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1.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 101-118, jan./jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354575

ABSTRACT

Achyrocline satureioides is popularly known for its richness in phenolic compounds and medicinal properties (anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective). The present study aimed at broadening the knowledge about the pharmacological potential exerted by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. satureioides. These extracts were characterized by HPLC and tested for their modulatory action on phospholipases A2 and proteases of snake venoms. In addition, they were tested on the activities of digestive enzymes. Snake venoms were used as tools since they have enzymes with high functional and structural homology to human enzymes. The results demonstrate that the extracts of A. satureioides act as enzymatic inhibitors or potentiators, interfering in processes related to the hemostasis, such as coagulation and thrombus dissolution. In addition, the anti-genotoxic activity and inhibitions exerted on digestive enzymes suggests their potential use in the prevention and/or treatment of several pathologies. New studies could provide information on how the compounds present in the extracts and the different enzymes interact.


A Achyrocline satureioides é popularmente conhecida por sua riqueza em compostos fenólicos e por suas propriedades medicinais (anti-inflamatória, analgésica e hepatoprotetora). No presente estudo, com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre o potencial farmacológico exercido por esses extratos, os extratos aquoso e etanólico de A. satureioides foram caracterizados por HPLC e testados quanto à sua ação modulatória sobre as fosfolipases A2 e proteases de peçonhas de serpentes. Além disso, também foram testados em atividades de enzimas digestivas. As peçonhas de serpentes foram usadas como ferramentas por apresentarem enzimas com alta homologia funcional e estrutural às humanas. Os resultados demonstram que os extratos de A. satureioides atuam como inibidores ou potencializadores enzimáticos, interferindo em processos relacionados à hemostasia, como coagulação e dissolução do trombo. Além do mais, destacam seu potencial antigenotóxico e as inibições exercidas sobre as enzimas digestivas direcionando seu potencial de uso na prevenção e/ou tratamento de diversas patologias. Novos estudos poderão fornecer informações sobre os mecanismos de interação entre os compostos presentes nos extratos e as diferentes enzimas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snakes , Blood Coagulation , Achyrocline , Digestion , Enzymes , Dissolution , Phospholipases A2 , Hemostasis , Analgesics , Inflammation
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 184-193, 20220316. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362887

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La resucitación hemostática es una estrategia para compensar la pérdida sanguínea y disminuir el impacto de la coagulación inducida por trauma. Debido a que la disponibilidad de transfundir una razón equilibrada de hemocomponentes es difícil de lograr en el entorno clínico, la sangre total ha reaparecido como una estrategia fisiológica, con ventajas logísticas, que le permiten ser accesible para iniciar tempranamente la resucitación hemostática. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades celulares, coagulantes y viscoelásticas de la sangre total almacenada por 21 días. Métodos. Las unidades de sangre total fueron obtenidas de 20 donantes voluntarios sanos. Se procesaron mediante un sistema de leucorreducción ahorrador de plaquetas y fueron almacenadas en refrigeración (1-6°C) sin agitación. Se analizaron los días 0, 6, 11 y 21. Las bolsas fueron analizadas para evaluar las líneas celulares, niveles de factores de coagulación y propiedades viscoelásticas mediante tromboelastografía. Resultados. El conteo eritrocitario y la hemoglobina se mantuvieron estables. El conteo de plaquetas tuvo una reducción del 50 % al sexto día, pero se mantuvo estable el resto del seguimiento. Los factores de coagulación II-V-VII-X, fibrinógeno y proteína C se mantuvieron dentro del rango normal. La tromboelastografía mostró una prolongación en el tiempo del inicio de la formación del coágulo, pero sin alterar la formación final de un coágulo estable. Conclusiones. La sangre total leucorreducida y con filtro ahorrador de plaquetas conserva sus propiedades hemostáticas por 21 días. Este es el primer paso en Colombia para la evaluación clínica de esta opción, que permita hacer una realidad universal la resucitación hemostática del paciente con trauma severo.


Background. Hemostatic resuscitation is a strategy to compensate blood loss and reduce the impact of trauma-induced coagulopathy. However, balanced resuscitation presents challenges in its application in the clinical setting. Whole blood has re-emerged as a physiologic strategy with logistical advantages that offer the opportunity for early initiation of hemostatic resuscitation. The study aims to evaluate the cellular, coagulation, and viscoelastic properties of whole blood preserved for 21 days. Methods. Whole blood units were donated by 20 healthy volunteers. These units were processed using a platelet-sparing leukoreduction filtration system. Units were stored under refrigeration (1-6°C) without agitation and were sampled on days 0, 6, 11, 16, and 21. The units were tested to assess its cellular properties and coagulation factors levels. In addition, viscoelastic features were tested using tromboelastography.Results. Red blood cells count and hemoglobin levels remained stables. Platelet count had a 50% reduction on day 6, and then remained stable for 21 days. Factors II-V-VII-X, fibrinogen, and protein C remained within normal range. Tromboelastrography test showed that the reaction time of clot formation is prolonged, but the final clot formation is not altered. Conclusion. Whole blood retains its hemostatic properties for 21 days. This is the first step to evaluate the use of whole blood in the resuscitation protocols for Colombia allowing hemostatic resuscitation become a universal reality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation , Blood Preservation , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Blood , Blood Transfusion , Hemostasis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922581

ABSTRACT

The abnormality of platelet function plays an important role in the pathogenesis and evolution of blood stasis syndrome (BSS). The explanation of its mechanism is a key scientific issue in the study of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and treatment. System biology technology provides a good technical platform for further development of platelet multi-omics, which is conducive to the scientific interpretation of the biological mechanism of BSS. The article summarized the pathogenesis of platelets in BSS, the mechanism of action of blood activating and stasis resolving drugs, and the application of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics in platelet research, and put forward the concept of "plateletomics in BSS". Through the combination and cross-validation of multi-omics technology, it mainly focuses on the clinical and basic research of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; through the interactive verification of multi-omics technology and system biology, it mainly focuses on the platelet function and secretion system. The article systematically explains the molecular biological mechanism of platelet activation, aggregation, release, and other stages in the formation and development of BSS, and provides a new research idea and method for clarifying the pathogenesis of BSS and the mechanism of action of blood activating and stasis resolving drugs.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Platelet Activation , Proteomics , Technology
4.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 309-312, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346267

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Little attention is given to thrombosis associated with pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). This study describes the thrombotic and hemorrhagic manifestations of APL in pediatric patients and evaluates their hemostasis, based on coagulation tests. Methods: Inclusion criteria were age 0-18 years and APL diagnosis between April 2005 and November 2017. Patients who had received blood transfusion prior to coagulation tests were excluded. Baseline coagulation tests, hematologic counts, and hemorrhagic/thrombotic manifestations were evaluated. Results: Median age was 10.7 years (1-15 years). The initial coagulation tests revealed a median Hgb of 8.3 g/dL (4.7-12.9 g/dL), median leucocyte count of 10.9 × 109/L (1.1-95.8 × 109/L), median platelet count of 31.8 × 109/L (2.0-109.0 × 109/L), median activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 31.7 s (23.0-50.4 s), median aPTT ratio of 1.0 (0.78-1.6), median thromboplastin time (PT) of 17.5 s (13.8-27.7 s), median PT activity of 62% (25-95 %), and median fibrinogen of 157.7 mg/dL (60.0-281.0 mg/dL). Three patients (13%) had thrombosis. At diagnosis, 21 patients (91.3%) had bruising, one patient (4.3%) had splenic vein and artery thrombosis and one patient (4.3%) presented without thrombohemorrhagic manifestations. During treatment, two patients (8.6%) had thrombosis. Conclusion: Knowledge of thrombosis in pediatric APL is important to determine its risk factors and the best way to treat and prevent this complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Thrombosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Hemostasis
5.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1230, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251721

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las plaquetas tienen una función clave en la hemostasia primaria a través de cuatro mecanismos fundamentales: adhesión, agregación, secreción y actividad procoagulante, todos controlados genéticamente por más de 50 genes asociados que han sido identificados. Las manifestaciones clínicas en las alteraciones hereditarias de las plaquetas suelen ser variables; aunque estas alteraciones de la coagulación suelen presentarse con una trombocitopenia notoria, también pueden exhibir trombocitopatías, en las cuales la capacidad hemostática de las plaquetas resulta afectada sin variar su número. Por tanto, existen gran variedad de manifestaciones fenotípicas y mutaciones en relación con la función plaquetaria, algunas de las cuales se explicarán más adelante. Objetivo: Realizar revisión práctica sobre mutaciones plaquetarias hereditarias de baja incidencia y destacar la importancia de su conocimiento, correcto diagnóstico, y tratamiento precoz. Métodos: Se realizó revisión literaria en inglés y españolen MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs y ScienceDirect desde mayo 2019 hasta abril 2020, con el uso de combinación de palabras clave y términos MeSH relacionados con trombastenia, genética médica, hemostasis, agregación plaquetaria, trombopoyesis. Se efectuó análisis y resumen de la bibliografía revisada. Conclusión: Entre las alteraciones hereditarias de las plaquetas se pueden encontrar defectos en todos los mecanismos en que participan; sin embargo, la confirmación diagnóstica sigue siendo complicada por el tiempo y el costo que representa lo que ocasiona diagnósticos inadecuados que impactan en el manejo clínico y la evolución(AU)


Introduction: Platelets have a key role in primary hemostasis through four main mechanisms: adhesion, aggregation, secretion and procoagulant activity, all of these controlled by over 50 associated genes that have been identified. Clinical signs of hereditary platelets alterations are usually variable; even though these disorders of hemostasis generally course with a notorious thrombocytopenia, they also might have thrombocytopathies, in which the hemostatic capacity of platelets is affected without altering its number. According to this, there's a great variety of phenotypic manifestations and mutations that affect platelet function, some of these will be explained later on. Objective: To make a practical review of hereditary platelets mutations that have low incidence in population and to highlight the importance of knowing about them, how to diagnose them and early treatment. Methods: A review of literature in both Spanish and English, was done based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs and ScienceDirect, during May 2019 and April 2020 using key words and MeSH terms such as thrombasthenia, medical genetics, hemostasis, platelets aggregation, thromopoiesis. Then, an analysis and summary of the reviewed bibliography was carried out. Conclusion: Among the hereditary alterations of platelets, many defects can be found in every mechanism involved; however, diagnostic confirmation is still complicated due to time and cost, causing inaccurate diagnoses that impact on clinic management and evolution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelet Disorders/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation/immunology , Early Diagnosis , Genetics, Medical , Hemostasis/genetics , Blood Platelet Disorders/prevention & control
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 335-342, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248935

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify, by means of thromboelastometry assessment, altered thrombotic risk in dogs with primary and secondary IMHA by E. canis infection after initiating the immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil. The animals' screening was based on complete blood count (CBC), biochemical and urine tests. Dogs with moderate to severe anemia (hematocrit ≤ 25%) which showed symptoms of immune-mediated hemolysis, such as spherocytosis, positive saline agglutination, bilirubinuria and/or hemoglobinuria, were included. Blood and urine samples were collected at two different moments. The first sample (M1) was collected at the time of diagnosis, when hematocrit was lower or equal to 25% before treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (Accord ®); the second sample (M2) was collected after treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, when hematocrit was greater or equal to 30%. Five out of the twelve animals selected died before the end of the study. No reduction in thrombotic risk was observed in the animals treated with mycophenolate mofetil. The animals that presented hypocoagulation at the time of diagnosis showed the worst prognosis, and their reticulocyte count displayed a better prognostic value than their erythrocytes count at the time of diagnosis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi esclarecer se há alteração do risco trombótico em cães com anemia hemolítica imunomediada primária e secundária a E.canis, avaliado por meio da tromboelastometria, após início de tratamento com micofenolato de mofetila. A seleção dos animais foi baseada na avaliação de hemograma, exame bioquímico e urinálise. Cães com anemia moderada a severa (hematócrito ≤ 25%), com sinais de hemólise imunomediada, como esferocitose, aglutinação em salina positivo, bilirrubinúria e/ ou hemoglobinúria, foram incluídos. As amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas em dois momentos diferentes. A primeira amostra (M1) foi coletada no momento do diagnóstico, quando o hematócrito era igual ou inferior a 25%, sem fazer uso do micofenolato de mofetila (Accord®), e o segundo momento (M2), após tratamento com micofenolato de mofetila, quando o hematócrito era igual ou maior que 30%. Doze animais foram selecionados, cinco morreram antes do término do estudo. Não houve diminuição do risco trombótico entre os animais tratados com micofenolato de mofetila; os animais que apresentaram menor coagulabilidade apresentaram pior prognóstico, e a contagem de reticulócitos apresentou melhor valor prognóstico do que a contagem de hemácias no momento do diagnóstico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anemia, Hemolytic/complications , Anemia, Hemolytic/veterinary , Mycophenolic Acid/analysis , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Thrombelastography/veterinary , Ehrlichia canis , Erythrocyte Count/veterinary , Hemostasis
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06639, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250494

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, snakes from the Bothrops genus are responsible for thousands of accidents, and their venoms are mainly composed of proteolytic enzymes. Although the antibothropic serum produced by the Brazilian Institutes is remarkably efficient, more studies are necessary, especially in veterinary medicine. The venom contain enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that interfere with hemostasis leading to hemorrhage or even thrombosis. Possible treatment associations with known bothropic antivenom were the reason for the development of the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemostasis alterations caused by Bothrops alternatus venom in rabbits followed by treatments with anti-bothropic serum, tranexamic acid and desmopressin. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were distributed into five groups (n=4) that were experimentally envenomed with 150mcg/kg of B. alternatus venom via intramuscular injection and treated as follow: Group 1 (G1) was the positive control and received venom and PBS/BSA; Group 2 (G2) was treated with tranexamic acid; Group 3 (G3) with desmopressin; Group 4 (G4) with tranexamic acid and anti-bothropic serum; and Group 5 (G5) with anti-bothropic serum and desmopressin. Blood samples were collected before venom administration, and one, four, eight and 12 hours after, for Partial activated partial thromboplastin time, Prothrombin Time, Thrombin Time and fibrinogen evaluation. Thrombin generation (TG) test was carried out with a pool of samples from final times (8 and 12h). At the end of 12h, all animals were euthanized and necropsy was conducted. Samples from muscle tissue, heart, lungs and kidney were analyzed. Classic coagulation tests showed no significant differences amongst groups and times. However, TG indicated that the venom causes a hypocoagulability state, which was not reversed by proposed treatments. Histology showed muscle inflammation, hemorrhage and necrosis, as well as hemorrhage in other tissues with no differences amongst groups. B. alternatus envenomation causes hypocoagulability detected by TG assay, but not through classical coagulation tests. The use of tranexamic acid and desmopressin for hemostasis stabilization after inoculation of the venom did not show advantage in coagulation restoration.(AU)


No Brasil, as serpentes do gênero Bothrops são responsáveis por milhares de acidentes, e seus venenos são compostos principalmente de enzimas proteolíticas. Embora o soro antiofídico produzido pelos institutos brasileiros seja notavelmente eficiente, mais estudos são necessários, especialmente na medicina veterinária. O veneno contem enzimas e proteínas não-enzimáticas que interferem com a hemostasia levando a hemorragias ou trombose. A associação de outros tratamentos ao soro antibotrópico foi a razão para o desenvolvimento do presente estudo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações da hemostasia causadas pelo veneno de Bothrops alternatus em coelhos, após tratamento com soro antibotrópico, ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina. Vinte coelhos da Nova Zelândia foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 4) que foram submetidos a experimentos com 150mcg/kg de veneno de B. alternatus por injeção intramuscular. O Grupo 1 (G1) foi o controle positivo e recebeu veneno e PBS / BSA, enquanto o Grupo 2 (G2) foi tratado com ácido tranexâmico, o Grupo 3 (G3) com desmopressina, o Grupo 4 (G4) com ácido tranexâmico e soro antibotrópico, e o Grupo 5 (G5) com soro antibotrópico e desmopressina. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da administração do veneno, e uma, quatro, oito e 12 horas após os tratamentos para realização de tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada parcial (TTPa), tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de trombina (TT) e mensuração de fibrinogênio. Para o ensaio de geração de trombina (TG) foi realizado com um pool de amostras nos tempos finais (8 e 12h). Ao final das 12h, todos os animais foram sacrificados e a necropsia foi realizada. Amostras de tecido muscular, coração, pulmões e rins foram analisadas. Os testes TTPa, TP, TT e fibrinogênio não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos e os tempos. No entanto, o TG indicou que o veneno causa um estado de hipocoagulabilidade, que não foi revertido pelos tratamentos propostos. Na histologia, foram observadas inflamação muscular, hemorragia e necrose, além de hemorragia em outros tecidos, sem diferenças entre os grupos. O envenenamento por B. alternatus causa hipocoagulabilidade detectada mais precocemente pelo teste de geração de trombina. O uso de ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina para estabilização da hemostasia após a inoculação do veneno não mostrou vantagem na restauração da coagulação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Snakes , Bothrops , Hemostasis , Hemostatic Techniques
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1685-1689, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922318

ABSTRACT

Whether in war or peace, timely, effective and accurate hemostasis is an important measure to improve the survival rate and cure rate of the wounded. All the countries in the world are actively developing different types of hemostatic materials so as to reduce the amount of bleeding in an emergency and create favorable conditions for subsequent transport and treatment. At present, the commercialized hemostatic materials are mainly divided into natural biological, synthetic biological, mineral and coagulation components, but all these materials have their own limitations. In this article, the characteristics of chitosan and its derivatives are reviewed as the representatives of the natural organic macromolecular polysaccharide hemostasis materials. Their molecular structures, biomedical properties, domestic and foreign research and application progress as well as comparison with applications of other hemostatic materials are involved. The further research is prospected for optimization and innovation to develop composite chitosan hemostatic materials with the function of hemostasis, antibiosis, pain relief and promoting wound healing.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Chitosan/pharmacology , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostatics , Humans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922258

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of self-prepared absorbable hemostatic fibrils.A kind of absorbable hemostatic fibrils were prepared by self-developed patent technique. The physical form and molecular structure of the fibrils and a marketed product Surgicel were characterized by general observation and infrared spectroscopy; the carboxyl content, pH value and relative molecular mass of fibrils were determined by potentiometric titration method, pH meter and copper ethylenediamine method, respectively. The behavior of the fibrils and Surgicel in contact with blood was observed by inverted microscope, the cytotoxicity was evaluated by agarose diffusion cell assay . The external iliac artery hemorrhage model and the back muscle infiltration model in rats were established. The hemostatic effectiveness of the fibrils was investigated by hemostasis time and blood weight, and the degradation and biosafety of fibrils were investigated by observation photography, immune organ weighing, hematology and coagulation index measuring, and histopathological examination. The fibrils and Surgicel had similar molecular structures. Compared with the raw material regenerated cellulose, the typical carboxyl stretching vibration absorption peak of -COOH appeared near in both fibrils and Surgicel. The carboxyl content of the two materials was about 20%, and the pH value was about 3. The relative molecular mass of the fibers after oxidation was 4466±79, which was close to that of Surgicel(>0.05). After contacting with blood, the volume of fibrils and Surgicel expanded, and absorbed blood of dozens of times as their own weight. The results of agar diffusion test showed that the fibrils had no cytotoxicity. The results of animal experiments showed that the hemostasis completed within and there was no significant difference in blood weight and speed of hemostasis between two products (both >0.05). The fibrils could be degraded 1 week after being implanted to the bleeding sites of the muscle. There were no pathological effects on the appearance, body weight, food intake, immunological tissue thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, hematology and coagulation indexes of the rats, and no obvious abnormality found in the histopathological examination. The prepared absorbable hemostatic fibrils have excellent biological safety and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellulose/pharmacology , Hemostasis , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Rats , Spleen
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1963-1966, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922232

ABSTRACT

Platelets are key participants in many pathophysiological processes, play a broad role in tissue regeneration and repair, and interact closely with tumor cells. Platelets have active and passive migration in the human body, and they play different biological meanings, including antimicrobial host defense, inflammation, autoimmune response, tumor growth and metastasis, etc. Therefore, in-depth understanding of the structure and function of platelets, and targeted platelets as biomarkers have become particularly important in the field of modern medical research and treatment. This review provides an overview of platelet physiology, focusing on the biological characteristics of platelet polarity movement and its significance in diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879675

ABSTRACT

Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and patients taking anticoagulant drugs) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or in intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Networks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , Sepsis/therapy , Time Factors , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 763-768, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The haemostatic efficacy of different extract types of Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) and Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) was evaluated in this study via the Prothrombin time (PT) and Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) analysis. Aqueous, methanol and ethanol extracts of the examined plant species leaves were prepared to a final concentration 50 mg/mL. In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. The obtained results revealed anticoagulation activity of all investigated plant species with observed variations among them. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. spicata as well as the aqueous extract of S. thymbra prolonged PT values significantly (p < 0.05). While, all V. fruticulosum extract types have had no significant effect on the PT values. The recorded aPTT data showed that all aqueous extracts have had a significant effect on the blood haemostasis as they increased aPTT values in all plant species under study. Out of which, both the ethanol and methanol extracts of T. spicata and methanol extract of S. thymbra showed similar effect. Of great concern, it was clearly noticed that the aqueous and ethanol extract of T. spicata and the aqueous extract of S. thymbra possess the strongest anticoagulation effect as they increased both PT and aPTT values significantly relative to the control (p < 0.05). The variable anticoagulation bioactivity among the studied plant species could be referred to the various solvents degrees of solubility of different phyto-constituents. Thus, the efficacy of the plant species extracts evaluation as anticoagulants or coagulants were related to the plant species and to the solvent of extraction.


Resumo A eficácia hemostática de diferentes tipos de extrato de Satureja thymbra L., Thymbra spicata L. (Lamiaceae) e Verbascum fruticulosum Post. (Scrophulariaceae) foi avaliada neste estudo pelo tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa). Os extratos aquosos, metanólicos e etanólicos das folhas das espécies de plantas examinadas foram preparados para uma concentração final de 50 mg/mL. Os ensaios de TP e TTPa in vitro foram realizados em amostras normais de sangue, pobre em plaquetas, por um analisador de coagulação digital. Os resultados obtidos revelaram atividade anticoagulante de todas as espécies de plantas investigadas, com variações observadas dentre elas. Os extratos aquosos e etanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra prolongaram significativamente os valores de TP (p <0,05). Entretanto, todos os tipos de extratos de V. fruticulosum não tiveram efeito significativo sobre os valores de TP. Os dados registrados do TTPa mostraram que todos os extratos aquosos tiveram um efeito significativo na hemostase do sangue, pois aumentaram os valores de TTPa em todas as espécies de plantas em estudo. Dos quais, ambos os extratos etanólicos e metanólicos de T. spicata e o extrato metanólico de S. thymbra mostraram efeito semelhante. De grande preocupação, notou-se claramente que os extratos aquoso e etanólico de T. spicata e o extrato aquoso de S. thymbra apresentam efeito anticoagulante mais forte, aumentando os valores de TP e TTPa significativamente em relação ao controle (p <0,05). A variável bioatividade anticoagulante dentre as espécies vegetais estudadas pôde ser referida aos vários graus de solventes de solubilidade de diferentes fitoconstituintes. Assim, a eficácia da avaliação de extratos de espécies vegetais como anticoagulantes ou coagulantes foi relacionada às espécies vegetais e ao solvente de extração.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Hemostatics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ethanol , Methanol , Hemostasis
13.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 43(2): 137-142, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249994

ABSTRACT

Para evaluar la hemostasia preoperatoriamente una historia clínica y examen físico dirigidos están indicados, siendo el uso de pruebas de coagulación recomendados solo cuando existe alguna indicación, y no de rutina; OBJETIVO: el presente estudio pretende conocer la utilidad del TP y APTT en la valoración preoperatorio de coagulopatías en cirugías programadas menores y ambulatorias. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional en un hospital quirúrgico terciario; seleccionamos pacientes sometidos a procedimientos menores y ambulatorio, excluyendo aquellos con comorbilidades, riesgo quirúrgico de sangrado alto o con medicación que interfiera con la coagulación. RESULTADOS: se reclutaron 69 pacientes, se aplicó la historia clínica y el examen físico dirigido identificando 1 paciente sospechoso de trastorno de coagulación (posteriormente descartado); Se realizaron 218 exámenes complementarios: 69 rutinarios (TP, APTT, hemograma) y 149 no rutinarios (Indicados de forma arbitraria), obteniendo valores medios en rangos normales y no pudiendo identificar o descartar trastornos de coagulación con ellos, pero observando un 21% (15 casos) resultados anormales, lo que adicionalmente ocasiono conductas para confirmar o corregir estos valores, que van desde repetir la prueba a transfundir hemoderivados; generando un costo promedio global de 102 Bs. por paciente, sin un beneficio o cambio en la conducta clínica o quirúrgica, CONCLUSIÓN: el estudio estableció que las pruebas rutinarias de screening preoperatorio tienen poca utilidad y son poco costo-beneficiosas en la valoración de la hemostasia para procedimientos menores o ambulatorios, en comparación de una historia clínica y examen físico dirigido; siendo apropiada su indicación cuando existan hallazgos anormales en el examen físico e historia clínica o en base a enfermedades concomitantes.


To evaluate hemostasis preoperatively, a directed clinical history and physical examination are indicated, and the use of routine coagulation being recommended when there is some indication, and not routine; OBJECTIVE: the present study aims to know the usefulness of PT and APTT in the preoperative assessment of coagulopathies in scheduled minor and outpatient surgeries. METHODS: a prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary surgical hospital; We select patients undergoing minor and outpatient procedures, excluding those with comorbidities, surgical risk of high bleeding, or with medication that interferes with coagulation. RESULTS: 69 patients were recruited, the clinical history and the directed physical examination were applied, identifying 1 patient suspected of coagulation disorder (later discarded); 218 complementary tests were performed: 69 routine (PT, APTT, blood count) and 149 non-routine (arbitrarily indicated), obtaining mean values in normal ranges and not being able to identify or rule out coagulation disorders with them, but observing 21% ( 15 cases) abnormal results (false positives), which additionally led to behaviors to confirm or correct these values, ranging from repeating the test to transfusing blood products; generating a global average cost of 102 Bs. per patient, without a benefit or change in clinical or surgical behavior. CONCLUSION: the study established that routine preoperative screening tests have little utility and are little cost-beneficial in the assessment of the hemostasis for minor or outpatient procedures, compared to a history and directed physical examination; its indication being appropriate when there are abnormal findings in the physical examination and clinical history or based on concomitant diseases.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Physical Examination , Prothrombin Time , Surgical Clearance , Hemostasis
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 113-120, Feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098439

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have paradoxical hemostatic potential because they have bleeding episodes but are also prone to thrombosis. Few studies have evaluated blood viscoelastic properties in dogs with kidney disease; on the other hand, hypercoagulability has been observed in these patients. It is also emphasized that the platelet function and its participation in this process have not yet been fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the Thrombin Generation Test (TGT) and also viscoelastic properties of the blood measured by thromboelastometry (TEM) in dogs with proteinuria in CKD. Twenty healthy dogs (Control Group) and 19 dogs with CKD in stage III or IV, classified according to International Renal Interest Society - IRIS, were selected, and the reference test of urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR) should be greater than one (CKD group). Blood samples for TEM, thrombin generation, Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), and fibrinogen concentration was collected at a single time for both groups after inclusion criteria being confirmed. Statistical analysis was performed according to the distribution of variables at 5% significance level. Differences were observed between healthy dogs and those with proteinuria in CKD noted in TEM. The TGT was unable to differentiate between sick and healthy groups. However, when the nephropathy was stratified, increases in TTP and peak thrombin concentration by TGT were observed in females and dogs over 30 days of diagnosis of CKD. Both tests signaled a discrete state of hypercoagulability. In fact, TEM is more sensitive to detect hypercoagulability in dogs with CKD. However, the TGT has potential clinical application by allowing long-term sample storage.(AU)


Os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) apresentam um potencial hemostático paradoxal, pois apresentam episódios de sangramento, mas também são propensos à trombose. Poucos estudos avaliaram as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas em cães com doenças renais, entretanto, a hipercoagulabilidade já foi observada nestes pacientes. Ressalta-se ainda que a função plaquetária e sua participação neste processo ainda não foram totalmente esclarecidas. O objetivo foi avaliar e comparar o teste de geração de trombina (TGT) e as propriedades viscoelásticas sanguíneas medidas pela tromboelastometria (TEM) em cães com DRC proteinúrica. Foram selecionados 20 cães saudáveis (grupo controle) e 19 cães com DRC em estágios III ou IV classificados segundo o IRIS e a relação proteína/creatinina urinária maior que um (grupo DRC). As amostras de sangue para a realização da tromboelastometria (TEM), geração de trombina, tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA) e concentração de fibrinogênio foram colhidas em momento único para ambos os grupos após os critérios de inclusão confirmados. A análise estatística foi realizada de acordo com a distribuição das variáveis, ao nível de 5% de significância. Foi observada diferença entre os cães saudáveis e os com DRC proteinúrica observados na TEM. O teste de geração de trombina não foi capaz de diferenciar os grupos doente e saudável. Entretanto, quando os nefropatas foram analisados de forma estratificada, foram observados aumentos do ETP e da concentração máxima de trombina (peak) pelo TGT em fêmeas e em cães com mais de 30 dias de diagnóstico da DRC. Ambos os testes sinalizando para um discreto estado de hipercoagulabiliade. A tromboelastometria é mais sensível para detectar a hipercoagulabilidade em cães com DRC. Entretanto, o teste de geração de trombina tem melhor aplicabilidade por permitir o armazenamento da amostra em longo prazo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombin , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/veterinary , Hemostasis , Proteinuria/veterinary , Thrombelastography/veterinary
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The need for proper wound closure is of paramount importance after any intra-oral surgery. Various wound closure techniques have been described in literature using traditional non-absorbable suture materials. These include like synthetic absorbable sutures, surgical staples and tissue adhesives. Cyanoacrylates are among the most commonly used biocompatible tissue adhesives. To evaluate and compare intraoral wound healing using 3-0 silk sutures and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate after alveoloplasty.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients requiring bilateral alveoloplasty in the same arch (upper or lower) were included in this study. Patients with any pre-existing pathology or systemic disease were excluded. After alveoloplasty was performed, the wound was closed using 3-0 braided silk sutures on one side, and using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate bio adhesive on the other side. Patients were evaluated based on the following parameters: time required to achieve wound closure; the incidence of immediate and postoperative hemostasis; the time to the use of the first rescue medication; the side where pain first arises; and the side where wound healing begins first.RESULTS: Compared to 3-0 silk sutures, cyanoacrylate demonstrated better hemostatic properties, reduced operative time, reduced postoperative pain and better wound healing.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that cyanoacrylate glue is an adequate alternative to conventional sutures to close the surgical wound after alveoloplasty, and better than are 3-0 silk sutures.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Alveoloplasty , Cyanoacrylates , Enbucrilate , Hemostasis , Humans , Incidence , Operative Time , Pain, Postoperative , Pathology , Silk , Sutures , Tissue Adhesives , Wound Closure Techniques , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826351

ABSTRACT

Platelets are non-nuclear blood cells that are widely involved in physiological and pathological processes.Their main role is to participate in hemostasis and thrombosis.Toll-like receptors(TLRs)are innate immune receptors.Platelets express multiple TLRs and can promote thrombosis by recognizing ligand-induced platelet activation and aggregation.This article reviews the relationship between platelets/TLR and thrombosis and the roles of TLRs in the development of thrombotic diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Hemostasis , Humans , Platelet Activation , Thrombosis , Toll-Like Receptors
19.
Iatreia ; 32(3): 177-183, Jul-Set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039997

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los errores del proceso de análisis de las muestras del laboratorio clínico, impactan negativamente a la práctica médica, la seguridad del paciente e incrementan los costos de atención en la salud. El uso de estaciones automatizadas demostró una disminución de los errores en los laboratorios clínicos de inmunoquímica y hematología. Se propone comparar las primeras estaciones automatizadas de hemostasia con el método manual para determinar los interferentes en las muestras de cinco servicios del hospital durante tres meses. Métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo prospectivo de corte trasversal. Las muestras que ingresaron al laboratorio clínico fueron analizadas por la estación automatizada y el método manual. Las interferentes bilirrubinas, hemoglobina, lipemia, volumen de llenado del tubo y obstrucción fluídica-coágulo se estudiaron con ambos métodos. Se realizó el análisis estadístico y se calculó el índice kappa para determinar la fuerza de la concordancia entre los métodos. Resultados: de 8.970 muestras analizadas, 29 % provinieron del servicio de urgencias. Las muestras aportadas por la unidad de cuidado intensivo reportaron más interferentes con ambos métodos; la estación automatizada reportó más interferentes que el método manual, con un índice kappa 0,52; la bilirrubina fue el interferente más detectado por ambos métodos. El método manual no evidenció el interferente volumen de llenado del tubo ni obstrucción fluídica-coágulo, los cuales fueron detectados por la estación automatizada. Conclusiones: la estación automatizada detectó más interferentes en comparación con el método manual. Los interferentes son errores preanalíticos en el laboratorio de hemostasia y son detectados con poca frecuencia de forma visual, especialmente los interferentes volúmenes de llenado del tubo y obstrucción fluídica-coágulo.


SUMMARY Introduction: Errors in the process of analyzing a clinical laboratory sample have a negative impact on medical practice, patient safety and health care cost. The use of automated units demonstrated the reduction of errors in the clinical laboratories of immunochemistry and hematology. The purpose of the study is to compare the first automated unit with a manual method and to determine the interferences informed in the samples provided by five services studied in the hospital for three months. Methods: A prospective descriptive study was developed. The automated unit and manual method analyzed all analytical requested samples received by the clinical laboratory. Interferences such as bilirubin, hemoglobin, lipemic, tube filling volume, and fluidclot obstruction were studied with both methods. The statistical analysis was performed and the kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the strength of agreement between both methods. Results: Of the 8.970 samples analyzed, 29 % came from the emergency service. The samples contributed by the intensive united care reported more interferences with both methods. The automated unit reported more interference than the manual method, with a kappa coefficient of 0,52. Bilirubin was the most commonly detected interference by both methods. The manual method did not show the interferences volume of tube filling or fluidic obstruction-clot, which have been detected by the automated unit. Conclusions: Automated unit detected more interference in comparison with the manual method. The interferences are preanalytical errors in the hemostasis laboratory and are less frequently detected by visual examination, especially interferences volume of tube filling or fluidic obstruction-clot.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemostasis , Statistical Analysis
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(8): 469-476, sept 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1023268

ABSTRACT

In rats with experimentally formed arterial hypertension, lipid perxidation in the plasma, amplification of blood chotting mechanisms with a decrease in anticoagulation and fibrinolysis was noted. Regular forced jogging provided the experimental rats with a positive dynamic of all the indicators considered. Thus, with increased muscular activity, the level of acyl hydro-peroxides of plasma decreased in rats with arterial hypertension formed due to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity. In addition, with the increase in muscle activity in experimental rats, normalization of clotting factor activity, indices of general coagulation tests, antithrobin III activity and protein C was achieved. This was accompanied by a normalization of the level of plasminogen, a2-antiplasmin and spontaneous euglobulin lysis time. In rats with formed arterial hipertension with stgandard physical activity, the initial violations of the measured parameters were completely preserved (AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Blood Coagulation , Animal Experimentation , Hemostasis , Homeostasis/physiology , Hypertension , Motor Activity
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