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1.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 22(2 Special Issue: Makerere@100): 80-84, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400766

ABSTRACT

Background: Outbreaks are occurring at increasing frequency and they require multisectoral and multi-stakeholder involvement for optimal response. The Global Health Security Agenda is a framework that governments and other stakeholders can use to strengthen countries' capacities to prevent, detect and respond to outbreaks but there are few examples of academic programs using this approach. Methods: This is a narrative review of contributions of Makerere University through the Global Health Security Program at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI). Information was sourced from peer-reviewed publications and grey literature highlighting work done between 2017 - 2021. Results: Aligned to GHSA, IDI made contributions to strengthen national and subnational capacities for biosafety and biosecurity, sample collection and transportation, electronic disease surveillance, infection prevention and control, case management prior to COVID-19 that were subsequently used to support response efforts for COVID-19 in Uganda. Conclusion: The IDI Global Health Security program provides a model that can be used by institutions to deliberately develop capacities relevant to outbreak preparedness and response.


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , COVID-19 , Community Support
2.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(4): e615, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156495

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad por el virus del Ébola presenta una elevada letalidad, por lo cual resulta de gran interés la realización de investigaciones que aborden las manifestaciones clínicas que pudieran ser factores pronósticos de supervivencia. Objetivo: Evaluar factores pronósticos de los pacientes enfermos de ébola. Métodos: El universo lo constituyó la totalidad (n = 350) de pacientes ingresados. Se emplearon medidas de resumen para variables cualitativas, estimaciones puntuales y por intervalos para las cuantitativas, así como las pruebas de significación Kaplan-Meier, regresión de Cox y Odds Ratio. Se trabajó con un nivel de confiabilidad del 95 por ciento. Resultados: La supervivencia global fue del 42,5 por ciento. La media de supervivencia, de aproximadamente 10 días (IC: 9 - 11 días). Los pacientes que ingresaron en estado grave (OR = 3,76), que tuvieron dolor lumbar (OR = 2,24), que refirieron cefalea (OR = 2,22), que presentaron fiebre (OR=2,16), que aquejaron de dolor abdominal (OR=1,95) y a quienes se les constató inyección conjuntival (OR = 1,86), tuvieron mayor probabilidad de fallecer, que quienes ingresaron sin estos síntomas y signos. Conclusiones: La supervivencia fue elevada, pese a las complicaciones presentadas. Los síntomas y signos predictores de muerte en los pacientes fueron: la gravedad del paciente al momento del ingreso, la presencia de dolor lumbar, cefalea, fiebre, dolor abdominal e inyección conjuntival(AU)


Introduction: Ebola virus disease has a high lethality, which is why it is of great interest to carry out research that addresses clinical manifestations that could be prognostic factors for survival. Objective: To evaluate prognostic factors of Ebola patients. Methods: the universe was constituted by the totality (n = 350) of admitted patients. Summary measures were used for qualitative variables, point and interval estimates for quantitative variables, as well as Kaplan-Meier significance tests, Cox regression and Odds Ratio. We worked with a 95% level of reliability. Results: The overall survival was 42.5 por ciento. The average survival, approximately 10 days (CI: 9-11 days). Patients who were admitted in serious condition (OR = 3.76), who had low back pain (OR = 2.24), who reported headache (OR = 2.22), who presented fever (OR = 2.16), who they suffered from abdominal pain (OR = 1.95) and who were found to have conjunctival injection (OR = 1.86), were more likely to die than those who entered without these symptoms and signs. Conclusions: Survival was high, despite the complications presented. The symptoms and predictive signs of death in the patients were: the severity of the patient at admission, the presence of low back pain, headache, fever, abdominal pain and conjunctival injection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/mortality , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Survivorship
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 13-28, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134098

ABSTRACT

Abstract The subdiscipline of historical epidemiology holds the promise of creating a more robust and more nuanced foundation for global public health decision-making by deepening the empirical record from which we draw lessons about past interventions. This essay draws upon historical epidemiological research on three global public health campaigns to illustrate this promise: the Rockefeller Foundation's efforts to control hookworm disease (1909-c.1930), the World Health Organization's pilot projects for malaria eradication in tropical Africa (1950s-1960s), and the international efforts to shut down the transmission of Ebola virus disease during outbreaks in tropical Africa (1974-2019).


Resumo A subdisciplina epidemiologia histórica se propõe a criar um alicerce robusto e refinado para o processo de tomada de decisões em saúde pública global, aprofundando registros empíricos que nos ensinam sobre intervenções passadas. Este artigo se baseia na pesquisa epidemiológica histórica de três campanhas globais de saúde pública para ilustrar essa proposta: os esforços da Fundação Rockefeller para controle da ancilostomose (1909-c.1930), os projetos-piloto da Organização Mundial da Saúde para erradicação da malária na África tropical (décadas de 1950-1960), e os esforços internacionais de interrupção da transmissão do vírus Ebola durante surtos na África tropical (1974-2019).


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Global Health/history , Epidemiology/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Health Promotion/history , Hookworm Infections/history , Malaria/history , World Health Organization/history , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , Africa , Hookworm Infections/prevention & control , Malaria/prevention & control
5.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 14(2): 36-41, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257239

ABSTRACT

Background: Ebola virus disease ravaged three West African countries in the wake of 2014 which was seen as the deadliest Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in history. Several lessons were taken out of the West African outbreak one of which is the lack of preparedness by countries in the region.Materials and Methods: This paper looked at the mistakes of the West African outbreak and reports how such mistakes were corrected in the current outbreak going on in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Preparedness efforts are currently taking place in countries bordering DRC which included quick detection and response to an eventual EVD event.Results: This paid off on several occasions when cases from DRC to Uganda were quickly detected and response was as quick as possible. Preparedness carried out in Countries bordering DRC included setting up of Rapid Response Team (RRT) and training of these teams both at country and regional level. All members of the RRT were trained in all areas of readiness which included community engagement, laboratory, logistics, surveillance, case management, sample collection, packaging and shipment as well as Infection Prevention and Control (IPC).Conclusion: These trainings have led to readiness to an eventual EVD event. Countries now have the ability to respond quickly with better Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) for EVD


Subject(s)
Democratic Republic of the Congo , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Infection Control/prevention & control
7.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258605

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Micronutrient supplementation is recommended in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) care; however, there is limited data on its therapeutic effects. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with EVD admitted to five Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) in Sierra Leone and Liberia during September 2014 to December 2015. A uniform protocol was used to guide ETU care, however, due to supply limitations, only a subset of patients received multivitamins. Data on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory testing was collected. The outcome of interest was facility based mortality and the primary predictor was multivitamin supplementation initiated within 48 h of admission. The multivitamin formulations included: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamins A, C, and D3. Propensity score models (PSM) were used to match patients based on covariates associated with multivitamin administration and mortality. Mortality between cases treated and untreated within 48 h of admission were compared using generalized estimating equations to calculate relative risk with bootstrap methods employed to assess statistical significance. Results: There were 424 patients with EVD who had sufficient treatment data for analysis, of which 261 (61.6%) had daily multivitamins initiated within 48 h of admission. The mean age of the cohort was 30.5 years and 59.4% were female. In the propensity score matched analysis, mortality was 53.5% among patients receiving multivitamins and 66.2% among patients not receiving multivitamins, resulting in a relative risk for mortality of 0.81 (p=0.03) for patients receiving multivitamins. Conclusion: Early multivitamin supplementation was associated with lower overall mortality. Further research on the impact of micronutrient supplementation in EVD is warranted


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/mortality , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/therapy , Liberia , Sierra Leone
8.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190271, 2020. tab, ilus, Graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056564

ABSTRACT

Ante el escaso número de estudios en este ámbito, el objetivo es analizar el contenido visual en la prensa durante la crisis sanitaria del Ébola en España que ocasionó gran alarma en la sociedad en 2014. En una muestra nacional de diarios, se identifica contenido visual en el 92% (n=160) de artículos sobre el Ébola y en el 87,5% (n=14) de portadas. La fotografía es el recurso más usado (69,2%), seguido de gráficos (9,2%) e infografías (8,8%), mientras que 'conflicto' es el encuadre más frecuente (42%). Se detecta un aumento rápido del contenido visual en los primeros dos días de la crisis que disminuye paulatinamente a partir del quinto día (p<.001). Este estudio puede abrir nuevas vías de investigación para profundizar en la investigación del contenido visual, especialmente durante la crisis sanitaria dada la gran importancia que adquiere la comunicación.(AU)


Considering the scarce number of studies in this sphere, the objective is to analyze the visual content published by the press during the health crisis of Ebola in Spain, which caused great alarm in that society in 2014. In a sample of Spanish newspapers, visual content was identified in 92% (n=160) of the articles about Ebola and in 87.5% (n=14) of front pages. Photography was the most used resource (69.2%), followed by graphs (9.2%) and infographics (8.8%), while 'conflict' was the most frequent framing (42%). A rapid increase in the use of visual content was detected in the first two days of the crisis, followed by a gradual decrease from the fifth day onwards (p <0.001). This study can open new research paths for further investigation of visual content, especially during a health crisis, due to the great importance communication acquires in this situation.(AU)


Considerando o número escasso de estudos neste âmbito, o objetivo é analisar o conteúdo visual na imprensa durante a crise sanitária do Ebola na Espanha, que causou um grande alarme na sociedade em 2014. Em uma amostra de diários nacionais, identifica-se conteúdo visual em 92% (n = 160) dos artigos sobre o Ébola e em 87,5% (n = 14) das capas. A fotografia é o recurso mais utilizado (69,2%), seguido por gráficos (9,2%) e inforgráficos (8,8%), enquanto 'conflito' é o enquadramento mais frequente (42%). Detecta-se um rápido aumento no conteúdo visual nos dois primeiros dias da crise, que diminui gradativamente a partir do quinto dia (p <0,001). Este estudo pode abrir novas vias de pesquisas que aprofundem na investigação do conteúdo visual, especialmente durante uma crise sanitaria devido à grande importância que a comunicação adquire.(AU)


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Photograph , Mass Media , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Saúde Soc ; 28(3): 253-266, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043376

ABSTRACT

Resumen La salud cada vez tiene más presencia en la prensa generalista, especialmente cuando los temas que se abordan afectan a países desarrollados. Esta investigación expone las diferencias que se generan en la cobertura periodista cuando ocurre un hecho relevante como pueda ser una epidemia y que afecta tanto a países occidentales como a países africanos subdesarrollados. El trabajo que presentamos evidencia que en la epidemia de Ébola, reconocida como tal por la Organización Mundial de la Salud en el año 2014, el volumen de las noticias sobre la epidemia solo aumentó la información relativa a esta enfermedad cuando hubo occidentales afectados directamente por la misma. Así se observa en los resultados que ofrece el análisis de contenido realizado en tres diarios de diferentes nacionalidades como son el español El País, el francés Le Figaro y el mexicano Reforma durante las fechas de marzo de 2014 a enero de 2015.


Abstract It is increasingly common to see the issue of health included in the general press, particularly when the topic being discussed affects developed nations. This research project shows the differences that appear in press coverage when there is a relevant event, such as an epidemic, which affects both developed, western nations and underdeveloped African ones. This work shows that, in the case of the Ebola epidemic - which was recognised as such by the World Health Organisation in 2014 -, the press only gave the problem greater coverage when there were cases of westerners being directly affected by it. That can be observed in the results of the content analysis in three daily newspapers from different countries: El País (Spain), Le Figaro (France) and Reforma (Mexico), between March 2014 and January 2015.


Subject(s)
Case Reports , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Africa , Health Communication , Mass Media
10.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(1): e1763, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149864

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus del Ébola causa una enfermedad grave sumamente infecciosa, que lleva rápidamente a la muerte, con una tasa de letalidad de hasta 90 por ciento, pero puede prevenirse. Objetivo: Describir relevancia de los procederes de enfermería en la sobrevivencia de los pacientes afectados por el Ébola Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal en Liberia, África Occidental, en el periodo de noviembre 2014 a febrero 2015. El universo estuvo constituido por 203 pacientes a quienes se les aplicó procederes de enfermería por enfermeros que integraron la brigada médica cubana. La información se obtuvo de la observación directa y la revisión de la base de datos estadística de la misión cubana en Liberia, se procesó mediante el Sistema SPSSS versión 11,5 a través de técnicas de estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino (55,66 por ciento), diciembre fue el mes de mayor ingreso (36,45 por ciento), la mayoría de los pacientes fueron ingresados en la salas de sospechosos (60,09 por ciento), predominó la administración de medicamentos por vía oral, con 820 procederes (52,59 por ciento), se logró que 51,25 por ciento de los pacientes atendidos egresaran vivos, siendo el mes de enero el de mayor letalidad (66,70 por ciento). Conclusiones: La labor realizada por los enfermeros cubanos en la lucha contra el Ébola en Liberia, África Occidental, y el cumplimiento estricto de los protocolos según procederes de enfermería contribuyó al control hemodinámico de los pacientes atendidos y a la disminución paulatina de la epidemia, así como la letalidad por dicho evento(AU)


Introduction: Ebola virus causes a highly infectious and serious disease, which quickly leads to death, with a death rate of up to 90 percent, but it can be prevented. Objective: To describe the relevance of nursing procedures in the survival of patients affected by Ebola. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in West Africa, Liberia in the period from November 2014 to February 2015. The study population consisted of 203 patients who were applied nursing procedures by personnel who were part of the Cuban medical brigade. The information was obtained by direct observation and review of the statistical database of the Cuban mission in Liberia; and processed through the system SPSSS version 11.5, through descriptive statistics techniques. Results: The male sex predominated (55.66 percent). December was the month with highest admittance (36.45 percent); the majority of patients were admitted to the ward of suspects (60.09 percent). The administration of oral medications predominated, with 820 procedures (52.59 percent). It was achieved for 51.25 percent of the patients attended to be discharged alive, the month of January accounting for the highest mortality (66.70 percent). Conclusions: The work carried out by the Cuban nurses in the fight against Ebola in West Africa, Liberia and the strict compliance with the protocols according to nursing procedures contributed to the hemodynamic control of the patients attended and the gradual reduction of the epidemic, as well as the mortality for the event(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Survival , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/pathogenicity , Nursing Care/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive
11.
Edumecentro ; 11(1): 234-243, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039696

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La misión de la brigada médica perteneciente al Contingente Internacional Especializado en Situaciones de Desastres y Graves Epidemias "Henry Reeve", que laboró en Sierra Leona, terminó el 1ro de abril de 2015, con sus objetivos cumplidos. Fueron atendidos 1589 pacientes y confirmados 619 con el ébola (38,9 %), se disminuyó el índice de mortalidad de 92 % a 43,3 % y se salvaron 351 vidas entre el 5 de noviembre de 2014 y el 10 de marzo de 2015. En total se trabajaron 377 días, con 6024 horas de estancia en el Centro de Tratamiento del Ébola y 2217 horas vistiendo el equipo de protección individual. Sus integrantes recibieron reconocimientos nacionales e internacionales y numerosas distinciones que avalaron el desempeño de tan exitosa encomienda.


ABSTRACT The mission of the medical brigade belonging to the "Henry Reeve "International Contingent Specialized in Situations of Disasters and Serious Epidemics, which worked in Sierra Leone, ended on April 1, 2015, with its objectives fulfilled. 1589 patients were treated and 619 confirmed with Ebola (38.9%), the death rate was reduced from 92% to 43.3% and 351 lives were saved from November 5, 2014 to March 10, 2015. they worked 377 days in all, with 6024 hours of stay in the Ebola Treatment Center and 2217 hours wearing the personal protection equipment. Its members received national and international recognition and numerous distinctions that endorsed the performance of such a successful mission.


Subject(s)
Disaster Sanitation , Disaster Emergencies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , International Assistance in Disaster , Education, Medical
12.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(1): e270, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093535

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad del ébola se dio a conocer por primera vez en 1976, con una letalidad muy elevada en todos los brotes detectados. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes portadores de la enfermedad por el virus del Ébola. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 424 pacientes ingresados en un centro de tratamiento de ébola en la República de Sierra Leona, África occidental, con el diagnóstico confirmado mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para virus Ébola, durante el período de noviembre de 2014 hasta marzo de 2015. Resultados: Se muestra que el grupo etario más afectado fue el de 25 a 34 con un 25,9 por ciento. La mayor letalidad se presentó en los pacientes con más de 65 años de edad con un 44,4 por ciento. El síntoma que prevaleció fue la fiebre para un 61,8 por ciento, y el hipo se presentó en el 88,8 por ciento de los fallecidos. Conclusión: Se concluye que la enfermedad no tuvo distinción significativa con el sexo. La mayor letalidad se presentó en las edades geriátricas. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, diarrea y el decaimiento. El hipo fue el signo que más se presentó en los pacientes que fallecieron(AU)


Introduction: Ebola disease was first reported in 1976 with a very high lethality in all outbreaks. Objective: To clinically and epidemiologically characterize the patients carriers of Ebola virus disease. Methods: we conducted an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in 424 patients admitted to an Ebola Treatment Center in the Republic of Sierra Leone, West Africa from November 2014 to March 2015. The polymerase chain reaction technique for Ebola virus confirmed the diagnosis. Medical records provided all data. Results: The age group most affected was 25 to 34 (25.9 percent). The highest lethality occurred in those over 65 years of age (44.4 percent ). Fever was the prevailing symptom (61.8 percent) and hiccups occurred in 88.8 percent of the deceased. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations were variable, although fever was the main symptom. Hiccup was a sign of poor prognosis when associated with a higher percentage of mortality. Lethality was high(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Disease Outbreaks , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Ebolavirus , Sierra Leone/ethnology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-7, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257325

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2014­2016 Ebola outbreak exposed the poor laboratory systems in Sierra Leone. Immense needs were recognised across all areas, from facilities, diagnostic capacity, supplies, trained personnel to quality assurance mechanisms.Objective: We aimed to describe the first year of a comprehensive intervention, which started in 2015, in a public hospital's general laboratory serving a population of over 500 000 in a rural district.Methods: The intervention focused on (1)supporting local authorities and healthcare workers in policy implementation and developing procedures to enhance access to services, (2) addressing gaps by investing in infrastructure, supplies, and equipment, (3) development of quality assurance mechanisms via mentorship, bench-side training, and the introduction of quality control and information systems. All work was performed alongside counterparts from the Ministry of Health and Sanitation.Results: We observed a strong increase in patient visits and inpatient and outpatient testing volumes. Novel techniques and procedures were taken up well by staff, leading to improved and expanded service and safety, laying foundations for further improvements.Conclusion: This comprehensive approach was successful and the results suggest an increase in trust from patients and healthcare workers


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Hospitals, District , Sierra Leone
14.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268558

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia highlighted the importance of robust preparedness measures for a well-coordinated response; the initially delayed response contributed to the steep incidence of cases, infections among health care workers, and a collapse of the health care system. To strengthen local capacity and combat disease transmission, various healthcare worker (HCW) trainings, including the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) training, safe & quality services (SQS) training and rapid response team (RRT), were developed and implemented between 2014 and 2017.Methods: data from the ETU, SQS and RRT trainings were analyzed to determine knowledge and confidence gained.Results: the ETU, SQS and RRT training were completed by a total of 21,248 participants. There were improvements in knowledge and confidence, an associated reduction in HCWs infection and reduced response time to subsequent public health events.Conclusion: no infections were reported by healthcare workers in Liberia since the completion of these training programs. HCW training programmes initiated during and post disease outbreak can boost public trust in the health system while providing an entry point for establishing an Epidemic Preparedness and Response (EPR) framework in resource-limited settings


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Health Workforce , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Liberia
15.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268559

ABSTRACT

Introduction: measles is an acute viral disease that remains endemic in much of sub-Sahara Africa, including Liberia. The 2014 Ebola epidemic disrupted an already fragile health system contributing to low uptake of immunization services, population immunity remained low thus facilitating recurrent outbreaks of measles in Liberia. We describe lessons learnt from detecting and responding to recurrent outbreaks of measles two years post the 2014 Ebola epidemic in Liberia.Methods: we conducted a descriptive study using the findings from Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response (IDSR) 15 counties, National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL), National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) and District Health Information Software (DIHS2) data conducted from October to December, 2017. We perused the outbreaks line lists and other key documents submitted by the counties to the national level from January 2016 to December 2017.Results: from January 2016 to December 2017, 2,954 suspected cases of measles were reported through IDSR. Four hundred sixty-seven (467) were laboratory confirmed (IgM-positive), 776 epidemiologically linked, 574 clinically confirmed, and 1,137 discarded (IgM-negative). Nine deaths out of 1817 cases were reported, a case fatality rate of 0.5%; 49% were children below the age of 5 years. Twenty-two percent (405/1817) of the confirmed cases were vaccinated while the vaccination status of 55% (994/1817) was unknown.Conclusion: revitalization of IDSR contributed to increased detection and reporting of suspected cases of measles thus facilitating early identification and response to outbreaks. Priority needs to be given to increasing the uptake of routine immunization services, introducing a second dose of measles vaccine in the routine immunization program and conducting a high-quality supplementary measles immunization campaign for age group 1 to 10 years to provide protection for a huge cohort of susceptible


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Liberia , Mass Vaccination , Measles/epidemiology
16.
Edumecentro ; 10(3): 194-214, jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-953140

ABSTRACT

En el modelo de enseñanza aprendizaje centrado en el alumno cobra gran importancia el desarrollo de habilidades comunicativas. El objetivo del presente artículo es profundizar sobre el tema de modo general, en su relación con la comunicación pedagógica, los componentes personológicos del proceso docente educativo y los niveles de estructura de la comunicación como proceso pedagógico, desde el primer año de la carrera de Medicina. Se proponen algunas tareas necesarias para el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa sobre la base del estudio realizado y la experiencia de los autores.


In the teaching-learning model focused on the student, the development of communication skills is very important. The objective of this article is to deepen on the subject in a general way, in its relationship with pedagogical communication, the personological components of the teaching-learning process and the levels of structure of communication as a pedagogical process, since the first year of the Medicine career. Some necessary tasks are proposed for the development of communicative competence based on the study carried out and the experience of the authors.


Subject(s)
Disaster Sanitation , Disaster Emergencies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , International Assistance in Disaster
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to purify and characterize Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP)-specific IgG antibodies from hybridoma clones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For hybridoma production, mice were injected by intramuscular-electroporation with GP DNA vaccines, and boosted with GP vaccines. The spleen cells were used for producing GP-specific hybridoma. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot assay, flow cytometry, and virus-neutralizing assay were used to test the ability of monoclonal IgG antibodies to recognize GP and neutralize Ebola virus. RESULTS: Twelve hybridomas, the cell supernatants of which displayed GP-binding activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the presence of both IgG heavy and light chains by Western blot assay, were chosen as a possible IgG producer. Among these, five clones (C36-1, D11-3, D12-1, D34-2, and E140-2) were identified to secrete monoclonal IgG antibodies. When the monoclonal IgG antibodies from the 5 clones were tested for their antigen specificity, they recognized GP in an antigen-specific and IgG dose-dependent manner. They remained reactive to GP at the lowest tested concentrations (1.953–7.8 ng/mL). In particular, IgG antibodies from clones D11-3, D12-1, and E140-2 recognized the native forms of GP expressed on the cell surface. These antibodies were identified as IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG2b kappa types and appeared to recognize the native forms of GP, but not the denatured forms of GP, as determined by Western blot assay. Despite their GP-binding activity, none of the IgG antibodies neutralized Ebola virus infection in vitro, suggesting that these antibodies are unable to neutralize Ebola virus infection. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the purified IgG antibodies from 5 clones (C36-1, D11-3, D12-1, D34-2, and E140-2) possess GP-binding activity but not Ebola virus-neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antibody Formation , Blotting, Western , Clone Cells , Ebolavirus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Glycoproteins , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Hybridomas , Immunoglobulin G , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spleen , Vaccines , Vaccines, DNA
19.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 11(4): 1-14, 2018. tab
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1259050

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectifs. La RDC a un écosystème favorable à la survenue des maladies d'origine zoonotique à l'interface homme-animal dont la maladie à virus Ebola (MVE). Face à une létalité reconnue être élevée pour cette dernière, cette étude s'est focalisée sur les épidémies survenues à Mweka (2007 et 2008), à Isiro (2012), à Boende (2014) et à Likati (2017) afin de décrire les différents éléments de réponse mis en place lors de chacune de ces épidémies et identifier ceux qui ont une influence significative sur l'ampleur de l'épidémie. Méthodes. Une étude documentaire analytique sur les données secondaires recueillies lors de la gestion de ces cinq épidémies de la MVE survenues en RDC. Les statistiques descriptives ont été réalisées pour caractériser chaque épidémie. Les analyses univariées de chaque élément de réponse ont été menées en rapport avec la létalité. Résultats. Un total de 422 cas a été enregistré avec 282 décès soit 66,8 % de létalité. La grande majorité de cas se trouve dans la tranche d'âge de 15 à 49 ans. Le sexe féminin est le plus représenté. Parmi tous les éléments de la réponse, dans un modèle univarié, le déploiement du laboratoire mobile (p=0,002), la fonctionnalité des commissions (p=0,001), le déploiement d'une équipe multidisciplinaire et le système de surveillance performant (p=0,001) sont associés significativement à la létalité. Conclusion. Le déploiement rapide du laboratoire mobile sur le terrain, le déploiement des équipes multidisciplinaires, la bonne fonctionnalité des commissions et le système de surveillance fonctionnel ont permis de réduire significativement la létalité


Subject(s)
Democratic Republic of the Congo , Epidemics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/classification , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/mortality
20.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2018; 11 (31): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-196986

ABSTRACT

To provide WHO Member States, partners and stakeholders involved in emergency preparedness and response with the most up-to-date best practices on Emergency Risk Communication, this year WHO published "Communicating risk in public health emer-gencies - A WHO guideline for emergency risk communication (ERC) policy and prac-tice"


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk , Communication , Emergencies , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Rift Valley Fever , Cholera , Diphtheria , Coronavirus Infections , Yellow Fever
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