, and 20 mg of rivaroxaban treatments in the OD groups. In the 15 mg BID group, the responses at the peak and trough times were similar. At the peak times, there was a positive correlation between the plasma concentration of rivaroxaban and CT (Spearman correlation rho=0.788, P<0.001) and clot formation time (rho=0.784, P<0.001), and a negative correlation for alpha angle (rho=−0.771, P<0.001), amplitude after 5 min (rho=−0.763, P<0.001), and amplitude after 10 min (rho=−0.680, P<0.001). The CT presented higher specificity and sensitivity using the cut-off determined by the receiver characteristics curve. ROTEM has potential as screening tool to measure possible bleeding risk associated with rivaroxaban plasma levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Monitoring/methods , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Rivaroxaban/blood , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Thrombelastography , Blood Coagulation Tests , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Data Accuracy
13.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(5): e20192334, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057177

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A oclusão ressuscitativa por balão endovascular da aorta (REBOA) é utilizada para controlar hemorragias não compressíveis do tronco como uma opção menos invasiva e com menos distúrbios fisiológicos quando comparado à toracotomia de emergência com clampeamento da aorta. Isso permite a melhora dos parâmetros hemodinâmicos até que a cirurgia definitiva seja realizada. É utilizada no trauma como uma medida para prevenir o colapso hemodinâmico em pacientes que estão em choque hemorrágico grave, mantendo a perfusão do cérebro e do coração enquanto diminui o sangramento distal até que o controle da hemorragia possa ser realizado. As principais complicações relatadas são insuficiência renal aguda, amputações de membros inferiores e óbitos. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a expansão do uso do REBOA em situações não traumáticas de outras áreas da medicina, assim como, avaliar os resultados obtidos até o momento. Uma pesquisa online do PubMed, Medline e SciELO foi realizada com o termo "REBOA" nos últimos cinco anos, e os artigos incluídos foram os 14 que descrevem especificamente o uso do REBOA para condições não traumáticas. Os resultados sugerem que o uso do REBOA levou a um melhor controle do sangramento e aumento da pressão arterial, reduzindo a necessidade de transfusão de sangue e permitindo que os pacientes sobrevivam ao tratamento definitivo das lesões. Concluindo, o uso expandido do REBOA para emergências não traumáticas parece ser eficaz, mas estudos prospectivos e protocolos bem estabelecidos devem ser desenvolvidos para maximizar os resultados.


ABSTRACT Currently, resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is used in trauma surgery for controlling non-compressible torso hemorrhages, as a less invasive option and with fewer physiologic disturbances compared with an invasive emergent thoracotomy for aortic cross-clamping. This can allow improvements in hemodynamic parameters until definitive surgery is performed. REBOA is also used in trauma to prevent hemodynamic collapse in patients who are in severe hemorrhagic shock, as a method to maintain perfusion of the brain and heart while decreasing distal bleeding until hemorrhage control can take place. The major complications reported are acute kidney injury, lower leg amputations, and even death. As experience with REBOA in emergency surgery grows, new indications have been described in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the expansion of the use of REBOA in other areas of medicine, as well as evaluating the current published series. We performed an online search of PubMed, Medline and SciELO with the term "REBOA" in the last five years, and the articles included were the 14 specifically describing the use of REBOA for non-traumatic conditions. The results suggest that the use of REBOA led to improved bleeding control and increased arterial pressure, reducing blood transfusion requirements and allowing patients to survive to definitive treatment of injuries. In conclusion, the expanded use of REBOA for non-traumatic emergencies appears to be effective. However, prospective studies and well-established protocols for specific indications should be developed to maximize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta/surgery , Resuscitation/methods , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
14.
Rev. argent. cir ; 110(2): 86-90, jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957899

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la cirugía bariátrica es el tratamiento más eficaz para la obesidad mórbida. La hemorragia se presenta en el 0,5-5% de las pacientes. La preparación prequirúrgica con dieta líquida y el uso de antibióticos para Helicobacter pylori podría alterar el metabolismo de la vitamina K y asociarse a hemorragia. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de la concentración de protrombina (basal = B-PT y prequirúrgica = preQ-PT) en estos pacientes. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo donde se comparó la concentración de B-PT (15-180 días previos a la cirugía) y la preQ-PT (24 horas previas a la cirugía). Resultados: se incluyeron 194 pacientes, de los cuales el 72% (n = 139) fueron mujeres, de entre 19 y 69 años, con BMI (IMC) 45 (33 a 58) y pérdida de peso prequirúrgica del 7% (-2 a 17). El promedio de B-PT fue 91,9% (DE 9,529), el promedio de la preQ-PT fue 81,1% (DE 10,760); descendió un 10,8% (p < 0,001). No hubo diferencias significativas cuando se comparó el comportamiento en la preQ-PT entre los diferentes subgrupos (uso de antibióticos para Helicobacter pylori, de acuerdo con la pérdida de peso y en relación con la suplementación de vitamina K); sin embargo, siempre se detectó descenso de la preQ-PT. No hubo ninguna complicación hemorrágica (necesidad de transfusiones o reoperación); tampoco hubo muerte por hemorragias ni eventos tromboembólicos. Conclusión: realizar dosaje de protrombina 24 horas antes de la cirugía bariátrica permite detectar alteraciones iatrogénicas de la coagulación inducidas por la dieta y el uso de antibióticos.


Background: bariatric surgery is the most efficient treatment for morbid obesity. Bleeding occurs in 0.5-5% of patients. Pre-surgical preparation with liquid diet and the use of antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori could alter the metabolism of vitamin K and be associated with hemorrhage. Objective: to describe the behavior of the concentration of Prothrombin (basal = B-PT and pre-surgical = preQ-PT) in these patients. Material and methods: a prospective cohort study comparing B-PT concentration (15-180 days prior to surgery) and preQ-PT (24 h prior to surgery) was performed. Results: a total of 194 patients were included in the study, with 72% (n = 139) women aged 19-69 years, BMI 45 (33 to 58) and preoperative weight loss of 7% (-2 to 17). The media B-PT was 91.9% (SD 9.529), the media pre-PT was 81.1% (SD 10.760); declined 10.8% (p <0.001). There was no significant difference when comparing the behavior in the preQ-PT among different subgroups (use of antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori, according to weight loss and in relation to vitamin K supplementation), however, there was always a decrease of the preQ-PT. There were no bleeding complications (need for transfusions or re-intervetion), nor was there death for bleeding or thromboembolic events. Conclusion: prothrombin measurement 24 hours before bariatric surgery allows the detection of iatrogenic coagulation alterations induced by diet and the use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vitamin K/administration & dosage , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding/prevention & control , Prothrombin , Gastric Bypass , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrectomy , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
15.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 84-91, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899662

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia anticoagulante es ampliamente utilizada en la práctica clínica, como profilaxis en pacientes con riesgo de presentar fenómenos tromboembólicos o como tratamiento en aquellos que han presentado algún evento trombótico. Cada vez es más frecuente enfrentarse a pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante crónico que serán intervenidos mediante procedimientos quirúrgicos, por lo que es importante y necesario conocer el manejo perioperatorio de los diferentes fármacos anticoagulantes, para disminuir los riesgos y complicaciones asociados a la suspensión o mantención de estos en el período perioperatorio. Para lograr este objetivo se debe evaluar y balancear el riesgo de sangrado versus el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos, considerando la condición médica de cada paciente y el tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico que recibirá. La recomendación para fármacos anticoagulantes orales antagonistas de vitamina K es mantenerlos en cirugías con bajo riesgo de sangrado y suspenderlos 5 días antes de procedimientos quirúrgicos con riesgo hemorrágico moderado y alto, controlando el international normalized ratio el día previo a la cirugía. Los nuevos anticoagulantes orales no requieren monitorización de rutina, recomendándose suspenderlos a las 24-96 h previas al procedimiento quirúrgico, dependiendo del riesgo hemorrágico de cada cirugía y de la función renal. En relación con los anticoagulantes parenterales, la heparina no fraccionada en infusión intravenosa se recomienda suspenderla 4-5 h antes de la cirugía, mientras que la utilizada vía subcutánea, 12 h previas a la intervención quirúrgica. Las heparinas de bajo peso molecular en dosis de tratamiento se sugiere descontinuarlas 24 h previas a la cirugía, mientras que las usadas en dosis profilácticas, solo 12 h antes.


Anticoagulant therapy is widely used in clinical practice, as prophylaxis in patients at risk of presenting thromboembolic phenomena or as treatment in those who have presented a thrombotic event. It is increasingly the number of patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy to undergo surgical procedures, so it is important and necessary to know the perioperative management of the different anticoagulant drugs to reduce the risks and complications associated with suspension or maintenance of these in the perioperative period. To achieve this goal, the risk of bleeding should be evaluated and balanced against the risk of thromboembolic events, considering the medical condition of each patient and the type of surgical procedure to which they have undergone. The recommendation for vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drugs is to maintain them for surgeries at low risk of bleeding and to suspend them 5 days before surgical procedures with moderate and high bleeding risk, controlling 'International Normalized Ratio' the day before surgery. The new oral anticoagulants do not require routine monitoring, recommending suspending them 24-96 h prior to the surgical procedure, depending on the hemorrhagic risk of each surgery and renal function of patient. In relation to parenteral anticoagulants, unfractionated heparin in intravenous infusion is recommended to be discontinued 4-5 h prior to surgery, while the subcutaneous route, 12 h prior to surgery. Low-molecular-weight heparins in treatment doses should be suspended 24 h prior to surgery, while in prophylactic doses, only 12 h earlier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perioperative Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Heparin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Risk Assessment , Coumarins/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(3): 432-442, may.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902183

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta constituye un problema frecuente de salud en el mundo; así se comporta en Cuba, en la provincia Matanzas y en el hospital de estudio. Actualmente es considerada como causa mayor de morbimortalidad. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la hemorragia digestiva alta en el Hospital Militar de Matanzas. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva, en un periodo de cinco años que incluyó a todos los pacientes ingresados con ese diagnóstico, y los que durante su ingreso por otra causa presentaron episodios de hemorragia. El índice de Rockall permitió evaluar la necesidad de cirugía, recidiva y mortalidad. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes pertenecieron al grupo de riesgo intermedio. Los hombres fueron los más afectados, el grupo de tercera edad presentó mayor incidencia. La gastritis hemorrágica fue la primera causa de sangrado. La hipertensión arterial resultó ser el factor de riesgo relevante y el tabaquismo el hábito tóxico más frecuente. Conclusiones: como beneficio relevante se demostró la importancia de la endoscopia precoz para el diagnóstico de la causa, tratamiento y pronóstico de la hemorragia. Se observó una buena correlación entre el pronóstico del paciente al ingreso y su estado al final del tratamiento (AU).


Introduction: the high digestive hemorrhage is a frequent health problem in the world; it behaves the same in Cuba, in the province of Matanzas and in the hospital where the study was carried out. Currently it is considered a major cause of morbi-mortality. Objective: to determine the behavior of the high digestive bleeding in the Military Hospital of Matanzas. Materials and Methods: a descriptive research was carried out in a five-year period. It included all the patients admitted with that diagnosis and those who presented episodes of hemorrhage even if they were admitted by any other cause. The Rockall index allowed to assess the necessity of surgery, the recidivism and mortality. Results: most of the patients belonged to the intermediate risk group. Male patients were the most affected one; the group of elder people showed higher incidence. Hemorrhagic gastritis was the first cause of bleeding. Arterial hypertension was the relevant risk factor and smoking the most frequent toxic habit. Conclusions: as a relevant benefit it was showed the importance of precocious endoscopy for the diagnosis of the hemorrhage cause, treatment and prognosis. It was observed a good correlation between the patient´s prognosis at the admission and his status at the end of the treatment (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hematemesis/pathology , Digestive System/pathology , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hematemesis/complications , Hematemesis/blood , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Gastric Mucosa/injuries , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/blood
17.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(1): 19-22, mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869389

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: presentar un caso de pseudoaneurisma de la arteria maxilar interna, complicación hemorrágica infrecuente mediata al procedimiento de osteotomía sagital mandibular. Caso clínico: El tratamiento consistió en la embolización selectiva del vaso afectado, un procedimiento menos cruento que las maniobras hemostáticas tradicionales, como la ligadura arterial a través de un abordaje cervical. Conclusión: Es posible resolver la hemorragia con un método alternativo pero seguro, que conlleva menos morbilidades asociadas a las maniobras hemostáticas clásicas.


Aim: to report a mediate rare bleeding complication tothe procedure of mandibular sagittal split osteotomy as is thepseudoaneurysm of the internal maxillary artery is.Case report: The treatment consisted of selective embolizationof the affected vessel, which turns out to be a lessinvasive procedure than traditional hemostatic maneuverssuch as arterial ligation through a cervical approach.Conclusion: It is possible to resolve the bleeding withan alternative safe method with lower morbidity than the oneassociated with classical hemostatic maneuvers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Orthognathic Surgery/methods , Osteotomy, Sagittal Split Ramus/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Aneurysm, False/etiology , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Jaw Fixation Techniques/methods , Hemostatic Techniques/methods
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 239-244, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown fondaparinux's superiority over enoxaparin in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially in relation to bleeding reduction. The description of this finding in a Brazilian registry has not yet been documented. Objective: To compare fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in in-hospital prognosis of non-ST elevation ACS. Methods: Multicenter retrospective observational study. A total of 2,282 patients were included (335 in the fondaparinux group, and 1,947 in the enoxaparin group) between May 2010 and May 2015. Demographic, medication intake and chosen coronary treatment data were obtained. Primary outcome was mortality from all causes. Secondary outcome was combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). Comparison between the groups were done through Chi-Square test and T test. Multivariate analysis was done through logistic regression, with significance values defined as p < 0.05. Results: With regards to treatment, we observed the performance of a percutaneous coronary intervention in 40.2% in the fondaparinux group, and in 35.1% in the enoxaparin group (p = 0.13). In the multivariate analysis, we observed significant differences between fondaparinux and enoxaparin groups in relation to combined events (13.8% vs. 22%. OR = 2.93, p = 0.007) and bleeding (2.3% vs. 5.2%, OR = 4.55, p = 0.037), respectively. Conclusion: Similarly to recently published data in international literature, fondaparinux proved superior to enoxaparin for the Brazilian population, with significant reduction of combined events and bleeding.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos recentes têm apresentado superioridade do fondaparinux em relação à enoxaparina em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) sem supradesnivelamento de ST, principalmente relacionada à redução de sangramentos. A descrição desse achado em registro brasileiro ainda não foi documentada. Objetivo: Comparar fondaparinux versus enoxaparina no prognóstico intrahospitalar em SCA sem supradesnivelamento de ST. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, multicêntrico e observacional. Foram incluídos 2.282 pacientes (335 no grupo fondaparinux e 1.947 no grupo enoxaparina) entre maio de 2.010 e maio de 2.015. Foram obtidos dados demográficos, medicações utilizadas e tratamento coronariano adotado. O desfecho primário foi mortalidade por todas as causas. O desfecho secundário foi eventos combinados (choque cardiogênico, reinfarto, morte, acidente vascular cerebral e sangramentos). A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por meio de Q-quadrado e teste-T. A análise multivariada foi realizada por regressão logística, sendo considerado significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Em relação ao tratamento, observou-se realização de intervenção coronária percutânea em 40,2% no grupo fondaparinux e 35,1% no grupo enoxaparina (p = 0,13). Na análise multivariada, observaram-se diferenças significativas entre os grupos fondaparinux e enoxaparina em relação a eventos combinados (13,8% vs. 22%, OR = 2,93, p = 0,007) e sangramentos (2,3% vs. 5,2%, OR = 4,55, p = 0,037), respectivamente. Conclusão: Semelhante aos dados recentemente publicados na literatura mundial, fondaparinux mostrou-se superior à enoxaparina para a população brasileira, com redução significativa de eventos combinados e sangramentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Brazil , Logistic Models , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Statistics, Nonparametric , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Fondaparinux , Hemorrhage/mortality
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784351

ABSTRACT

The ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta and allows right ventricular blood to bypass the unexpanded lungs. In mature infants, the ductus arteriosus closes after birth. Patent ductus arteriosus occurs in 70% of preterm infants with a birth weight < 1,000 grams. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, renal failure, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. The drugs used to treat the patent ductus arteriosus are ibuprofen and indomethacin which are potent non-selective inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and therefore inhibit prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Prostaglandin E2 relaxes smooth muscle and tends to inhibit the closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. Intravenous ibuprofen and indomethacin inhibit prostaglandin E2 synthesis and thereby close the patent ductus arteriosus with similar efficacy. Indomethacin reduces the blood flow velocity in kidneys, intestine and brain. Ibuprofen has less effect on blood flow velocity in these organs. There is a significant increase in serum creatinine after indomethacin administration but not after ibuprofen and infants treated with ibuprofen have higher creatinine clearance. Oliguria (urine output < 1 ml/kg/h) occurs more frequently with indomethacin than with ibuprofen. Indomethacin requires furosemide for urine output more often than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and transient renal insufficiency and it is the drug of choice for closing the patent ductus arteriosus. Ibuprofen and indomethacin may be administered orally. In conclusion, intravenous ibuprofen and indomethacin close the patent ductus arteriosus at the same rate, but indomethacin is more toxic than ibuprofen.


O canal arterial conecta a artéria pulmonar com a aorta e permite que o sangue oriundo do ventrículo direito evite passar pelos pulmões fetais não expandidos. Em recém-nascidos maduros, o canal arterial se fecha após o nascimento. A persistência do canal arterial ocorre em 70% dos recém-nascidos prematuros com peso de nascimento < 1.000 gramas. O não fechamento do canal arterial associa-se a hemorragia intraventricular, enterocolite necrosante, displasia bronco-pulmonar, leucomalacia periventricular, insuficiência renal e hipertensão pulmonar persistente. Os medicamentos utilizados para tratar a persistência do canal arterial são o ibuprofeno e a indometacina. Ambos são potentes inibidores não seletivos da ciclo-oxigenase e inibem a síntese de prostaglandina E2. Esta relaxa a musculature vascular lisa e tende a inibir o fechamento do canal arterial. O ibuprofeno e a indometacina inibem a síntese de prostaglandina E2 e favorecem o fechamento do canal arterial. A indometacina reduz a velocidade do fluxo sanguíneo renal, intestinal e cerebral. O Ibuprofeno tem efeito menor sobre a velocidade do fluxo de sangue nesses órgãos. Há um aumento significativo da creatinina sérica após a administração de indometacina, mas não após o ibuprofeno; por isso, recém-nascidos tratados com ibuprofeno têm maior depuração da creatinina. A oligúria ocorre mais frequentemente com a indometacina vs. ibuprofeno. A indometacina requer furosemida para a produção de urina mais frequentemente do que o ibuprofeno. O ibuprofeno reduz o risco de enterocolite necrotizante e de insuficiência renal transitória e é a droga de escolha para o fechamento do canal arterial patente. O ibuprofeno e a indometacina podem ser ministrados por via oral. Em conclusão, o ibuprofeno e a indometacina fecham o canal arterial patente com a mesma velocidade, mas a indometacina é mais tóxica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Ibuprofen/administration & dosage , Indomethacin/administration & dosage , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/rehabilitation , Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome/prevention & control , Leukomalacia, Periventricular/prevention & control , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/prevention & control , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
20.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 32(1): 8-18, abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783951

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el trasplante hepático (TH) es el único tratamiento definitivo para la enfermedad hepática terminal crónica y patologías que no cuentan con otra alternativa terapéutica. El sangrado y el consumo de hemocomponentes se ha vinculado al descenso de la sobrevida del injerto y del paciente. Objetivo: evaluar los resultados en el consumo de hemocomponentes con la utilización de medidas y técnicas tendientes a minimizar el sangrado. Estimar la sobrevida. Material y método: se realiza un estudio descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo de los primeros 31 pacientes sometidos a TH. Para la búsqueda de asociación entre variables de tipo cualitativo se utilizó test de chi cuadrado para un nivel de significación ?= 0,05, para el análisis de sobrevida fue utilizado Kaplan-Meyer. Resultados: se diseñó un score para analizar el consumo de hemocomponentes; en cinco pacientes (16,1%) no se transfundieron unidades de sangre desplasmatizada (u SD) y en 58,1% se consumieron de 1 a 4 u SD, con un promedio de 3,7 ± 0,6. Un solo paciente (3,2%) se trasplantó sin transfusión de hemocomponentes. A los seis meses la sobrevida corresponde a 81,3%, con un total de cinco eventos, permaneciendo vivos al final del estudio 26 pacientes. Conclusiones: las medidas para disminuir el sangrado y los requerimientos transfusionales fueron efectivos. Los resultados fueron aceptables, cercanos a los publicados a nivel internacional.


Abstract Introduction: liver transplant is the only final treatment for chronic terminal liver disease and other conditions that have no alternative therapies. Bleeding and the hemocomponents consumption has been associated to reduction of graft survival and patient. Objective: to evaluate results in hemocomponents consumption with the application of measures and techniques that aim to minimize bleeding. To estimate survival time. Method: descriptive, observational, retrospective study of the first 31 patients who had undergone liver transplant. A chi square test was used to find the qualitative variables association, significance level ? = 0.05, the Kaplan Meyer test was used to analyse survival. Results: a score was designed to analyse hemocomponent consumption, no deplasmatized blood units were transfused in 5 patients (16.1%), and 1 to 4 deplasmatized blood units were consumed in 58.1%, with a 3.7 ± 0.6 average. A single patient (3.2%) was transplanted with no hemocomponent transfusion. Upon six months, survival represents 81.3%, with a total of five events, 26 patients being alive towards the end of the study. Conclusions: measures to diminish bleeding and transfusion requirements were effective. Results were acceptable, similar to those published globally.


Resumo Introdução: o transplante hepático (TH) é o único tratamento definitivo para a doença hepática terminal crônica e outras patologias que não contam com alternativas terapêuticas. O sangramento e o consumo de hemocomponentes foram vinculados à diminuição da sobrevida do enxerto e do paciente. Objetivo: avaliar o consumo de hemocomponentes utilizando medidas e técnicas que buscam minimizar o sangramento. Estimar a sobrevida. Material e método: estudo descritivo, observacional, retrospectivo dos primeiros 31 pacientes submetidos à TH. Para buscar a associação entre variáveis de tipo qualitativo foi utilizado o teste do , com um nível de significância ? = 0,05; para a análise de sobrevida foi utilizado o teste de Kaplan Meyer. Resultados: foi elaborado um índice para analisar o consumo de hemocomponentes; cinco pacientes (16,1%) não receberam unidades de sangue desplasmatizada (u SD) e 58,1% consumiram de 1 a 4 u SD, com uma média de 3,7 ± 0,6. Somente um (3,2%) foi transplantado sem transfusão de hemocomponentes. A sobrevida aos seis meses foi de 81,3%, com um total de cinco eventos, permanecendo vivos ao final do estudo 26 pacientes. Conclusões: as medidas para diminuir o sangramento e os requerimentos transfusionais foram eletivas. Os resultados foram aceitáveis, próximos aos valores publicados a nível internacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Component Transfusion , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Blood Transfusion
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