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Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101713


Objective: to analyze the evidence available in the literature about the lowest necessary dose of heparin to maintain the patency of the totally implanted central venous catheter in adult cancer patients. Method: an integrative literature review, carried out in the following databases: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências de Saúde, Sciverse Scopus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, including thirteen studies. Results: the evidence showed that the dose of heparin (300 IU/ml) is the most used in maintaining the patency of the totally implanted central venous catheter. Conclusion: according to the selected studies, the lowest dose of heparin found in maintaining the patency of the totally implanted central venous catheter in cancer patients was 10 UN/ml with a volume of 5 ml of the heparin solution.

Objetivo: analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre a menor dose necessária de heparina para manter a patência do cateter venoso central totalmente implantado em pacientes oncológicos adultos. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências de Saúde, Sciverse SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, sendo incluídos treze estudos. Resultados: as evidências mostraram que a dose de heparina (300 UI/ml), é a mais utilizada na manutenção da patência do cateter venoso central totalmente implantado. Conclusão: de acordo com os estudos selecionados a menor dose de heparina encontrada na manutenção da patência do cateter venoso central totalmente implantado em pacientes oncológicos, foi de 10 UN/ml com um volume de 5 ml da solução de heparina.

Objetivo: analizar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre la dosis más baja de heparina necesaria para mantener la permeabilidad del catéter venoso central totalmente implantado en pacientes oncológicos adultos. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura realizada en las siguientes bases de datos: Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, Sciverse Scopus, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, con la inclusión de trece estudios. Resultados: las pruebas demostraron que la dosis de heparina (300 UI/ml) es la más utilizada para mantener la permeabilidad del catéter venoso central totalmente implantado. Conclusión: según los estudios seleccionados, la dosis más baja de heparina encontrada en el mantenimiento de la permeabilidad del catéter venoso central totalmente implantado en pacientes oncológicos fue de 10 UN/ml con un volumen de 5 ml de solución de heparina.

Patients , Heparin/administration & dosage , Catheter Obstruction , Vascular Access Devices , Central Venous Catheters , Medical Oncology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(11): 1349-1355, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057072


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of prescriptions errors with potentially dangerous drugs (heparin and potassium chloride for injection concentrate) before and after the introduction of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that compared errors in manual/pre-typed prescriptions in 2007 (Stage 1) with CPOE prescriptions in 2014 (Stage 2) (Total = 1,028 prescriptions), in two high-complexity hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brasil. RESULTS: An increase of 25% in the frequency of errors in Hospital 1 was observed after the intervention (p<0.001). In contrast, a decreased error frequency of 85% was observed in Hospital 2 (p<0.001). Regarding potassium chloride, the error rate remained unchanged in Hospital 1 (p>0.05). In Hospital 2, a significant decrease was recorded in Stage 2 (p<0.001). A reduced error severity with heparin (p<0.001) was noted, while potassium chloride-related prescription severity remain unchanged (p> 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and severity of medication errors after the introduction of CPOE was affected differently in the two hospitals, which shows a need for thorough observation when the prescription system is modified. Control of new potential errors introduced and their causes for the adoption of measures to prevent these events must be in place during and after the implementation of this technology.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e a gravidade de erros em prescrições envolvendo medicamentos potencialmente perigosos (heparina e cloreto de potássio concentrado injetável) antes e após a introdução de um sistema de prescrição eletrônica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo que comparou erros em prescrições manuais e pré-digitadas de 2007 (Fase 1) com prescrições eletrônicas de 2014 (Fase 2) (total = 1.028 prescrições), em dois hospitais de alta complexidade de Belo Horizonte. RESULTADOS: Foi observado no hospital 1 aumento de 25% dos erros depois da intervenção (p<0,001), e no hospital 2 foi verificada redução de 85% (p<0,001). Para o cloreto de potássio, a frequência de erros permaneceu a mesma no hospital 1 (p>0,05), independentemente da fase e, no hospital 2, ocorreu redução significativa na fase 2 (p<0,001). Foi identificada redução da gravidade dos erros com a heparina (p<0,001), mas não houve alteração na gravidade dos erros com cloreto de potássio (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A frequência e a gravidade dos erros de medicação após a introdução de prescrição eletrônica foram impactadas de forma diferente nos dois hospitais, demonstrando necessidade de observação criteriosa quando o sistema de prescrição é modificado. Durante e após a implantação dessa tecnologia, deve existir controle dos novos erros potenciais introduzidos e suas causas para a adoção de medidas de prevenção desses eventos.

Humans , Potassium Chloride/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Medical Order Entry Systems , Electronic Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Brazil , Heparin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Prescribing/standards
Clinics ; 74: e1143, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019698


OBJECTIVES: Evaluate adherence to the therapeutic prophylaxis protocol for venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as the costs of this practice. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted at a State General Hospital in Brazil through reports of drug dispensions, prescriptions and risk stratification of patients. Adherence to the VTE prophylaxis protocol was monitored. The tests for VTE diagnosis measured the adherence to therapeutic prophylaxis treatment, and the purchase prices of the drugs went into the calculation of drug therapy costs. The level of adherence to prescriptions for VTE prophylaxis in the hospital was classified as "adherence", "non-adherence" and "justified non-adherence" when compared with the protocol. RESULTS: Protocol adherence was observed for 50 (30.9%) patients, and non-adherence was observed for 63 (38.9%) patients, generating an additional cost of $180.40/month. Justified non-adherence in 49 (30.2%) patients generated $514.71/month in savings due to a reduction in the number of daily administrations of unfractionated heparin while still providing an effective method for preventing VTE. Twenty-six patients stratified as having medium to high risk of VTE who did not receive prophylaxis were identified, generating $154.41 in savings. However, these data should be evaluated with caution since the risks and outcomes associated with not preventing VTE outweigh the economy achieved from not prescribing a drug when a patient needs it. The only case of VTE identified during the study period was related to justified non-adherence to the protocol. CONCLUSION: The protocol is based on scientific evidence that describes an effective therapy to prevent VTE. However, the protocol should be updated because the justifications for non-adherence are based on scientific evidence, and this justified non-adherence generates savings and yields effective disease prevention.

Humans , Male , Female , Heparin/economics , Venous Thromboembolism/economics , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/economics , Anticoagulants/economics , Brazil , Heparin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 588-596, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977474


Abstract Objective: To evaluate if lower activated coagulation time (ACT) value after neutralization than preoperative ACT value was effective in reducing bleeding, operative times, and post-operative transfusions in patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Retrospective selection of 398 patients from January 2014 to May 2017. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to final ACT after neutralization: A - final ACT lower than preoperative ACT; and B - final ACT higher than or equal to preoperative ACT. Hemostatic time, intraoperative blood loss, ACT after final neutralization, mediastinal blood loss, and transfusion requirements were observed. Results: The hourly blood loss in the Group A was generally lower than in the Group B at first 3 hours, which has significant difference (P<0.05). However, there was no difference after 3 hours between the two groups. Operative time, intraoperative blood loss, mediastinal blood loss, transfusion requirements, and drainage in the first postoperative 12 hours in the Group A were lower than in Group B, which has significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: As a result, final ACT values lower than pre-heparinization ACT values are safe and lead to lower operative times, bleeding, and post-operative transfusions.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Heparin/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Whole Blood Coagulation Time , Retrospective Studies , Blood Loss, Surgical/physiopathology , Operative Time , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(5)set.-out. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914761


Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred treatment in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. At night period, the delay until performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention may be determinant to prognosis worsening. Objective: To analyze the results of primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed at day and night periods. Methods: Cohort study that included patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention from December 2013 until December 2016 in a ST-elevation myocardial infarction reference hospital of a metropolitan region in Brazil, followed from admission to hospital discharge or death, compared according to time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (night or day). Statistical analysis comprehended the Chi-square test, the Fisher test, the Student's t-test and the analysis of variance, with significance level of 5%. Results: 446 patients were submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, 159 (35.6%) at night time and 287 (64.4%) at day time. No differences were found between the two groups concerning clinical baseline characteristics. Door-to-balloon time (101 ± 81 minutes vs. 99 ± 78 minutes; p = 0,59) and onset-to-ballon time (294 ± 158 minutes vs. 278 ± 174 minutes; p = 0,32) did not differ between the groups. The incidence of combined major adverse cardiac events (15.1% vs. 14.3%; p = 0,58) and in-hospital mortality (9.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0,61) were similar between the groups, as well as length of hospital stay (6.0 ± 4 days vs. 4.9 ± 4 days; p = 0,91). Conclusion: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention at night time showed similar results as the procedure performed at day time, without significant increase of in-hospital adverse events, length of stay or mortality

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Night Care/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Analysis of Variance , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy/methods , Drug-Eluting Stents , Electrocardiography/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Statistical Analysis , Stents
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967663


Relatamos um caso peculiar de taquicardia de QRS largo incessante em portador de coração transplantado ortotópico por técnica de anastomose biatrial 13 anos antes do aparecimento da arritmia. O paciente foi submetido, com sucesso, a ablação guiada por mapeamento eletroanatômico, evidenciando a importância desse método e potenciais armadilhas de mapeamento em arritmias associadas a cicatrizes cirúrgicas

We report a peculiar case of an incessant wide complex QRS tachycardia in a patient with orthotopic heart transplant using a bi-atrial anastomosis technique, performed thirteen years before the appearance of the arrhythmia. The patient underwent a successful ablation procedure guided by electroanatomic mapping, evidencing the importance of this method and potential pitfalls in tachyarrhythmias associated with surgical scars

Humans , Male , Adult , Postoperative Period , Tachycardia , Heart Transplantation , Catheter Ablation/methods , Thrombosis , Echocardiography/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrophysiology/methods , Catheters , Heart Atria
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(1): f:26-l:32, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883664


Fundamento: Diferentes escores baseados em variáveis anatômicas e/ou clínicas têm sido desenvolvidos para estratificação de risco em pacientes submetidos à intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP). Estudos comparando a capacidade desses modelos na predição de eventos cardíacos e cerebrovasculares adversos maiores (ECCAM) em pacientes submetidos à ICP primária são escassos. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi o de comparar os escores SYNTAX (SS), Clinical SYNTAX (CSS), ACEF e ACEF modificado (ACEF Mod ) na predição de ECCAM em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdico com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST) submetidos à ICP primária. Métodos: Foram analisados 311 pacientes consecutivos com IAMCSST submetidos a ICP primária entre abril/2011 e dezembro/2015. As áreas sob a curva característica de operação do receptor (ROC) foram calculadas para avaliar a habilidade desses escores em predizer ECCAM. O nível de significância adotado em todos os testes foi de 5%. Resultados: Os pacientes apresentaram idade média de 60,2 ± 12,0 anos, 35,4% eram do sexo feminino e 22,5% eram diabéticos. A ocorrência de ECCAM foi observada em 23,8% dos participantes. A área sob a curva ROC foi 0,586 (p = 0,028) para ACEF, 0,616 (p = 0,003) para SS, 0,623 (p = 0,002) para ACEF Mod e 0,658 (p < 0,001) para CSS. Na análise multivariada, apenas SS (p = 0,011) e CSS (p = 0,002) foram preditores independentes de ECCAM. Conclusões: SS e CSS elevados foram preditores independentes de ECCAM. Em nossa coorte de pacientes com IAMCSST submetidos à ICP primária, o SS calculado à cineangiocoronariografia inicial mostrou-se uma ferramenta útil para predizer ECCAM

Background: Different scores based on anatomical and/or clinical features have been developed for risk stratification of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies comparing the ability of these different models in predicting major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in patients submitted to primary PCI are limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of the scores SYNTAX (SS), Clinical SYNTAX (CSS), age, creatinine and ACEF, and modified ACEF (ACEF Mod ) to predict MACCE in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) submitted to primary PCI. Methods: We analyzed 311 consecutive patients with STEMI submitted to primary PCI between April/2011 and December/2015. The area under the ROC curve was calculated to evaluate the ability of these scores in predicting MACCE. P-values were considered significant at < 0.05. Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.2 ± 12.0 years, 35.4% were females, and 22.5% had diabetes. MACCE occurred in 23.8% of the patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.586 (p = 0.028) for ACEF, 0.616 (p = 0.003) for SS, 0.623 (p = 0.002) for ACEF Mod , and 0.658 (p < 0.001) for CSS. In multivariate analysis, only high SS (p = 0.011) and CSS (p = 0.002) were independent predictors of MACCE. Conclusions: High SS and CSS were independent predictors of MACCE. In our cohort of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, pure anatomical SS calculated at the baseline coronary angiography was a useful tool to predict MACCE

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Probability , Risk Factors , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Vessels , Heparin/administration & dosage , Multivariate Analysis , Myocardial Infarction , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Statistical Analysis , Stroke/complications
J. vasc. bras ; 17(1): 26-33, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-904898


Contexto: A cirurgia bariátrica é considerada a melhor opção para o tratamento da obesidade, cujos pacientes são considerados de alto risco para fenômenos tromboembólicos. Objetivos: Comparar o uso de doses diferentes de heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM) na profilaxia da trombose venosa profunda (TVP) em pacientes candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica em relação ao risco de TVP, alteração na dosagem do fator anti-Xa e sangramento pré ou pós-operatório. Métodos: Estudo comparativo transversal em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica distribuídos em dois grupos, que receberam doses de HBPM de 40 mg (grupo controle, GC) e 80 mg (grupo de estudo, GE). Foram avaliados por ultrassonografia vascular e dosagem de KPTT, TAP, plaquetas e fator anti-Xa. Resultados: Foram avaliados 60 pacientes, sendo 34 no GC e 26 no GE. Foi observada diferença significativa somente no peso (p = 0,003) e índice de massa corporal (p = 0,018) no GE em relação ao GC. Não houve diferença na dosagem de KPTT, TAP, plaquetas e fator anti-Xa entre os grupos. Não foram detectados TVP ou sangramentos significativos em ambos os grupos. Conclusões: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na utilização de doses maiores de HBPM na profilaxia da TVP em pacientes candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica em relação ao risco de TVP, dosagem do fator anti-Xa e sangramento pré ou pós-operatório

Background: Bariatric surgery is considered the best treatment option for patients with obesity who are classed as high risk for thromboembolic events. Objectives: To compare two different doses of low weight molecular heparin (LWMH) for prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in candidates for bariatric surgery, in terms of DVT risk, abnormal anti-Xa levels, and preoperative and/or postoperative bleeding. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study of bariatric surgery patients divided into two groups given different doses of LWMH; 40 mg of LWMH (control group, CG) and 80 mg of LWMH (study group, SG), both evaluated by vascular ultrasonography (VU) and according to the results of PTT, PT, platelets, and anti-Xa factor assays. Results: Sixty patients were evaluated, 34 in the CG and 26 in the SG. The only significant differences between the patients in the SG and the CG were weight (p = 0.003) and body mass index (p = 0.018). There were no differences between the groups in PTT, PT, platelets, or anti-Xa factor levels. There was no DVT or significant bleeding in either group. Conclusions: There were no statistical differences when higher doses of LWMH were used for prevention of DVT in bariatric surgery patients, in terms of DVT risk, anti-Xa factor levels, or preoperative and postoperative bleeding

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Comparative Study , Heparin/administration & dosage , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Disease Prevention , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Hemorrhage/complications , Coagulants/administration & dosage , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Control Groups , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Laparoscopy/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(2 Supl): 215-218, 2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-909690


Introdução: Com o aumento da longevidade observado nas últimas décadas, as intervenções coronárias percutâneas (ICP) em octogenários são cada vez mais indicadas. Objetivo: Traçar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico-angiográfico e os principais detalhes associados à ICP dos pacientes octogenários. Métodos: Cento e cinquenta pacientes octogenários foram submetidos à ICP entre janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2016, no Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, correspondendo a 3,7% dos 3987 casos tratados e a 18% dos com idade >70 anos, e incluídos de forma sequencial e prospectiva. Não houve critérios de exclusão. Os resultados clínicos expostos foram restritos à fase hospitalar. Resultados: A maioria (63%) era do sexo masculino, com idade média de 86±3,9 anos (máximo de 102 anos). Do total de pacientes, 91,3% eram hipertensos, 37,4% diabéticos, a ICP prévia foi realizada em para 17,4%, enquanto 34,1% apresentaram infarto prévio. A cinecoronariografia identificou que 70,4% eram multiarteriais, dos quais 4% exibiam lesões não pro - tegidas do tronco da coronária esquerda. A maioria (55%) apresentava disfunção ventricular significativa. Stents farmacológicos (SF) foram utilizados em 97,2% dos casos. O sucesso angiográfico foi obtido em 97,5% e o sucesso clínico em 93,2%. A mortalidade e o infarto ocorreram abaixo de 4,3% dos casos. Conclusão: Nessa população, observaram-se que os pacientes octogenários constituíram a minoria dos idosos tratados; a doença multiarterial grave foi o achado predominante; os stents farmacológicos foram implantados quase em todos os casos e os sucessos angiográfico e clínico apresentaram-se elevado

With the increase in longevity observed in recent decades, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in octogenarians are increasingly indicated. Objective: To outline the clinical, epidemiological and angiographic profile and main details associated with PCI in octogenarian patients. Methods: One hundred and fifty octogenarian patients underwent PCI between January 2015 and December 2016 at the Dante Pazzanese In - stitute of Cardiology, corresponding to 3.7% of the 3987 cases treated and 18% of those aged> 70 years, and included sequentially and prospectively. There were no exclusion criteria. The clinical results were restricted to the hospital phase. Results: The majority (63%) were males, with a mean age of 86±3.9 years (maximum 102 years). Of the total patients, 91.3% were hypertensive, 37.4% were diabetic, 17.4% had previously undergone PCI, while 34.1% had previous infarction. The coronary angiography indicated that 70.4% were multiarterial, of which 4% had unprotected lesions of the trunk of the left coronary artery. The majority (55%) had significant ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological stents were used in 97.2% of the cases. Angiographic success was achieved in 97.5% and clinical success in 93.2%. Mortality and infarction occurred in less than 4.3% of the cases. Conclusion: In this population, it was observed that octogenarian patients constituted a minority of treated elderly; severe multivessel disease was the predominant finding; pharmacological stents were implanted in almost all cases, and angiographic and clin

Humans , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/rehabilitation , Angiography/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Drug-Eluting Stents
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(1): 84-91, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899662


Resumen La terapia anticoagulante es ampliamente utilizada en la práctica clínica, como profilaxis en pacientes con riesgo de presentar fenómenos tromboembólicos o como tratamiento en aquellos que han presentado algún evento trombótico. Cada vez es más frecuente enfrentarse a pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante crónico que serán intervenidos mediante procedimientos quirúrgicos, por lo que es importante y necesario conocer el manejo perioperatorio de los diferentes fármacos anticoagulantes, para disminuir los riesgos y complicaciones asociados a la suspensión o mantención de estos en el período perioperatorio. Para lograr este objetivo se debe evaluar y balancear el riesgo de sangrado versus el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos, considerando la condición médica de cada paciente y el tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico que recibirá. La recomendación para fármacos anticoagulantes orales antagonistas de vitamina K es mantenerlos en cirugías con bajo riesgo de sangrado y suspenderlos 5 días antes de procedimientos quirúrgicos con riesgo hemorrágico moderado y alto, controlando el international normalized ratio el día previo a la cirugía. Los nuevos anticoagulantes orales no requieren monitorización de rutina, recomendándose suspenderlos a las 24-96 h previas al procedimiento quirúrgico, dependiendo del riesgo hemorrágico de cada cirugía y de la función renal. En relación con los anticoagulantes parenterales, la heparina no fraccionada en infusión intravenosa se recomienda suspenderla 4-5 h antes de la cirugía, mientras que la utilizada vía subcutánea, 12 h previas a la intervención quirúrgica. Las heparinas de bajo peso molecular en dosis de tratamiento se sugiere descontinuarlas 24 h previas a la cirugía, mientras que las usadas en dosis profilácticas, solo 12 h antes.

Anticoagulant therapy is widely used in clinical practice, as prophylaxis in patients at risk of presenting thromboembolic phenomena or as treatment in those who have presented a thrombotic event. It is increasingly the number of patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy to undergo surgical procedures, so it is important and necessary to know the perioperative management of the different anticoagulant drugs to reduce the risks and complications associated with suspension or maintenance of these in the perioperative period. To achieve this goal, the risk of bleeding should be evaluated and balanced against the risk of thromboembolic events, considering the medical condition of each patient and the type of surgical procedure to which they have undergone. The recommendation for vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drugs is to maintain them for surgeries at low risk of bleeding and to suspend them 5 days before surgical procedures with moderate and high bleeding risk, controlling 'International Normalized Ratio' the day before surgery. The new oral anticoagulants do not require routine monitoring, recommending suspending them 24-96 h prior to the surgical procedure, depending on the hemorrhagic risk of each surgery and renal function of patient. In relation to parenteral anticoagulants, unfractionated heparin in intravenous infusion is recommended to be discontinued 4-5 h prior to surgery, while the subcutaneous route, 12 h prior to surgery. Low-molecular-weight heparins in treatment doses should be suspended 24 h prior to surgery, while in prophylactic doses, only 12 h earlier.

Humans , Perioperative Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Heparin/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Risk Assessment , Coumarins/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): 205-210, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875326


tratamento da FA, os pacientes podem ser submetidos a atendimentos eletivos ou de emergência para a reversão do ritmo, incluindo a cardioversão química ou elétrica, bem como o tratamento intervencionista de ablação por cateter, visando a melhora dos sintomas e da qualidade de vida. Em todas as modalidades do tratamento, a terapia anticoagulante oral (ACO) é um dos pilares do tratamento da FA, indispensável para a prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos. A incorporação dos chamados "anticoagulantes de ação direta" (DOAC) no arsenal do tratamento representou um novo paradigma, com estudos randomizados controlados e as evidências de mundo real demonstrando resultados de eficácia e segurança comparáveis com relação à varfarina, com a vantagem de menor interação medicamentosa e alimentar e menor risco de hemorragias catastróficas. O uso de DOAC para o manejo de pacientes que serão submetidos ao procedimento de ablação por cateter para o tratamento intervencionista da FA ou cardioversão elétrica/química é hoje uma realidade cada vez mais presente e tem respaldo dos estudos randomizados controlados e das experiências em vários centros hospitalares mundiais, com esquema e programação mais simples e melhor comodidade no manejo da anticoagulação

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. During the course of AF, patients may be submitted to elective or emergency approaches for rhythm reversal, including pharmacological or electrical cardioversion, as well interventional treatment with catheter ablation, to improve the symptoms and quality of life. In all treatment modalities, it is important to emphasize that oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC) is one of the pillars of AF treatment, and is indispensable for preventing thromboembolic events. The incorporation of so-called "direct oral anticoagulants" (DOACs) into the arsenal of treatment represented a new paradigm, with randomized controlled trials and real-world clinical evidence demonstrating comparable efficacy and safety to warfarin, with the advantage of less drug and food interaction and less risk of catastrophic bleeding. The use of DOACs for the management of patients undergoing catheter ablation for interventional AF treatment or electrical/pharmacological cardioversion is increasingly used and supported by randomized controlled trials and experiences in several worldwide hospital centers, with a simpler regimen and programming and easier management of anticoagulation

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Electric Countershock/methods , Catheter Ablation/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use
J. vasc. bras ; 16(3): f:199-l:204, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876806


Contexto: Embora preconizada, a profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) deixa de ser realizada sistematicamente em pacientes internados. Objetivo: Verificar se os pacientes hospitalizados recebem a prescrição correta da profilaxia de TEV do médico responsável por sua internação, conforme sua categoria de risco. Métodos: Estudo transversal com análise de prontuários de pacientes internados no Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba, PR, entre 20 de março e 25 de maio de 2015. Excluíram-se os pacientes em uso de anticoagulantes ou com sangramento ativo. Analisou-se gênero, idade, tipo de cobertura de saúde, especialidade responsável pelo paciente e fatores de risco dos pacientes para classificá-los em alto, moderado ou baixo risco para TEV. Comparou-se o uso ou não da profilaxia entre as prescrições das especialidades clínicas e cirúrgicas, pacientes internados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e por convênios e de acordo com seu risco para TEV. Resultados: Dos 78 pacientes avaliados, oito preencheram os critérios de exclusão. Dos 70 pacientes elegíveis (média etária 56,9 anos; 41 homens; 62 cobertos pelo SUS), 31 eram tratados por clínicos e 39 por cirurgiões. Apenas 46 (65,71%) pacientes receberam profilaxia para TEV. Dentre os pacientes clínicos, 29 (93,5%) receberam profilaxia, contra 17 (43,6%) do grupo cirúrgico (p < 0,001). Pacientes clínicos de moderado e alto risco receberam mais profilaxia que os cirúrgicos (p < 0,001 e p = 0,002). Não houve diferenças quanto à cobertura de saúde (SUS versus convênios médicos). Conclusões: No Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba, pacientes cirúrgicos estão menos protegidos de eventos tromboembólicos em relação aos clínicos

Background: Although prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism is recommended, it is rarely systematically performed in hospitalized patients. Objective: To investigate whether hospitalized patients are given the correct VTE prophylaxis prescription by the physician responsible for them while in hospital, analyzed by risk category. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on analysis of medical records for patients admitted to the Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, from March 20 to May 25, 2015. Patients on anticoagulants or with active bleeding were excluded. The following variables were analyzed: sex, age, type of healthcare coverage, specialty responsible for the patient, and patients' risk factors to classify them as at high, moderate, or low risk of VTE. Use or not of prophylaxis was compared across prescriptions made by clinical and surgical specialties, between patients treated on the Brazilian National Health Service (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde) and private health insurance, and according to patients' risk of VTE. Results: Eight of the 78 patients assessed met exclusion criteria. The remaining 70 eligible patients had a mean age of 56.9 years, 41 were male, 62 were treated on the SUS, 31 were treated by clinicians, and 39 were treated by surgeons. Just 46 (65.71%) patients were given prophylaxis for VTE. Among the clinical patients, 29 (93.5%) were given prophylaxis, against 17 (43.6%) in the surgical group (p < 0.001). Moderate and high risk clinical patients were more likely to be given prophylaxis than surgical patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). There were no differences with relation to type of healthcare coverage (SUS vs. private healthcare). Conclusions: At the Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Curitiba, surgical patients are less well protected from thromboembolic events than clinical patients

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Prevention , Patients , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Therapy/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 22-27, Jan. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837669


Abstract Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of heparin, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and silver nanoparticles on prevention of postoperative adhesion in animal models. Methods: Sixty males Albino Wistar rats aged 5 to 6 weeks were classified into five groups receiving none, heparin, PRP, silver nanoparticles, PRP plus silver nanoparticles intraperitoneally. After 2 weeks, the animals underwent laparotomy and the damaged site was assessed for peritoneal adhesions severity. Results: The mean severity scores were 2.5 ± 0.9, 2.16 ± 0.7, 1.5 ± 0.5, 2.66 ± 0.88, and 2.25 ± 0.62 in the control, heparin, PRP, silver and PRP plus silver groups, respectively with significant intergroup difference (p = 0.004). The highest effective material for preventing adhesion formation was PRP followed by heparin and PRP plus silver. Moreover, compared to the controls, only use of PRP was significantly effective, in terms of adhesion severity (p = 0.01) . Conclusion: Platelet-rich plasma alone may have the highest efficacy for preventing postoperative peritoneal adhesions in comparison with heparin, silver nanoparticles and PRP plus silver nanoparticles.

Animals , Male , Rats , Peritoneal Diseases/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Silver/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Rats, Wistar , Laparotomy
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(1): 39-48, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-836944


A comunicação interatrial tipo ostium secundum (CIA OS) é uma cardiopatia congênita relativamente frequente, que causa repercussão hemodinâmica para o ventrículo direito, com sobrecarga volumétrica e dilatação da câmara. A maioria dos pacientes é assintomática, porém sintomas podem aparecer depois da segunda década de vida. O tratamento eletivo é usualmente realizado próximo ao quinto ano de vida, podendo ser indicado mais precocemente quando houver sintomatologia exuberante. O fechamento transcateter usando uma prótese de duplo disco é bem estabelecido como a primeira escolha de tratamento para a maioria dos pacientes de anatomia favorável. Foi comprovado que o forame oval patente (FOP) está associado à acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) em pacientes com poucos ou nenhum fator de risco de doença cardiovascular. Recentemente, foi demonstrado que a oclusão transcateter do FOP é superior ao tratamento clínico para prevenir recorrências de AVCI nessa população, em um estudo randomizado com acompanhamento clínico de longo prazo. Este manuscrito revisa as atuais indicações, critérios de seleção do paciente e o seguimento clínico dos pacientes com CIA OS e FOP submetidos ao tratamento transcateter

Ostium secundum atrial septal defect (OS-ASD) is a relatively frequent congenital heart defect that causes hemodynamic burden on the right ventricle with volume overload and chamber dilatation. Most patients are asymptomatic, however symptoms can appear after the second decade of life. Elective treatment is usually performed around the fifth year of life, and may be occasionally indicated earlier if there are exuberant symptoms. Transcatheter closure using a double disc device is well established as the first choice of treatment for most patients with suitable anatomy. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been shown to be associated with ischemic stroke in patients with no or limited risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It was recently demonstrated in a randomized trial with long-term follow-up that transcatheter closure of PFO is superior to medical treatment for preventing recurrences of stroke in this patient population. This manuscript reviews the current indications, patient selection criteria, and long-term follow-up in patients with OS-ASD and PFO submitted to transcatheter closure

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Heart Atria/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/therapy , Heart Ventricles , Thoracic Surgery , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Femoral Artery , Cardiac Catheters , Heart/physiopathology
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 33(2): 72-83, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1009158


El síndrome antifosfolípido está definido por la combinación de manifestaciones clínicas trombóticas y/u obstétricas y un título persistentemente alto y significativo de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos. La presencia de múltiples trombos en lechos vasculares pequeños que lleva a falla multiorgánica, simultáneamente o en menos de 1 semana, define al síndrome antifosfolípido catastrófico el cual conlleva alta mortalidad; sin embargo, la sospecha diagnóstica y la institución temprana del tratamiento, definitivamente inciden en el pronóstico de éstos pacientes(AU)

Antiphospholipid syndrome is defined by the combination of thrombotic and/or obstetric clinical manifestations and a persistently high and significant title of antiphospholipid antibodies. The presence of multiple thrombi in small vascular beds leading to multi-organ failure that occurs simultaneously or in less than 1 week, and defines the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome which carries high mortality, The suspected diagnosis and early treatment affects the prognosis of these patients(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Heparin/administration & dosage , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/chemistry , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Internal Medicine
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 29(4): f:164-l:168, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831753


Relato de 5 casos de pacientes com fibrilação atrial persistente de longa duração refratários ao tratamento com fármacos antiarrítmicos e submetidos a ablação da fibrilação atrial por cateter há pelo menos 12 meses. Os pacientes apresentavam as mesmas queixas, estavam utilizando os mesmos medicamentos, eram portadores de hipertensão resistente e de outras comorbidades, e voltaram a apresentar fibrilação atrial persistente de longa duração. Todos foram submetidos a denervação renal simpática associada a reisolamento das veias pulmonares e passaram a apresentar redução significativa da pressão arterial, tanto sistólica como diastólica, aferida no consultório e por monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas após o procedimento. Mesmo após o imediato sucesso do procedimento, com recuperação do ritmo sinusal, em menos de 12 meses os pacientes tiveram recorrência de fibrilação atrial persistente. Observou-se, porém, redução do volume do átrio esquerdo 12 meses após o procedimento. Conclui-se que a denervação renal simpática foi eficaz no controle da pressão arterial, com consequente redução do volume do átrio esquerdo

Case report of 5 patients with persistent long-standing atrial fibrillation refractory to treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation by catheter for at least 12 months. Patients had the same complaints, were using the same drugs, were carriers of resistant hypertension and other comorbidities and resumed persistent long-standing atrial fibrillation. All of them were submitted to renal sympathetic denervation combined to re-isolation of the pulmonary veins and had a significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction, measured at the clinic and by 24-hour outpatient monitoring after the procedure. Even after the immediate success of the procedure, with the recovery of sinus rhythm, in less than 12 months patients had a recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation. However, a reduction in the volume of the left atrium was observed 12 months after the procedure. It is concluded that sympathetic renal denervation was effective in blood pressure control with consequent reduction of left atrial volume

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Arterial Pressure , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Hypertension , Pulmonary Veins , Sympathectomy/methods , Age Factors , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Catheter Ablation/methods , Drug Therapy/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 323-330, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827857


Abstract Background: To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies evaluating the influence of the unit of the first contact on the frequency and time of pharmacological treatment during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. Objectives: The main objective was to investigate if the unit of first contact influenced the frequency and time of aspirin treatment in the Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ERICO) study. Methods: We analyzed the pharmacological treatment time in 830 ERICO participants - 700 individuals for whom the hospital was the unit of first contact and 130 who initially sought primary care units. We built logistic regression models to study whether the unit of first contact was associated with a treatment time of less than three hours. Results: Individuals who went to primary care units received the first aspirin dose in those units in 75.6% of the cases. The remaining 24.4% received aspirin at the hospital. Despite this finding, individuals from primary care still had aspirin administered within three hours more frequently than those who went to the hospital (76.8% vs 52.6%; p<0.001 and 100% vs. 70.7%; p=0.001 for non ST-elevation ACS and ST-elevation myocardial infarction, respectively). In adjusted models, individuals coming from primary care were more likely to receive aspirin more quickly (odds ratio: 3.66; 95% confidence interval: 2.06-6.51). Conclusions: In our setting, individuals from primary care were more likely to receive aspirin earlier. Enhancing the ability of primary care units to provide early treatment and safe transportation may be beneficial in similar settings.

Resumo Fundamento: Em nosso conhecimento, não há estudos que avaliam a influência da unidade de primeiro contato na frequência e tempo para o tratamento farmacológico durante um evento de síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Objetivos: O principal objetivo foi investigar se a unidade de primeiro contato influencia a frequência e o tempo para tratamento com aspirina no estudo "Estratégia de Registro de Insuficiência Coronariana" (ERICO). Métodos: Analisamos o tempo para o tratamento farmacológico em 830 participantes do estudo ERICO - 700 indivíduos cuja primeira unidade de contato foi o hospital, e 130 que procuraram, num primeiro momento, unidades de atenção primária. Construímos modelos de regressão logística para estudar se a unidade de primeiro contato estava associada a um tempo de tratamento de menos de três horas. Resultados: Indivíduos que buscaram unidades de atenção primária receberam a primeira dose de aspirina nestas unidades em 75,6% dos casos. Os outros 24,4% receberam a aspirina no hospital. Apesar deste achado, indivíduos de unidades de atenção primária receberam aspirina em três horas mais frequentemente do que aqueles que foram ao hospital (76,8% vs 52,6%; p<0,001 e 100% vs, 70,7%; p=0,001 para SCA sem elevação do segmento ST e infarto agudo do miocárdio com elevação do ST, respectivamente). Em modelos ajustados, indivíduos vindos de unidades de atenção primária tinham mais probabilidade de receber aspirina mais rapidamente (razão de chances: 3,66; 95% intervalo de confiança: 2,06-6,51). Conclusões: Neste contexto, indivíduos provenientes de unidades de atenção primária tinham maior chance de receber aspirina mais rapidamente. O aprimoramento da capacidade das unidades de atenção primária para proporcionar tratamento precoce e transporte seguro pode ser benéfico em contextos similares.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Time Factors , Ticlopidine/administration & dosage , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Brazil , Heparin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Status , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(4): f:253-l:261, jul.-ago. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831819


Fundamentos: As recomendações das diretrizes para o tratamento de pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST) são baseados principalmente em dados de estudos clínicos randomizados. Objetivos: Procuramos avaliar as tendências temporais das características, do tratamento e da evolução de pacientes com IAMCSST que representassem a prática clínica diária. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo incluindo todos os pacientes com IAMCSST que procuraram nosso serviço no período de 2010 a 2013. Foram avaliados os aspectos clínicos, angiográficos, laboratoriais e de tratamento, além dos eventos cardiovasculares maiores (ECVM) em 30 dias. Resultados: O escore de risco TIMI médio e a maioria das características clínicas e angiográficas iniciais dos 1973 pacientes incluídos se mantiveram estáveis de 2010 a 2013, com exceção de diabetes mellitus (cuja frequência aumentou de 21% para 28%; p < 0,01). Foi realizada ICP primária em 95% dos casos, e o tempo porta-balão diminuiu de 1,27 para 1,11 horas (p < 0,01). Em relação ao tratamento, houve aumento significativo do uso de clopidrogrel 600mg em bolus (de 75% em 2010 para 93% em 2013; p < 0,001), no uso de anticoagulação pré-cateterização (50% versus 91%; p<0,001), e de acesso radial na ICPp (9% versus 66%; p < 0,001); houve, ainda, um menor uso de beta-bloqueadores (72% versus 63%; p < 0,001). Houve redução de ECVM de 17,4% para 9,5% (p < 0,05). Foram fatores preditivos independentes de ECVM as características iniciais, o acesso radial, o uso de beta-bloqueadores e de anticoagulação pré-cateterização. Conclusões: As características iniciais de pacientes com IAMCSST mantiveram-se estáveis durante um período de quatro anos, com exceção de diabetes mellitus, cuja frequência aumentou significativamente. Houve mudanças significativas no tratamento clínico e intervencionista e diminuição significativa nos desfechos cardiovasculares adversos em curto prazo. Os preditores de melhor evolução foram as características iniciais, uso de betabloqueadores, de anticoagulação pré-cateterização e acesso radial

Background: Guideline recommendations for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are mainly based on data from randomized clinical trials. Objectives: We sought to assess temporal trends in characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients with STEMI representative of the daily practice. Methods: Prospective cohort study including all patients with STEMI who presented at our institution from 2010 to 2013. Clinical, angiographic, laboratory, treatment aspects and 30-day major cardiovascular events (MACEs) were assessed and compared over the years. Results: The mean TIMI risk score, and most baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the 1973 patients included remained stable from 2010 to 2013, except for diabetes mellitus (whose frequency increased from 21% to 28%; p < 0.01). Primary PCI was performed in 95% of cases, and the door-to-balloon time decreased from 1.27 to 1.11 hours (p < 0.01). Regarding treatment, there were significant increases in the use of 600 mg boluses of clopidogrel (75% in 2010 vs 93% in 2013; p < 0.001), upstream anticoagulant (50% vs 91%; p < 0.001) and the radial approach in pPCI (9% vs 66%; p < 0.001), and lower use of beta-blockers (72% vs 63%; p < 0.001). MACE decreased from 17.4% to 9.5% (p < 0.05). Independent predictors of MACE were baseline characteristics, the radial approach, and use of beta-blockers and upstream anticoagulant. Conclusions: The baseline characteristics of patients with STEMI remained stable over a four-year period, except for the incidence of diabetes mellitus, which increased significantly. Medical and interventional treatments significantly changed, and short-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes significantly decreased. Predictors of better outcomes were baseline characteristics, use of beta-blockers and upstream anticoagulant, and the radial approach

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Clinical Studies as Topic/methods , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Analysis of Variance , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Heparin/administration & dosage , Multivariate Analysis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors