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1.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1166, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341433

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Es creciente el uso de nuevos agentes hemostáticos para controlar la hemorragia en entornos militares. Objetivos: Sintetizar y analizar la evidencia disponible sobre la eficacia de diferentes agentes hemostáticos utilizados en ambientes tácticos, transportados por los combatientes del ejército. Desarrollo: Se realizó una revisión narrativa de artículos publicados en inglés y español, en las bases de datos Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, Web of Science y en revistas, protocolos, libros y manuales del ámbito de urgencias y emergencias en el campo de batalla, que analizaron el fenómeno de estudio y cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Tras la búsqueda y selección de los estudios, 7 artículos fueron incluidos en la síntesis narrativa. En los estudios se utilizaron los siguientes agentes hemostáticos QuikClot®, HemCon®, Celox® y el ChitoGauze HemCon®; en la mayoría de los estudios, los agentes hemostáticos tuvieron una eficacia superior al 88 por ciento para detener, disminuir y controlar la hemorragia externa en víctimas de combate, sobre todo en zonas de unión (articulaciones) y para reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad. Solo QuikClot® tuvo efectos secundarios negativos, al provocar quemaduras. El correcto manejo de los agentes hemostáticos requiere de formación previa, lo que evita errores de administración. Conclusiones: Los agentes hemostáticos son eficaces para el abordaje de la hemorragia externa y aumentan la supervivencia en víctimas de combate. Es necesario formar a los profesionales para evitar errores en su manejo. Futuros estudios deben indagar cuál de estos agentes es más eficaz(AU)


Introduction: The use of new hemostatic agents to control hemorrhage in military environments is growing. Objectives: To synthesize and analyze the available evidence about the effectiveness of the different hemostatic agents utilized in tactical environments that are transported by army fighters. Development: A narrative review of articles published in English and Spanish, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane and Web of Science, and magazines, protocols, books, and manuals in the field of emergency and battlefield emergencies, who analyzed the study phenomenon and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After searching and selecting the studies, 7 articles were included in the narrative synthesis. In the studies, the following hemostatic agents were used QuikClot®, HemCon®, Celox®, and ChitoGauze HemCon®, in most studies, hemostatic agents were more than 88 percent effective in stopping, reducing, and controlling external hemorrhage in combat victims, especially in union areas, also decreasing morbidity and mortality. Only QuikClot® had negative side effects causing burns. The correct handling of hemostatic agents requires prior training, which avoids administration mistakes. Conclusions: Hemostatic agents are effective for treating external hemorrhage in combat victims and increasing their survival. It is necessary to train professionals to avoid mistakes in their handling. Future studies should investigate which of these agents is more effective(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Survival , Effectiveness , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Emergencies , Advanced Trauma Life Support Care/methods , Military Personnel , Warfare , Efficacy , Survivorship
2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(1): e1342, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885756

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Obtaining effective hemostasis either in the traumatic or surgical lesions of parenchymal viscera, especially the liver, has always been a challenge. Aim: Comparative study between the use of different hemostatic sponges in hepatic wound and their capacity of integration to cells in a short period. Methods: Fifteen Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Through laparotomy a standardized wound in hepatic right lobe was made. The animals were treated with three sponges, being gelatin in group I, equine collagen in group II, and oxidized cellulose in group III. The hemostatic capacity was analysed. On the 7º day after surgery samples for histology analysis (H&E and picrosirius) were collected for inflammatory evaluation and collagen quantification (types I and III) with polarized microscopy. Results: All materials used had similar haemostatic effects, with no significant difference in hemostasis time. In the assessment of tissue repair and adhesions provoked, as well as analysis of the inflammatory process, the gelatin sponge presented greater inflammation and adhesions to the contiguous structures to the procedure in relation to the other groups. Conclusion: Animals which had their wounds treated with collagen and regenerated cellulose sponges presented better results in relationship to the ones treated with gelatin sponge.


RESUMO Racional A obtenção de hemostasia eficaz nas lesões traumáticas ou cirúrgicas de vísceras parenquimatosas, em especial do fígado, sempre foi desafiante. Objetivo: Comparar o uso de hemostáticos absorvíveis em ferimento hepático quanto à capacidade hemostática e de integração aos tecidos em curto prazo. Métodos: Foram utilizados 15 ratos Wistar separados em três grupos. Foi realizada laparotomia e ferimento padronizado em lobo hepático direito. Os animais do grupo I foram tratados com esponja de gelatina sobre os ferimentos; os do grupo II com esponja de colágeno equino, e os do grupo III com celulose regenerada oxidada. Na ocasião foi estudada a capacidade hemostática. No 7º dia de pós-operatório nova laparotomia foi realizada e foram coletadas amostras para estudos histológicos (H&E e picrosirius) avaliando os processos por microscopia ótica e de polarização para quantificação de colágeno (tipos I e III). Resultados: Todos os materiais usados apresentaram efeitos hemostáticos semelhantes, não havendo diferença significativa no tempo de hemostasia. Na avaliação da reparação tecidual e aderências provocadas, assim como análise do processo inflamatório, os tratados com esponja de gelatina apresentaram maior inflamação e aderências às estruturas contíguas ao procedimento em relação aos outros grupos. Conclusão: Os animais tratados com a esponja de colágeno e celulose regenerada apresentaram resultados melhores que aqueles com esponja de gelatina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Cellulose, Oxidized/therapeutic use , Hemostatic Techniques/instrumentation , Collagen/therapeutic use , Gelatin/therapeutic use , Liver/injuries , Wound Healing , Surgical Sponges , Rats, Wistar
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900288

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los adhesivos de cianoacrilatos (ACA) son materiales sintéticos con propiedades adhesivas. Al ser aplicados en los tejidos polimerizan uniéndose con el tejido subyacente. Desde la década de los 70' se han explorado sus aplicaciones quirúrgicas para el cierre de heridas y fístulas, control de sangrado y fijación de injertos, entre otros, siendo su uso como alternativa para el cierre de heridas en piel y mucosas uno de los más estudiados. Los ACA presentan un limitado grado de absorción, sin evidencia de efectos tóxicos sistémicos. Tienen la ventaja de ser aplicados de forma rápida, indolora, con efecto antibacteriano y hemostático según los reportes de la literatura, pero presentan una reducida fuerza de tensión. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura es describir los usos y aplicaciones de los ACA, con enfoque en la cirugía oral y maxilofacial, evaluando de forma crítica sus aplicaciones.


ABSTRACT: The cyanoacrylate adhesives (ACA) are synthetic materials with adhesive properties. When is applied in tissues, it polymerizes and bonds with the underlying tissue. Since the 70s' have been explored their surgical applications for closing wounds, fistulas, bleeding control, and graft fixation, among others. Its use as an alternative for closing wounds in skin and mucous is one of the most studied. The ACA have a limited absorption degree, with no evidence of systemic toxic effects. They have the advantage of being applied quickly, painlessly, with antibacterial effect and hemostatic according to the report of literature, but with reduced tensile strength. The objective of this literature review is to describe the use and applications of ACA, with focus on oral and maxillofacial surgery, with a critically evaluation of their applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Suture Techniques , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Cyanoacrylates/therapeutic use , Dental Cements/therapeutic use , Sutures , Cyanoacrylates/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Wound Closure Techniques , Hemostasis/drug effects
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 673-679, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the use of this sponge in pediatric patients undergoing split-liver transplantation. Methods: Retrospective study, including 35 pediatric patients undergoing split-liver transplantation, divided into two groups according to the use of the sponge: 18 patients in Group A (no sponge) and 17 in Group B (with sponge). Results: The characteristics of recipients and donors were similar. We observed greater number of reoperation due to bleeding in the wound area in Group A (10 patients - 55.5%) than in Group B (3 patients - 17.6%); p = 0.035. The median volume of red blood cells transfused in Group A was significantly higher (73.4 ± 102.38 mL/kg) than that in Group B (35.1 ± 41.67 mL/kg); p = 0.048. Regarding bile leak there was no statistical difference. Conclusion: The use of the human fibrinogen and thrombin sponge, required lower volume of red blood cell transfusion and presented lower reoperation rates due to bleeding in the wound area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Fibrinogen/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Thrombin/therapeutic use , Surgical Sponges , Liver Transplantation/methods , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Reoperation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surgical Wound/drug therapy , Hepatectomy/methods , Liver/surgery
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 195-205, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126256

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adequate hemostasis is important for postoperative outcomes of abdominal surgery. This study evaluated the hemostatic effects and accompanying histopathological changes of a novel oxidized regenerated cellulose, SurgiGuard®, during abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten pigs underwent wedge resection of the spleen (1×1 cm) and liver (1.5×1.5 cm). The resected surface was covered with Surgicel® fabric or fibril type (Group A) or SurgiGuard® fabric or fibril type (Group B). Surgicel® and SurgiGuard® were randomized for attachment to the resected surface by fabric type (n=5) or fibril type (n=5). Blood loss was measured 5, 7, and 9 min after resection. Pigs were necropsied 6 weeks postoperatively to evaluate gross and histopathological changes. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in total blood loss between groups [spleen fabric: Group A vs. Group B, 4.38 g (2.74–6.43) vs. 3.41 g (2.46–4.65), p=0.436; spleen fibril: Group A vs. Group B, 3.44 g (2.82–6.07) vs. 3.60 g (2.03–6.09), p=0.971; liver fabric: Group A vs. Group B, 4.51 g (2.67–10.61) vs. 6.93 g (3.09–9.95), p=0.796; liver fibril: Group A vs. Group B, 3.32 g (2.50–8.78) vs. 3.70 g (2.32–5.84), p=0.971]. Histopathological analysis revealed no significant difference in toxicities related to Surgicel® or SurgiGuard® [inflammation, fibrosis, foreign bodies, and hemorrhage (spleen: p=0.333, 0.127, 0.751, and 1.000; liver: p=0.155, 0.751, 1.000, and 1.000, respectively)]. CONCLUSION: SurgiGuard® is as effective and non-toxic as Surgicel® in achieving hemostasis after porcine abdominal surgery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Loss, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Cellulose, Oxidized/therapeutic use , Hemostasis, Surgical/methods , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Liver/surgery , Random Allocation , Spleen/surgery , Swine
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908148

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la cirugía de amígdalas y adenoides es la más frecuentemente realizada en otorrinolaringología. La incidencia de complicaciones es baja, siendo la hemorragia la más frecuente y seria. Se estima que la incidencia de hemorragia post adenoamigdalectomia es entre 0,1 y 8,1%. Dentro de las técnicas hemostáticas se utilizan suturas, electrocauterio, radiofrecuencia, presión con packs, vasoconstrictores u otras sustancias hemostáticas. Entre estas últimas el subgalato de bismuto (activa el factor XII de la coagulación) ha sido empleado durante décadas para hemostasia de diferentes sitios quirúrgicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la eficacia de la pasta de subgalato de bismuto en la disminución de hemorragias post adenoamigdalectomías. Material y método: Trabajo retrospectivo con pacientes adultos y pediátricos intervenidos quirúrgicamente de amigdalectomía/ adenoidectomía mediante técnica de Daniels y cureta de Beckmann, a los que se dividió en dos grupos: Uno, sin la utilización de subgalato de bismuto y otro utilizando la pasta hemostática intraoperatoria. Posteriormente se comparó la incidencia de hemorragia postquirúrgica entre ambos grupos. Resultados: El primer grupo incluyó a 2.125 pacientes operados y el porcentaje de hemorragias post quirúrgicas sin la utilización del subgalato de bismuto fue de 4,56% (N=97). El otro grupo se conformó con 1.647 pacientes a los que se les aplicó la pasta de subgalato de bismuto en el lecho sangrante y el porcentaje de hemorragias post quirúrgicas descendió a 1,33% (N=22). La diferencia entre ambos grupos fue estadísticamente significativa p=0,001. Conclusiones: La pasta de subgalato de bismuto disminuye la incidencia de hemorragia post amigdalectomía.


Backgruond: tonsils and adenoid surgery are the most frequently performed in otorhinolaryngology. The incidence of complications is low, being the hemorrhage the most frequent and serious one (estimated between 0.1% and 8.1%). The hemostatic techniques used during surgery are sutures, electrocautery, radio frequency, pressure with packs, vasoconstrictors and other haemostatic substances. Between these last substances, Bismuth Subgalate (activates factor XII of coagulation) has been used during decades for hemostasis in different surgical sites. The objective is to determine the efficacy of Bismuth Subgalate paste in the reduction of postadenotonsillectomy hemorrhage. Material and method: Retrospective study including adult and pediatric patients who underwent tonsilectomy / adenoidectomy using the Daniels technique and Beckmann’s curette, which were divided into two groups: one without the use of bismuth subgalate and another using the intraoperative hemostatic paste. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative hemorrhage between the two groups was compared. Results: The first group included 2,125 patients operated. The percentage of postoperative hemorrhages without the use of the bismuth subgalate was 4.56% (N = 97). The other group consisted of 1,647 patients in whom the Bismuth Subgalate paste was used as a hemostatic agent during surgery. The percentage of postoperative hemorrhage fell to 1.33% (N = 22). The difference between both groups was statistically significant p = 0.001. Conclutions: Bismuth subgalate paste decreases the incidence of post adenotonsillectomy hemorrhage.


Introdução: amígdalas e adenóides cirurgia é a mais realizada na otorrinolaringologia. A incidência de complicações é baixa, sendo o sangramento mais frequentes e graves. Estima-se que a incidência de hemorragia pós-adenotonsilectomia é entre 0,1 e 8,1%. Entre as técnicas hemostáticos, electrocauterização, suturas, radiofrecuecia, pacotes de pressão vasoconstritores ou outras substâncias hemostáticos são utilizados. O subgalato de bismuto ( ativa o fator de coagulação XII) tem sido usada há décadas para hemostasia de diferentes locais cirúrgicos. O objectivo é determinar a eficiência de pasta de subgalato de bismuto na redução de hemorragias pós-adenoamigdalectomia. Material e método: Estudo retrospectivo com pacientes adultos e pediátricos submetidos á cirurgia de adenoidectomia/ amigdalectomia pela técnica Daniels e cureta Beckmann, que foi dividido em dois grupos: um sem o uso de subgalato de bismuto e a outra usando pasta hemostática intraoperatória subsequentemente na incidência de hemorragia pós-cirúrgica entre os dois grupos foi comparado. Resultados: O primeiro grupo incluiu 2125 pacientes operados e a porcentagem de hemorragias pós-cirúrgico, sem o uso de subgalato de bismuto foi 4,56% (97n) o outro grupo foi formada com 1647 pacientes o qual foi aplicada uma pasta de subgalato de bismuto e a percentagem de hemorragia pós-cirurgia caiu para 1,33% (22n), a diferença entre ambos grupos foi estatisticamente significativa (p:0,001). Conclusões: a pasta de subgalato de bismuto diminui a incidencia de hemorragia pós-adenoamigdalectomia.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Adenoidectomy/adverse effects , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Tonsillectomy/adverse effects
7.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 25(4): 318-326, oct.-dic.2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-781770

ABSTRACT

La zona periapical es una región altamente vascularizada, y exhibe una gran tendencia a la hemorragia, especialmente en presencia de tejido granulomatoso, que suele acompañar las patologías perirradiculares. Esto representa para el clínico un aspecto de suma importancia, ya que solo mediante un campo seco se obtendrá un campo operatorio efectivamente visible que le permita intervenir adecuadamente. Es necesario evaluar consideraciones pre-quirúrgicas y quirúrgicas tales como la historia médica del paciente, así como la manipulación de los tejidos antes de la elección del agente hemostático que se opte por conveniente. Los agentes hemostáticos presentan características que los hacen particularmente muy distintos unos de otros, tanto en su presentación como en su manejo operatorio. La presente revisión bibliográfica describirá y analizará los principales agentes hemostáticos que se encuentran actualmente disponibles en el mercado y su impacto en la cirugía periapical contemporánea...


The apical area is a highly vascular region, and exhibits a tendency to hemorrhage, especially in presence of granulation tissue that usually is present in periradicular pathologies. This is highly important for the clinician, because only with a dry field can be obtained a visible operative field that allows a suitable surgery. It is necessary to assess pre-surgical and surgical considerations such as medical history, as well as tissue manipulation before the election of a hemostatic agent. Hemostatic agents have characteristics that make them particularly very different from each other, both presentation and clinical management. The aim of this review is to describe and discuss the most common hemostatic agents available and their impact on contemporary apical surgery...


Subject(s)
Humans , Endodontics , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Oral Surgical Procedures
8.
Clinics ; 70(3): 162-168, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747103

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of tubercular vs. leukemic involvement of abdominopelvic lymph nodes using multidetector computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed multidetector computed tomography features including lymph node size, shape, enhancement patterns, and anatomical distribution, in 106 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, untreated tuberculosis (55 patients; 52%) or leukemia (51 patients; 48%). In patients with leukemia, 32 (62.7%) had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and 19 (37.3%) had acute leukemias; of these, 10 (19.6%) had acute myeloid leukemia, and 9 (17.6%) had acute lymphocytic leukemia. RESULTS: The lower para-aortic (30.9% for tuberculosis, 63.2% for acute leukemias and 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and inguinal (9.1% for tuberculosis, 57.9% for acute leukemias and 53.1% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia) lymph nodes were involved more frequently in the three types of leukemia than in tuberculosis (both with p <0.017). Tuberculosis showed peripheral enhancement, frequently with a multilocular appearance, in 43 (78.2%) patients, whereas patients with leukemia (78.9% for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, 87.5% for chronic lymphocytic leukemia) demonstrated predominantly homogeneous enhancement (both with p <0.017). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, the analysis showed that a peripheral enhancement pattern had a sensitivity of 78.2%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 88.7%. For the diagnosis of leukemia, the analysis showed that a homogeneous enhancement pattern was associated with a sensitivity of 84.3%, a specificity of 94.5%, and an accuracy of 89.6%. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the anatomical distribution and enhancement patterns of lymphadenopathy seen on multidetector computed tomography are useful for differentiating between untreated tuberculosis and leukemia of the abdominopelvic lymph nodes. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Ethiodized Oil/pharmacokinetics , Liver Neoplasms/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Ethiodized Oil/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Liver Neoplasms , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tissue Distribution , Treatment Outcome
9.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(1): 60-63, Jan-Fev/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733010

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare cause of hypernatremia during the neonatal period. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. CASE REPORT: We report on a preterm newborn who presented CDI soon after birth. On the third day of life, signs of dehydration were present despite normal fluid supply. The diuresis rate was 4.4 ml/kg/h. Although the fluid supply was then increased, the dehydration continued, with hypernatremia, normal glycemia, diuresis of 7.4 ml/kg/h and urine density of 1005 mOsmol/l. Thus, a diagnostic hypothesis of diabetes insipidus was raised. A test with a nasal vasopressin analogue (dDAVP) was performed and CDI was confirmed. Reduction of the fluid supply became possible through appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of CDI is rarely made during the neonatal period, especially in VLBW newborns, because of the difficulty in detecting elevated diuresis. Persistent hypernatremia, usually accompanied by hyperthermia despite abundant fluid supply, weight loss and low urine osmolality are important signs of alert. .


CONTEXTO: Diabete insípido central (DIC) é uma rara causa de hipernatremia durante o período neonatal. O diagnóstico é difícil, particularmente em recém-nascidos (RN) de muito baixo peso (RNMBP). RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos um RN que apresentou DIC logo após o nascimento. No terceiro dia de vida, apresentava sinais de desidratação, embora estivesse recebendo aporte adequado de líquidos. A diurese aferida era de 4,4 ml/kg/h. Apesar do aumento do aporte hídrico, manteve-se desidratado, com hipernatremia, valores normais de glicemia e diurese de 7,4 ml/kg/h com densidade urinária de 1005 mOsmol/l. Desta forma, a hipótese diagnóstica de diabete insípido foi considerada. O teste com análogo da vasopressina (dDAVP) foi realizado e DIC foi confirmado. A redução do aporte de líquidos foi possível com o tratamento adequado. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico de DIC raramente é realizado durante o período neonatal, particularmente em RNMBP, devido à dificuldade em detectar diurese aumentada. Hipernatremia persistente, geralmente acompanhada de hipertermia, apesar do abundante aporte de água, perda de peso e osmolaridade urinaria baixa, são importantes sinais de alerta. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Dehydration/etiology , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/complications , Administration, Intranasal , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin , Diuresis , Dehydration/drug therapy , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/diagnosis , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/drug therapy , Early Diagnosis , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Hypernatremia/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Osmolar Concentration , Premature Birth , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(4): 606-621, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-741735

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O sangue alogênico é um recurso terapêutico esgotável. Novas evidências demonstram um consumo excessivo de sangue e uma diminuição das doações, resultando em estoques de sangue reduzidos em todo o mundo. As transfusões de sangue estão relacionadas a aumento na morbimortalidade e maiores custos hospitalares. Deste modo, torna-se necessário procurar outras opções de tratamento. Estas alternativas existem, porém são pouco conhecidas e raramente utilizadas. Objetivo: Reunir e descrever de maneira sistemática, objetiva e prática todas as estratégias clínicas e cirúrgicas, como opções terapêuticas eficazes para minimizar ou evitar transfusões de sangue alogênico e seus efeitos adversos nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Métodos: Foi efetuada uma pesquisa bibliográfica com busca ao descritor “Blood transfusion” (MeSH) e aos termos “Cardiac surgery” e “Blood management”. Estudos com títulos não relacionados diretamente ao tema da pesquisa, estudos que não continham nos resumos dados relacionados à pesquisa, estudos mais antigos que relataram estratégias repetidas foram excluídos. Resultados: Tratar anemia e plaquetopenia, suspender anticoagulantes e antiplaquetários, reduzir flebotomias rotineiras, técnica cirúrgica menos traumática com hipotermia e hipotensão moderada, hemostasia meticulosa, uso de agentes hemostáticos sistêmicos e tópicos, hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda, recuperação sanguínea intraoperatória, tolerância à anemia (oxigênio suplementar e normotermia), bem como várias outras opções terapêuticas mostram ser estratégias eficazes em reduzir transfusões de sangue alogênico. Conclusão: Existem múltiplas estratégias clínicas e cirúrgicas para otimizar a massa eritrocitária e o estado de coagulação, minimizar a perda de sangue e melhorar tolerância à anemia. Estes recursos terapêuticos deveriam ser incorporados à prática médica mundial, visando diminuir o consumo de hemocomponentes, ...


Introdution: Allogeneic blood is an exhaustible therapeutic resource. New evidence indicates that blood consumption is excessive and that donations have decreased, resulting in reduced blood supplies worldwide. Blood transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as higher hospital costs. This makes it necessary to seek out new treatment options. Such options exist but are still virtually unknown and are rarely utilized. Objective: To gather and describe in a systematic, objective, and practical way all clinical and surgical strategies as effective therapeutic options to minimize or avoid allogeneic blood transfusions and their adverse effects in surgical cardiac patients. Methods: A bibliographic search was conducted using the MeSH term “Blood Transfusion” and the terms “Cardiac Surgery” and “Blood Management.” Studies with titles not directly related to this research or that did not contain information related to it in their abstracts as well as older studies reporting on the same strategies were not included. Results: Treating anemia and thrombocytopenia, suspending anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, reducing routine phlebotomies, utilizing less traumatic surgical techniques with moderate hypothermia and hypotension, meticulous hemostasis, use of topical and systemic hemostatic agents, acute normovolemic hemodilution, cell salvage, anemia tolerance (supplementary oxygen and normothermia), as well as various other therapeutic options have proved to be effective strategies for reducing allogeneic blood transfusions. Conclusion: There are a number of clinical and surgical strategies that can be used to optimize erythrocyte mass and coagulation status, minimize blood loss, and improve anemia tolerance. In order to decrease the consumption of blood components, diminish morbidity and mortality, and reduce hospital costs, these treatment strategies should be incorporated ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Blood Preservation/methods , Blood Transfusion/methods , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Medical Illustration , Operative Blood Salvage/methods
11.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 23(4)out.-dez. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704942

ABSTRACT

Existe disponível, atualmente, grande variedade de agentes hemostáticos locais, vedantes e adesivos tissulares. O conhecimento do mecanismo de ação de cada um deles é primordial para a escolha do agente ideal para cada tipo de hemorragia. Os agentes hemostáticos são divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com seus mecanismos de ação: a) ativos - os ativadores das plaquetas; b) passivos ou mecânicos - promotores da absorção do sangue, aumentando o seu volume e pressionando o local do sangramento. Os agentes ativos podem ser usados nas coagulopatias, utilizam componentes do plasma humano como trombina e fibrina e, por isto, podem transmitir doenças virais e são mais dispendiosos. Os agentes mecânicos, por criarem uma barreira ao sangramento devido ao aumento de volume, não podem ser usados em áreas confinadas. Neste artigo são feitas considerações sobre as características dos vários agentes hemostáticos...


A wide variety of topical hemostatic agents, sealants, and tissue adhesives is currently available. Knowledge of the mechanism of action of each of them is essential for choosing the ideal agent for each type of hemorrhage. Hemostatic agents are divided into two groups accordingto mechanism of action: a) active, which activates platelets b) passive or mechanical, which promotes blood absorption, increase in volume, and creates pressure on the site of the bleeding. Active agents can be used in coagulopathies and use human plasma components like thrombin and fibrin. As such, they can transmit viral diseases and are more expensive.Mechanical agents, because they stop the bleeding due to volume increase cannot be used in confined areas. This article considers the characteristics of various hemostatic agents...


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue Adhesives/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/classification , Hemostatics/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 188-193, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681867

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the expression of extracellular matrix glycoproteins tenascin (TN) and fibronectin (FN) in pulp repair after capping with calcium hydroxide (CH), following different hemostasis protocols. Class I cavities with a pulp exposure were prepared in 42 human third molars scheduled for extraction. Different hemostatic agents (0.9% saline solution, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate) were used and pulps were capped with CH cement. After 7, 30 or 90 days, teeth were extracted, formalin-fixed, and prepared for immunohistochemical technique. Hemostatic agents did not influence the expression of TN and FN. Both glycoproteins were found in the entire the pulp tissue and around collagen fibers, but were absent in the mineralized tissues. In the predentin, TN showed positive immunostaining and FN had a variable expression. Within 7 days post-treatment, a slightly more pronounced immunostaining on the pulp exposure site was observed. Within 30 days, TN and FN demonstrated a positive expression around the dentin barrier and at 90 days, a thin and linear expression of TN and FN was delimitating the reparative dentin. In conclusion, hemostatic agents did not influence TN and FN expression. Immunostaining for TN and FN was seen in different regions and periods, demonstrating their role in pulp repair.


Este estudo investigou a expressão das glicoproteínas Tenascina (TN) e Fibronectina (FN) da matriz extracelular no reparo pulpar após capeamento com hidróxido de cálcio (HC), seguindo diferentes protocolos de hemostasia. Cavidades de classe I com exposição pulpar foram preparadas em 42 terceiros molares humanos indicados para extração. Diferentes agentes hemostáticos (solução salina a 0,9%, hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25% e clorexidina a 2%) foram usados e as polpas foram capeadas com cimento de HC. Após 7, 30 ou 90 dias, os dentes foram extraídos, fixados em formalina e preparados para análise imunoistoquímica. Os agentes hemostáticos não influenciaram a expressão de TN e FN. Ambas glicoproteínas foram encontradas em todo tecido pulpar, ao redor das fibras colágenas e estiveram ausentes nos tecidos mineralizados. Na pré-dentina, a TN mostrou forte imunoexpressão e a FN teve uma expressão variável. Após 7 dias, foi observada uma expressão levemente mais pronunciada no lugar da exposição pulpar. Aos 30 dias, a TN e a FN demonstraram uma expressão mais forte sob a barreira dentinária e aos 90 dias, uma expressão fina e linear da TN e FN apresentava-se delimitando a dentina reparativa. Em conclusão, os agentes hemostáticos não influenciaram e expressão da TN e da FN. A imunoexpressão da TN e FN foi observada em diferentes regiões e períodos, demonstrando o seu papel no reparo pulpar.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Dental Pulp Capping , Fibronectins/analysis , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents/therapeutic use , Tenascin/analysis , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Collagen/analysis , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Pulp Exposure/therapy , Dental Pulp/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Dentin, Secondary/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Tooth Extraction
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bloodless Center was established in 2000, and more than 2,000 bloodless surgeries have been performed there since. In this study, the lowest postoperative Hb/preoperative Hb (Hblow/pre) ratio and mortality rates of patients who underwent bloodless surgery were analyzed for each maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) category to assess whether MSBOS can be used as a predictor of successful completion of bloodless surgery. METHODS: A total of 971 patients were included. MSBOS was defined as the average number of units of RBCs transfused during each elective surgery. We used the Hblow/pre ratio as an alternative to intraoperative blood loss. Frequency of Hblow/pre ratios < or =0.5, use of transfusion alternatives, and mortality rates were compared across MSBOS categories. RESULTS: Out of the 971 patients, 701 (72.2%) were categorized as type and screen (T&S), 184 (18.9%) as MSBOS 1, 64 (6.6%) as MSBOS 2, and 22 (2.3%) as MSBOS 4. Transfusion alternatives were used by 397 (40.9%) patients. The frequency of the use of simultaneous erythropoietin and iron, hemostatics, acute normovolemic hemodilution, and Cell Saver (Haemonetics corp., USA) was higher in patients in the higher MSBOS categories. Six (0.6%) patients died within 30 days of surgery. Hblow/pre ratios tended to be lower as the level of MSBOS category increased. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeries in the higher MSBOS categories tended to be associated with high blood loss and mortality. Active use of transfusion alternatives is recommended in patients in high MSBOS categories who are scheduled to undergo bloodless surgery.


Subject(s)
Blood Loss, Surgical/mortality , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures/methods , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Hemodilution , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Hospitals, University , Humans , Iron/therapeutic use , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143924

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of placement of the absorbable packing material Nasopore at the anastomosis site of newly formed mucosal flaps on postoperative re-bleeding, discomfort, and on the success rate of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS: A review of the medical records of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction that underwent external or endonasal DCR by a single surgeon was performed. The degree of re-bleeding, discomfort, and postoperative results, including anatomical success, functional success and postoperative nasal findings such as granulation, synechiae, and membrane formation were compared in patients whose anastomosis site was packed with either Nasopore or Merocel, a non-absorbable packing material. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients (101 eyes) were included. Of the 101 eyes, 30 were packed with Nasopore, while 71 were packed with Merocel. The Nasopore group showed significantly better results than the Merocel group in the degree of re-bleeding and the level of patient discomfort (p = 0.000, 0.039, respectively; Pearson's chi-square test), whereas there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in postoperative anatomical and functional success (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nasopore significantly reduced postoperative nasal re-bleeding and patient discomfort during the early post-surgical period, but failed to show an effect on the postoperative anatomical and functional success of DCR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Dacryocystorhinostomy/methods , Epistaxis/prevention & control , Female , Formaldehyde/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Nasolacrimal Duct/surgery , Polyurethanes/therapeutic use , Polyvinyl Alcohol/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143917

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of placement of the absorbable packing material Nasopore at the anastomosis site of newly formed mucosal flaps on postoperative re-bleeding, discomfort, and on the success rate of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS: A review of the medical records of patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction that underwent external or endonasal DCR by a single surgeon was performed. The degree of re-bleeding, discomfort, and postoperative results, including anatomical success, functional success and postoperative nasal findings such as granulation, synechiae, and membrane formation were compared in patients whose anastomosis site was packed with either Nasopore or Merocel, a non-absorbable packing material. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients (101 eyes) were included. Of the 101 eyes, 30 were packed with Nasopore, while 71 were packed with Merocel. The Nasopore group showed significantly better results than the Merocel group in the degree of re-bleeding and the level of patient discomfort (p = 0.000, 0.039, respectively; Pearson's chi-square test), whereas there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in postoperative anatomical and functional success (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nasopore significantly reduced postoperative nasal re-bleeding and patient discomfort during the early post-surgical period, but failed to show an effect on the postoperative anatomical and functional success of DCR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Dacryocystorhinostomy/methods , Epistaxis/prevention & control , Female , Formaldehyde/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Nasolacrimal Duct/surgery , Polyurethanes/therapeutic use , Polyvinyl Alcohol/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(10): 707-712, Oct. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-650560

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether chitosan application over colonic anastomosis line, provide reinforcement, and subsequently improve anastomotic healing. METHODS: Forty eight Wistar albino female rats were used and were randomly divided into four groups, 12 rats in each: The control groups (1 and 3) received no further treatment. The experimental groups (2 and 4) received chitosan application over the colonic anastomosis. After sacrifying rats at the end of the experiment (either on day three or on day seven, depending on the group), colonic bursting pressure, a hihydroxyproline level and histopathologic characteristics of the perianastomotic tissue were examined. RESULTS: At three days, chitosan and control groups had similar values for histopathologically. On day seven, chitosan group had significantly higher mean score of collagenization (p=0.007) and a significantly higher bursting pressure (p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Our study emphasizes the positive effect of chitosan in the process of collagenation in colonic anastomosis healing.


OBJETIVO: Investigar se a aplicação de quitosana em anastomose colônica promove resistência à tração e consequentemente a melhora na cicatrização. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 48 ratos Wistar fêmeas distribuídos em quatro grupos, 12 ratos em cada. Grupos controle (1 e 3) não receberam tratamento. Grupos experimento (2 e 4) receberam aplicação de quitosana na anastomose colônica. Após eutanásia após 3º ou 7º dias foram examinadas a tensão, o nível de hidroxiprolina e aspectos histopatológicos da anastomose. RESULTADOS: Após três dias os grupos controle e quitosana não apresentaram alterações histopatológicas. No sétimo dia o grupo quitosana apresentou significante elevação do escore de colagenização (p=0,007) e da tensão de ruptura (p=0,038). CONCLUSÃO: A quitosana apresentou bons resultados nos processos de colagenização e cicatrização de anastomose colônica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Colon/surgery , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Wound Healing/drug effects , Anastomosis, Surgical , Chitosan/pharmacology , Collagen/physiology , Colon/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Tissue Adhesions , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 27(2): 260-266, abr.-jun. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Calcium dobesilate is an angioprotective agent that has positive effects on hemorheological parameters. It is an antioxidant that increases endothelial-derived vasodilator substance secretion, there are none that analyze its effects during the postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of calcium dobesilate on hemorheological parameters, such as reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde in patients with ischemic heart disease undergoing myocardial revascularization in the postoperative period. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four patients operated for coronary heart disease were included in this study. Hemorheological, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were measured two days after surgery and after a period of treatment with calcium dobesilate. Then, 500 mg of calcium dobesilate was given twice a day to one group of 68 patients for three months. The control group was composed of 66 patients who did not receive this medication. RESULTS: The increase in the erythrocyte deformability index was found to be significant compared with both the pretreatment values and with the 1st and 2nd values of the control group after calcium dobesilate administration, whereas there were no significant changes in blood viscosity, glutathione (GSH) or malondialdehyde (MDA) values after the calcium dobesilate administration. The same improvement in the CCS class was observed in patients regardless of they received the calcium dobesilate treatment. CONCLUSION: In the present investigation, the same improvement in the CCS class was observed in patients regardless of they received the calcium dobesilate treatment. Improvements with calcium dobesilate were statistically significant only in the increase in erythrocyte flexibility.


ANTECEDENTES: O dobesilato de cálcio é um agente angioprotetor que tem efeitos positivos sobre os parâmetros hemorreológicos. É um antioxidante que aumenta a secreção endotelial derivada da substância vasodilatadora, não há nada que analisar os seus efeitos durante o período pósoperatório de pacientes submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi determinar os efeitos de dobesilato de cálcio sobre os parâmetros hemorreológicos, tais como glutationa reduzida e malondialdeído em pacientes com doença cardíaca isquêmica submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e quatro pacientes operados por doença cardíaca coronária foram incluídos neste estudo. Parâmetros de oxidante, hemorreológicos e de antioxidantes foram medidos dois dias após a cirurgia e após um período de tratamento com o dobesilato de cálcio. Em seguida, 500 mg de dobesilato de cálcio foi administrado duas vezes por dia para um grupo de 68 pacientes durante três meses. O grupo controle foi composto por 66 pacientes que não receberam essa medicação. RESULTADOS: O aumento do índice de deformabilidade dos eritrócitos foi considerado significativo comparado com ambos os valores pré-tratamento e com os 1º e 2º valores do grupo controle após a administração dobesilato de cálcio, enquanto que não houve alterações significativas na viscosidade do sangue, na glutationa (GSH) ou malondialdeído (MDA) após a administração dobesilato de cálcio. A mesma melhoria na classe CCS foi observada em pacientes independentemente de terem recebido tratamento com dobesilato de cálcio. CONCLUSÃO: Na presente investigação, a mesma melhora na classe CCS foi observada em pacientes independentemente de terem recebido o tratamento com dobesilato de cálcio.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass , Calcium Dobesilate/therapeutic use , Hemorheology/drug effects , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Analysis of Variance , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Blood Viscosity/drug effects , Calcium Dobesilate/pharmacology , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Fibrinogen , Glutathione/blood , Glutathione/drug effects , Hemostatics/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Myocardial Ischemia/surgery , Postoperative Period , Statistics, Nonparametric
18.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2012 Apr; 15(2): 128-133
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139654

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate whether low-dose vasopressin administered to patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with preexisting mild to moderate systolic dysfunction can produce sustained improvement in cardiac function. This double-blind randomized study was conducted in a hospital where a single anesthetic and surgical team performed elective CABG. Twenty patients aged 32-61 years who underwent elective CABG between January 2007 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. The patients randomly received either vasopressin 0.03 IU/min (Group A) or normal saline (Group B) in equal volume for 60 min after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume index, fractional area of contraction and systemic vascular resistance index were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B. Adrenaline (mean dose: 0.06 μg/kg•min-1) was required in seven patients from Group B but in none of the Group A patients on initial separation from CPB (P< 0.05). Of the 10 patients in Group B, five required phenylepherine to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) >65 mmHg, whereas none of the Group A patients required phenylephrine for MAP regulation (P< 0.05). We conclude that Infusion of low-dose vasopressin for patients with mild to moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction during separation from CPB is beneficial for the postoperative hemodynamic profile, reduces the catecholamine doses required and improves left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Double-Blind Method , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Female , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasopressins/administration & dosage , Vasopressins/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
20.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 68(211): 16-17, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-620337

ABSTRACT

Este estudio clínico se basó en la evaluación de la eficacia del ácido tranexámico como elemento coadyuvante hemostático post-exodoncias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/classification , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Argentina , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Tooth Extraction
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