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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878724

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze clinical characteristics and short-term efficacy of endoscopic hemostasis in acute duodenal hemorrhage. Methods A retrospective study was conducted for the patients who received endoscopy in the PUMC Hospital due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding and were confirmed to be on account of duodenal lesions for bleeding from January 2011 to December 2018.Clinical information of patients was collected,including demographics,comorbidities,and medication use.Endoscopic information included the origin of bleeding,the number and location of lesions,Forrest classes and size of ulcers,and endoscopic therapeutic methods.Factors that could be relative to the failure of endoscopic hemostasis or short-term recurrence of hemorrhage in these patients were analyzed. Results Among all the patients with duodenal hemorrhage,79.7%(102/128)were due to ulcers,14.1%(18/128)to tumors,3.9%(5/128)to vascular malformation,and 2.3%(3/128)to diverticulum.Fifty-three(41.4%)patients received endoscopic hemostasis,and six patients(4.7%)received surgery or interventional embolization after the endoscopic test.Among the patients receiving endoscopic hemostasis,5.7%(3/53),66.0%(35/53),and 28.3%(15/53)received injection therapy,mechanical therapy,and dual endoscopic therapy,respectively,and 94.3% of them were cured.However,10(18.9%)of them experienced recurrence of hemorrhage and 3 patients died during hospitalization.Only one patient suffered from perforation after the second endoscopic treatment.Lesions located on the posterior wall of bulb appeared to be a risk factor for the failure of endoscopic hemostasis(OR=31.333,95% CI=2.172-452.072,P=0.021).The lesion diameter≥1 cm was a risk factor of rebleeding after endoscopic therapy(OR=7.000,95% CI=1.381-35.478,P=0.023).Conclusions Peptic ulcers were always blamed and diverticulum could also be a common reason for duodenal hemorrhage,which was different from the etiological constitution of acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.Lesions locating on the posterior wall of the duodenum had a higher potential to fail the endoscopic hemostasis.The lesion diameter≥1 cm was a predictive factor for short-term recurrence.Forrest classes of ulcers at duodenum did not significantly affect the endoscopic therapeutic efficacy or prognosis.


Subject(s)
Duodenal Ulcer/therapy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(4): 356-363, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092962

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los pacientes hospitalizados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) tienen riesgo de hemorragia digestiva alta (HVDA). La endoscopia digestiva alta (EVDA) es el examen de elección en esos pacientes y es diagnóstica y terapéutica. Muchas lesiones identificadas endoscópicamente no requieren tratamiento endoscópico. En Colombia no hay estudios sobre la prevalencia de las diferentes lesiones sangrantes digestivas altas en pacientes de la UCI, ni sobre la utilización de EVDA terapéutica en esos pacientes. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal realizado en la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, Colombia, entre enero del 2003 a febrero del 2017. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos de la unidad de cuidado intensivo con EVDA indicada por HVDA. Resultados: en el análisis final se incluyeron 156 EVDA. Los hallazgos fueron los siguientes: gastritis crónica 76,62% (118), esofagitis erosiva (grado A-grado D) 57,79% (89), gastritis erosiva 47,4% (73), duodenitis erosiva 21,43% (33), úlcera gástrica 18,18% (28), varices esofágicas 11,69% (18), úlcera duodenal 11,04% (17) y desgarro de Mallory-Weiss 4,55% (8). Solo el 15% de los pacientes requirió manejo endoscópico, incluidos los que tenían várices esofágicas. Conclusión: en el presente estudio, el 15% de los pacientes con HVDA requirió tratamiento endoscópico. Se deben realizar trabajos prospectivos que permitan establecer factores de riesgo que puedan predecir la necesidad de EVDA terapéutica en pacientes con HVDA. Quien no tenga esos predictores se debe tratar empíricamente con IBP y evitar gastos innecesarios en EVDA diagnósticas.


Abstract Introduction: Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is the test of choice for these patients. EGD is diagnostic and therapeutic. Many endoscopically identified lesions do not require endoscopic treatment. In Colombia there are no studies on the prevalence of different upper gastrointestinal bleeding lesions in ICU patients, nor on the use of therapeutic EGD in these patients. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá Colombia between January 2003 and February 2017. Adult ICU patients who underwent EGD due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included. Results: In the final analysis, 156 patients who underwent EGD were included. Of these, 76.62% (118) had chronic gastritis, 57.79% (89) had erosive esophagitis grades A to D, 47.4% (73) had erosive gastritis, 21.43% (33) had erosive duodenitis, 18.18% (28) had gastric ulcer, 11.69% (18) had esophageal varices, 11.04% (17) had duodenal ulcers, and 4.55% (8) Mallory Weiss tears. Only 15% of patients, including those with esophageal varices, required endoscopic management. Conclusions: In this study, 15% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding required endoscopic treatment. Prospective work should be done to establish risk factors to predict the need for therapeutic EGD in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients do not have these predictors should be treated empirically with PPI to avoid unnecessary expenses of diagnostic EGDs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Critical Care , Hemorrhage , Intensive Care Units , Patients , Gastrointestinal Tract , Endoscopy , Methods
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 99-105, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: One of the most feared complications with the use of cyanoacrylate for treatment of gastric varices is the occurrence of potentially life-threatening systemic embolism. Thus, endoscopists are turning towards new techniques, including endoscopic coiling, as a potentially safer and more effective treatment option. However, no studies have been performed comparing the two techniques. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound guided coil and cyanoacrylate injection versus the conventional technique of injection of cyanoacrylate alone. DESIGN: A pilot randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients randomized into group I were treated with coil and cyanoacrylate, and those in group II with cyanoacrylate alone. Flow within the varix was evaluated immediately after the treatment session and one month following initial treatment. If thrombosis was confirmed, additional follow-up was performed 4 and 10 months following initial treatment. All patients underwent a thoracic computerized tomography scan after the procedure. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients, 16 in each group, were followed for an average of 9.9 months (range 1-26 months). Immediately after the procedure, 6 (37.5%) group-I patients and 8 (50%) group-II patients presented total flow reduction in the treated vessel (P=0.476). After 30 days, 11 (73.3%) group-I patients and 12 (75%) group-II patients were found to have varix thrombosis. In both groups, the majority of patients required only one single session for varix obliteration (73.3% in group I versus 80% in group II). Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 4 (25%) group-I patients and 8 (50%) group-II patients (P=0.144). No significant difference between the groups was observed. CONCLUSION: There is no statistical difference between endoscopic ultrasound guided coils plus cyanoacrylate versus conventional cyanoacrylate technique in relation to the incidence of embolism. However, a greater tendency towards embolism was observed in the group treated using the conventional technique. Both techniques have similar efficacy in the obliteration of varices. Given the small sample size of our pilot data, our results are insufficient to prove the clinical benefit of the combined technique, and do not yet justify its use, especially in light of higher cost. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Uma das complicações mais temidas com o uso de cianoacrilato para tratamento de varizes gástricas é a ocorrência de embolia sistêmica potencialmente fatal. Assim, os endoscopistas estão se aprimorando com novas técnicas, incluindo o uso de coils endoscópico, como uma opção de tratamento potencialmente mais segura e eficaz. No entanto, nenhum estudo foi realizado comparando as duas técnicas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar a segurança e eficácia da injeção de coil com cianoacrilato guiados por ultrassom endoscópico versus a técnica convencional de injeção de cianoacrilato. DESIGN: Um ensaio piloto controlado aleatoriamente. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes randomizados para o grupo I foram tratados com coil + cianoacrilato e os do grupo II apenas com cianoacrilato. O fluxo dentro da variz foi avaliado imediatamente após a sessão de tratamento e um mês após o tratamento inicial. Se a trombose foi confirmada, o acompanhamento adicional era realizado em 4 e 10 meses após o tratamento inicial. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma tomografia computadorizada torácica após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 pacientes, 16 em cada grupo, foram acompanhados por uma média de 9,9 meses (variação de 1-26 meses). Imediatamente após o procedimento, 6 (37,5%) pacientes do grupo I e 8 (50%) pacientes do grupo II apresentaram redução total do fluxo no vaso tratado (P=0,476). Após 30 dias, 11 (73,3%) pacientes do grupo I e 12 (75%) pacientes do grupo II apresentaram trombose da variz. Em ambos os grupos, a maioria dos pacientes necessitou de apenas uma única sessão para obliteração da variz (73,3% no grupo I versus 80% no grupo II). Embolia pulmonar assintomática ocorreu em 4 (25%) pacientes do grupo I e em 8 (50%) pacientes no grupo II (P=0,144). Nenhuma diferença significativa entre os grupos foi observada. CONCLUSÃO Apesar de não haver diferença estatística entre os dois grupos em relação à incidência de embolia neste estudo piloto, observou-se maior tendência de embolia no grupo tratado pela técnica convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Cyanoacrylates/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional/methods , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Hemostasis, Endoscopic/methods , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Endosonography/methods , Middle Aged
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 51-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001333

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common esophageal disease in medical practice, and it is suspected according to patients' symptoms. GERD can be classified in erosive esophagitis (EE) according to the presence of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endoscopic findings in patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD comparing epicemiological and risk factors. METHODS: Upper endoscopy reports were examined retrospectively from patients with symptoms of GERD such as heartburn, regurgitation, cough, throat clearing, globus and chest pain. EE was determined based on Los Angeles classification. Comparisons between risk factors in EE and non-EE groups were done with statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 984 endoscopic reports were examined and 676 selected for analysis (281 with EE and 395 with non-EE form). Most were female 381 (56.36%) with a mean age of 44.01±15.40 years. Hiatal hernia was present in 47(6.96%) and smoking in 41(6.07%). Univariate logistic regression showed that male (OR=2.24, CI 95%, 1.63-3.06) and hiatal hernia (OR=4.52, CI 95%, 2.30-8.89) were independent predictors of erosions in the EE group. The presence of hiatal hernia (OR=12.04, CI 95%, 3.57-40.62), smoking (OR=8.46, CI 95%, 3.28-31.32) and aged patients (OR=8.01, CI 95%, 2.42-26.49) were also indicated as a risk factor for severe EE (grades C and D of Los Angeles). CONCLUSION Male gender and hiatal hernia were associated with EE. Aged patients, smoking and hiatal hernia were related to severe EE. It is suggested that the risk factors for EE and non-EE types are different. Cohort studies are necessary to identify the exact mechanisms involved in each disease form.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das doenças digestivas mais comuns na prática médica e deve ser suspeitada de acordo com os seus sintomas clínicos, podendo ser classificada em esofagite erosiva (EE) de acordo com os achados de endoscopia. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados endoscópicos em pacientes com sintomas sugestivos de DGRE comparando fatores de risco e epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Resultados de endoscopias digestiva foram examinados retrospectivamente de pacientes com sintomas relacionados com DRGE como pirose, regurgitação, tosse, pigarro, globus e dor torácica. EE foi determinada de acordo com a classificação de Los Angeles. Comparação de fatores de risco entre os grupos EE e não-EE foram feitos com análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Um total de 984 endoscopias foram examinadas e 676 endoscopias selecionadas para análise (281 com EE e 395 sem EE). A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino 381 (56,36%) com uma idade média de 44,01±15,40 anos. Hérnia hiatal esteve presente em 47 (6,96%) e tabagismo em 41 (6,07%). Regressão logística uni variada mostrou que sexo masculino (OR=2,24 - IC 95%: 1,63-3,06) e hérnia hiatal (OR=4,52 - CI 95%: 2,30-8,89) foram fatores de risco independentes de EE. A presença de hérnia hiatal (OR=12,04 - CI 95%: 3,57-40,62), tabagismo (OR=8,46 - CI 95%: 3,28-31,32) e pacientes idosos (OR=8,01 - CI 95%, 2,42-26,49) foram fatores de risco no grupo de EE grave (classes C e D de Los Angeles). CONCLUSÃO: Sexo masculino e hérnia hiatal foram associados com EE. Idade avançada, tabagismo e hérnia hiatal foram relacionados à forma grave de EE. É sugerido que os fatores de risco de pacientes com e sem EE sejam diferentes. Estudos de coorte são necessários para identificar os mecanismos exatos envolvidos em cada forma da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Cyanoacrylates/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional/methods , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Hemostasis, Endoscopic/methods , Ethiodized Oil/administration & dosage , Endosonography/methods , Middle Aged
5.
Gut and Liver ; : 415-420, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We used 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology to create a new hemostasis simulator for the stomach and investigated its efficacy and realism in endoscopic hemostasis training. METHODS: A new stomach hemostasis simulator, with two hemostasis modules for hemoclipping and injection, was constructed using a 3D printer. Twenty-one endoscopists, including 11 first-year fellows (beginner group) and 10 faculty members (expert group), tested the performance of the simulator. We recorded and reviewed five training sessions and evaluated the simulator with questionnaires using a 7-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The mean evaluation score of the expert group was 6.3±0.5 for the hemoclipping module and 6.0±0.6 for the injection module. The expert group strongly agreed that endoscopic handling in the simulator was realistic and reasonable for hemostasis training. The mean procedure time for hemoclipping was 72.7±7.1 seconds for the beginner group and 19.7±1.2 seconds for the expert group. The mean procedure time for injection was 92.1±9.8 seconds for the beginner group and 36.3±2 seconds for the expert group. The procedure time of beginner group became shorter with repetition and was significantly lower by the fifth trial. CONCLUSIONS: A new 3D-printed hemostasis simulator is capable of hemostasis training and can very effectively train beginners before they perform the procedure in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.


Subject(s)
Education , Endoscopy , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Stomach
6.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 401-406, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763482

ABSTRACT

Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refers to blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz due to lesions that are non-variceal in origin. The distinction of the bleeding source as non-variceal is important in numerous aspects, but none more so than endoscopic approaches for successful hemostasis. When a patient presents with acute overt blood loss, NVUGIB is a medical emergency, which requires immediate intervention. There have been major strides in pharmacologic and endoscopic interventions for successful induction and remission of hemostasis in the last two decades. Despite achieving tangible improvements, the burden of the disease and the consequent mortality remain high. To address endoscopic outcomes better, several new technologies have emerged and have been subsequently incorporated to the armamentarium of hemostatic tools. This study aims to provide a succinct review on novel technologies for endoscopic hemostasis.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Ligaments , Mortality , Peptic Ulcer
7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 416-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763480

ABSTRACT

Bleeding peptic ulcers remained as one of the commonest causes of hospitalization worldwide. While endoscopic hemostasis serves as primary treatment for bleeding ulcers, rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis becomes more and more difficult to manage as patients are usually poor surgical candidates with multiple comorbidities. Recent advances in management of bleeding peptic ulcers aimed to further reduce the rate of rebleeding through—(1) identification of high risk patients for rebleeding and mortality; (2) improvement in primary endoscopic hemostasis and; (3) prophylactic angiographic embolization of major arteries. The technique and clinical evidences for these approaches will be reviewed in the current article.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Comorbidity , Endoscopy , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hospitalization , Humans , Mortality , Peptic Ulcer , Ulcer
8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 419-425, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763479

ABSTRACT

Diverticular bleeding accounts for approximately 26%–40% of the cases of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Rupture of the vasa recta at the neck or dome of the diverticula can be the cause of this bleeding. Colonoscopy aids in not only the diagnosis but also the treatment of diverticular bleeding after a steady bowel preparation. Endoscopic hemostasis involves several methods, such as injection/thermal contact therapy, clipping, endoscopic band ligation (EBL), hemostatic powder, and over-the-scope clips. Each endoscopic method can provide a secure initial hemostasis. With regard to the clinical outcomes after an endoscopic treatment, the methods reportedly have no significant differences in the initial hemostasis and early recurring bleeding; however, EBL might prevent the need for transcatheter arterial embolization or surgery. In contrast, the long-term outcomes of the endoscopic treatments, such as a late bleeding and recurrent bleeding at 1 and 2 years, are not well known for diverticular bleeding. With regard to a cure for diverticular bleeding, there should be an improvement in both the endoscopic methods and the multilateral perspectives, such as diet, medicines, interventional approaches, and surgery.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Diet , Diverticulum , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Ligation , Methods , Neck , Rupture
9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 340-346, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using a core needle for hepatic solid masses (HSMs). Additionally, the study aimed to assess factors that influence the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB for HSMs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent EUS-FNB for the pathological diagnosis of HSMs was conducted between January 2013 and July 2017. The procedure had been performed using core needles of different calibers. The assessed variables were mass size, puncture route, needle type, and the number of needle passes. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients underwent EUS-FNB for the pathologic evaluation of HSMs with a mean mass size of 21.4±9.2 mm. EUS-FNB was performed with either a 20-G (n=14), 22-G (n=29) or a 25-G core needle (n=15). The diagnostic accuracy for this procedure was 89.7%, but both specimen adequacy for histology and available immunohistochemistry stain were 91.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS-FNB were 89.7% and 100%, respectively. There was one case involving bleeding as a complication, which was controlled with endoscopic hemostasis. According to the multivariate analysis, no variable was independently associated with a correct final diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNB with core biopsy needle is a safe and highly accurate diagnostic option for assessing HSMs. There were no variable factors associated with diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Multivariate Analysis , Needles , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 47-52, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of very early (≤12 hours) endoscopy in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is controversial. We aimed to compare results of very early and early (12–24 hours) endoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding demonstrating low-risk versus high-risk features and nonvariceal versus variceal bleeding. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with nonvariceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The primary outcome was a composite of inpatient death, rebleeding, or need for surgery or intensive care unit admission. Endoscopy timing was defined as very early and early. We performed the analysis in two subgroups: (1) high-risk vs. low-risk patients and (2) variceal vs. nonvariceal bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included, of whom 59.8% underwent urgent endoscopy. Patients who underwent very early endoscopy received endoscopic therapy more frequently (p=0.001), but there was no improvement in other clinical outcomes. Furthermore, patients at low risk and with nonvariceal bleeding who underwent very early endoscopy had a higher risk of the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Very early endoscopy does not seem to be associated with improved clinical outcomes and may lead to poorer outcomes in specific populations with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The actual benefit of very early endoscopy remains controversial and should be further clarified.


Subject(s)
Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Outcome Assessment , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719436

ABSTRACT

Intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a relatively unusual complication associated with the endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Intramural hematomas are typically resolved spontaneously with conservative treatment alone. We report a case of an intramural duodenal hematoma following endoscopic hemostasis with epinephrine injection therapy, which was associated with transient obstructive jaundice in a patient undergoing hemodialysis. The patient developed biliary sepsis due to obstruction of the common bile duct secondary to the huge hematoma. He was treated with fluoroscopy-guided drainage catheter insertion, which spontaneously resolved the biliary sepsis through conservative treatment in 6 weeks. Fluoroscopy-guided drainage may impact the treatment of intramural hematomas that involve life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cholestasis , Common Bile Duct , Drainage , Duodenal Ulcer , Duodenum , Epinephrine , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Peptic Ulcer , Renal Dialysis , Sepsis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739182

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a major cause of hospital admission and death. Endoscopic treatment is an important therapeutic modality for the treatment of GIB, and can involve injection therapy, thermal therapy, hemoclipping, and ligation therapy. In addition to hemostatic devices, new endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have been developed. The causes, therapeutic modalities, and outcomes of GIB differ according to bleeding source. This review comprehensively describes the outcomes of endoscopic treatment of GIB.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopy , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Ligation , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739181

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common disorder encountered in an emergency department or primary clinical setting. The therapeutic basis for GI bleeding is endoscopic hemostasis. To date, epinephrine injection, through-the-scope clips, monopolar or biopolar coagulation, and band ligation have been established for GI bleeding. Despite the advances in endoscopic techniques, we often experience re-bleeding associated with significant inhospital mortality in GI bleeding. New devices that complement the disadvantages of these conventional endoscopic techniques have recently been introduced. For example, over-the-scope clip, which has wider and stronger pressure than conventional mechanical devices, can ligate a wide range of surrounding mucous membranes and has been reported to be effective in severe lesions of fibrosis. In addition, hemostatic powders achieved successful hemostasis as primary or rescue therapy in several cases of GI bleeding. Successful application of these new techniques requires appropriate patient selection and understanding of the device and further research is expected in the future.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epinephrine , Fibrosis , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hospital Mortality , Ligation , Mucous Membrane , Patient Selection , Powders
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738985

ABSTRACT

Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (UGIB) is the most common GI emergency, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early identification of low-risk patients suitable for outpatient management has the potential to reduce unnecessary costs, and prompt triage of high-risk patients could allow appropriate intervention and minimize morbidity and mortality. Several risk-scoring systems have been developed to predict the outcomes of UGIB. As each scoring system measures different primary outcome variables, appropriate risk scores must be implemented in clinical practice. The Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) should be used to predict the need for interventions such as blood transfusion or endoscopic or surgical treatment. Patients with GBS ≤1 have a low likelihood of adverse outcomes and can be considered for early discharge. The Rockall score was externally validated and is widely used for prediction of mortality. The recently developed AIMS65 score is easy to calculate and was proposed to predict in-hospital mortality. The Forrest classification is based on endoscopic findings and can be used to stratify patients into high- and low-risk categories in terms of rebleeding and thus is useful in predicting the need for endoscopic hemostasis. Early risk stratification is critical in the management of UGIB and may improve patient outcome and reduce unnecessary health care costs through standardization of care.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion , Classification , Emergencies , Health Care Costs , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Mortality , Outpatients , Triage
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738983

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer bleeding is a common complication of peptic ulcer disease and the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Despite advances in drug usage and endoscopic modalities, no significant improvement is observed in the mortality rate of bleeding ulcers. The purpose of this review is to discuss various endoscopic hemostatic methods to treat peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic hemostatic techniques can be classified into injection, mechanical, electrocoagulation, hemostatic powder, and endoscopic Doppler-guided hemostatic therapies (the last mentioned being a newly developed technique). Endoscopic hemostasis can be performed as mono or combination therapy using the aforementioned methods. Endoscopic hemostasis is the most important treatment for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopists should consider the treatment approach for peptic ulcer bleeding based on patient characteristics, the size and shape of the lesion, the endoscopist's expertise, and the resources and circumstances at each hospital. Follow-up studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed hemostatic powder therapy and endoscopic Doppler-guided hemostasis.


Subject(s)
Duodenum , Electrocoagulation , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Hemostatic Techniques , Humans , Mortality , Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach , Ulcer
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713775

ABSTRACT

Anorectal variceal bleeding is a rare occurrence; however, in such event, it could be fatal due to large size and high blood flow rate of varices. However, to date, there is no standardized treatment modality. Although endoscopic treatment can be provided, in cases of recurrent anorectal variceal bleeding, other therapeutic modalities for hemostasis are necessary. Here, we present a case of 58-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis, who suffered from massive bleeding of anorectal varices. Endoscopic variceal band ligation was performed for primary hemostasis. Additionally, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with embolization was performed to reduce the risk of rebleeding. Following the procedure, she had no further bleeding episodes, and the size of anorectal varices decreased, as seen on an abdomino-pelvic computed tomography. Our case illustrates the effectiveness of combined radiological intervention of TIPS with embolization after endoscopic hemostasis, for variceal obliteration and prevention of rebleeding.


Subject(s)
Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Female , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Varicose Veins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a life-threatening complication in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of bedside endoscopy in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, and to compare the outcomes of early endoscopy (within 24 hours of detecting GI bleeding) with late endoscopy (after 24 hours). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent bedside endoscopy for nonvariceal upper GI bleeding and lower GI bleeding that occurred after ICU admission at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2010 to May 2015. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-three patients underwent bedside esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for upper GI bleeding (early, 187; late, 66) and 69 underwent bedside colonoscopy (CS) for lower GI bleeding (early, 36; late, 33). Common endoscopic findings were peptic ulcer, and acute gastric mucosal lesion in the EGD group, as well as ischemic colitis and acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcers in the CS group. Early EGD significantly increased the rate of finding the bleeding focus (82% vs. 73%, p = 0.003) and endoscopic hemostasis (32% vs. 12%, p = 0.002) compared with late EGD. However, early CS significantly decreased the rate of identifying the bleeding focus (58% vs. 82%, p = 0.008) and hemostasis (19% vs. 49%, p = 0.011) compared with late CS due to its higher rate of poor bowel preparation and blood interference (38.9% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Early EGD may be effective for diagnosis and hemostatic treatment in ICU patients with GI bleeding. However, early CS should be carefully performed after adequate bowel preparation.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ischemic , Colonoscopy , Critical Illness , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Medical Records , Peptic Ulcer , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Ulcer
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 58-63, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) is a device used for endoscopic closure of perforations, leaks and fistulas, and for endoscopic hemostasis. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of OTSC. METHODS: Between October 2013 and November 2015, 12 patients underwent OTSC placement by an experienced endoscopist. OTSC was used for the closure of gastrointestinal (GI) leaks and fistula in six patients, three of which were iatrogenic (esophageal, gastric, and duodenal) and three of which were inflammatory. In six patients, OTSC was used for hemostasis of non-variceal upper GI bleeding. Endoscopic tattooing using India ink was used to assist the accurate placement of the clip. RESULTS: All subjects except one with a colonic defect experienced immediate technical success as well as long-term clinical success, during a mean follow-up of 6 weeks. Only one clip was required to close each of the GI defects and to achieve hemostasis in all patients. There were no misfirings or complications of clips. The procedure was well tolerated, and patients were hospitalized for an average of 8 days (range, 3 to 10). Antiplatelet therapy was continued in patients with GI bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, OTSC was safe and effective for the closure of GI defect and to achieve hemostasis of non-variceal GI bleeding.


Subject(s)
Colon , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , India , Ink , Prospective Studies , Tattooing , Treatment Outcome
20.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 374-383, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179805

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bleeding is one of the most serious complications of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and is associated with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding in patients with unresectable AGC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 106 patients with bleeding associated with gastric cancer who had undergone endoscopic hemostasis between January 2010 and December 2013. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, including rates of successful endoscopic hemostasis and rebleeding, risk factors for rebleeding, and overall survival (OS) were investigated. RESULTS: Successful initial hemostasis was achieved in 83% of patients. Rebleeding occurred in 28.3% of patients within 30 days. The median OS after initial hemostasis was lower in patients with rebleeding than in those without rebleeding (2.7 and 3.9 months, respectively, P=0.02). There were no significant differences in disease status and rebleeding rates among patients with partial response or stable disease (n=4), progressive disease (n=64), and first diagnosis of disease (n=38). Univariate and multivariate analyses (P=0.038 and 0.034, respectively) revealed that transfusion of ≥5 units of RBCs was a significant risk factor for rebleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Despite favorable success rates of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding associated with gastric cancer, the 30-day rebleeding rate was 28.3% and the median OS was significantly lower in patients with rebleeding than in those without rebleeding. Massive transfusion (≥5 units of RBCs) was the only significant risk factor for rebleeding. Patients with bleeding associated with AGC who have undergone massive transfusion should be observed closely following endoscopic hemostasis. Further research on approaches to reduce rebleeding rate and prevent death is needed.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
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