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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 950-957, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a potentially lethal complication of unfractionated or low-molecular weight heparin therapy. We aimed to determine the incidence and mortality rate of patients with positive heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, which is a rapid detection test of HIT. Methods: Coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral and aortic valve surgeries were evaluated. Cardiopulmonary bypass was employed in all patients. The diagnosis of HIT was based on immunological assays. Postoperative complications, mortality rates, and the causes of death were specified in patients with positive heparin/PF4 antibodies. Results: Postoperative thrombocytopenia was detected in 257 patients. Twenty of these patients undergoing open heart surgery were included in the final analysis. Antibodies against heparin/PF4 complex were positive in 20 patients. The mean body mass index was 28.8±2.3 kg/m2, mean value of left ventricular ejection fraction was 48.3±6.7%, cardiopulmonary bypass time was 113.0±35.0 min, aortic cross-clamping time was 88.0±32.7 min, mean intensive care unit length of stay was 10.9±4.9 days, mean preoperative platelet count was 307.250±88528 platelets/microliter, and mean postoperative platelet count was 243.050±89.354 platelets/microliter. The mean duration of heparin exposure was 6.9±2.9 days. The mortality rate was 45% (nine patients) and 1.2% (three patients) in heparin/PF4 complex positive and negative patients, respectively. Conclusion: Although the incidence of HIT was low in patients undergoing open heart surgery, an increased rate of early mortality was observed in patients with positive heparin/PF4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Factor 4 , Heparin/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(11): 1349-1355, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057072

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of prescriptions errors with potentially dangerous drugs (heparin and potassium chloride for injection concentrate) before and after the introduction of a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that compared errors in manual/pre-typed prescriptions in 2007 (Stage 1) with CPOE prescriptions in 2014 (Stage 2) (Total = 1,028 prescriptions), in two high-complexity hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brasil. RESULTS: An increase of 25% in the frequency of errors in Hospital 1 was observed after the intervention (p<0.001). In contrast, a decreased error frequency of 85% was observed in Hospital 2 (p<0.001). Regarding potassium chloride, the error rate remained unchanged in Hospital 1 (p>0.05). In Hospital 2, a significant decrease was recorded in Stage 2 (p<0.001). A reduced error severity with heparin (p<0.001) was noted, while potassium chloride-related prescription severity remain unchanged (p> 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and severity of medication errors after the introduction of CPOE was affected differently in the two hospitals, which shows a need for thorough observation when the prescription system is modified. Control of new potential errors introduced and their causes for the adoption of measures to prevent these events must be in place during and after the implementation of this technology.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência e a gravidade de erros em prescrições envolvendo medicamentos potencialmente perigosos (heparina e cloreto de potássio concentrado injetável) antes e após a introdução de um sistema de prescrição eletrônica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo que comparou erros em prescrições manuais e pré-digitadas de 2007 (Fase 1) com prescrições eletrônicas de 2014 (Fase 2) (total = 1.028 prescrições), em dois hospitais de alta complexidade de Belo Horizonte. RESULTADOS: Foi observado no hospital 1 aumento de 25% dos erros depois da intervenção (p<0,001), e no hospital 2 foi verificada redução de 85% (p<0,001). Para o cloreto de potássio, a frequência de erros permaneceu a mesma no hospital 1 (p>0,05), independentemente da fase e, no hospital 2, ocorreu redução significativa na fase 2 (p<0,001). Foi identificada redução da gravidade dos erros com a heparina (p<0,001), mas não houve alteração na gravidade dos erros com cloreto de potássio (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A frequência e a gravidade dos erros de medicação após a introdução de prescrição eletrônica foram impactadas de forma diferente nos dois hospitais, demonstrando necessidade de observação criteriosa quando o sistema de prescrição é modificado. Durante e após a implantação dessa tecnologia, deve existir controle dos novos erros potenciais introduzidos e suas causas para a adoção de medidas de prevenção desses eventos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Potassium Chloride/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Medical Order Entry Systems , Electronic Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data , Potassium Chloride/adverse effects , Brazil , Heparin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Prescribing/standards
4.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 276-285, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916531

ABSTRACT

As taquicardias de QRS estreito apresentam origem supraventricular. O histórico clínico, exame físico e eletrocardiograma na sala de emergência constituem-se nas principais ferramentas para o tratamento do quadro. As taquicardias que apresentam instabilidade hemodinâmica devem ser, imediatamente, revertidas através de cardioversão elétrica sincronizada. Aquelas que se apresentam como estáveis hemodinamicamente podem, se regulares, ser tratadas através de manobras vagais ou através do uso de fármacos endovenosos. Se irregulares, podem caracterizar fibrilação e flutter atrial, sendo, então, avaliados a duração do episódio e o risco de tromboembolismo para determinar não apenas a necessidade de anticoagulação, mas também a estratégia para tratamento do quadro, seja através do controle da frequência cardíaca ou do controle do ritmo, este último podendo ser alcançado através do uso de fármacos (propafenona oral ou amiodarona endovenosa) ou da cardioversão elétrica sincronizada. Dessa forma, o papel do clínico na sala de emergência é fundamental para garantir a condução adequada dos episódios de taquicardia supraventricular, especialmente, na prevenção ou pronta intervenção em caso de deterioração hemodinâmica relacionada ao quadro


Narrow QRS tachycardias are supraventricular in origin. The clinical history, physical exam, and electrocardiogram in the emergency room are the main tools used to manage this condition. Tachycardias that present haemodynamic instability must be promptly reverted through synchronized electrical cardioversion. Those that present haemodynamic stability may be treated with vagal maneuvers or intravenous drugs. If irregular, they may take the form of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and in this case, the duration of the episode and the thromboembolic risk are evaluated to determine not only the need for anticoagulation, but also the treatment strategy, whether through heart rate or rhythm control. The latter may be achieved through the use of drugs (oral propafenone or intravenous amiodarone) or synchronized electrical cardioversion. The role of the clinician in the emergency room is therefore fundamental in ensuring adequate conduct of episodes of supraventricular tachycardia, especially in prevention or prompt intervention in case of haemodynamic deterioration related to the condition


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Therapeutics , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnostic imaging , Emergencies , Atrial Fibrillation , Propafenone/adverse effects , Propafenone/therapeutic use , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Electric Countershock/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Verapamil/adverse effects , Verapamil/therapeutic use , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Electrocardiography/methods , Amiodarone/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 286-290, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916534

ABSTRACT

A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca mais comum na população com uma prevalência de 1-2%, além disso, está associada a um risco, aproximadamente cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral do que na população em geral. A anticoagulação é a melhor maneira de prevenir os eventos tromboembólicos. A varfarina é utilizada há décadas como uma droga segura e eficaz, desde que rigorosamente controlada. Nos últimos anos, foram desenvolvidas novas classes de anticoagulantes orais: inibidores diretos da trombina e inibidores do fator Xa, conhecidos como anticoagulantes orais de ação direta (DOACs). Tanto a cardioversão elétrica quanto a cardioversão farmacológica estão associadas a um maior risco de eventos tromboembólicos durante o primeiro mês após o procedimento (5-7%). No entanto, com a utilização de nticoagulantes essa taxa é inferior a 1%. No presente artigo, faremos uma revisão das principais evidências científicas relacionadas ao uso da dabigatrana, rivaroxabana, apixabana e edoxabana durante a cardioversão e uma abordagem prática com o manejo antitrombótico em diferentes cenários clínicos (cardioversão em pacientes com uso prévio de DOACs, cardioversão em pacientes com FA com duração maior ou menor que 48 horas sem anticoagulação)


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice with a prevalence of 1-2%, and is associated with an almost 5-fold increase in the risk of stroke compared to the general population. Anticoagulation is the best way to prevent thromboembolic events. Warfarin has been used for decades as a safe and effective drug, provided it is strictly controlled. In recent years, new classes of oral anticoagulants have been developed: direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors, known as direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Both electrical and pharmacological cardioversion are associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events during the first month after the procedure (5-7%). However, with the use of anticoagulants, this rate is less than 1%. In this article, we will review the main scientific evidence related to the use of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban during cardioversion and a practical approach with antithrombotic management in different clinical scenarios (cardioversion of patients in previous use of DOACs, cardioversion of patients not using oral anticoagulants with episodes of AF longer or shorter than 48 h)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrial Fibrillation , Electric Countershock , Emergencies , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Factor Xa , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Prevalence , Review , Stroke/complications , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(6): 710-715, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902535

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used with increasing frequency in patients with respiratory and cardiac failure. The achievement of an adequate anticoagulation is critical to avoid patient and circuit complications. Aim: To assess the feasibility and safety of anticoagulation with bivalirudin, as an alternative to unfractionated heparin (UFH), in patient with ECMO. Material and Methods: Observational study, which included all patients receiving anticoagulation with bivalirudin during ECMO, according to a standardized protocol, between august 2015 to May 2016. Results: Bivalirudin was used in 13 out 70 patients connected to ECMO. Ten procedures were for cardiac support and three for respiratory support. Mortality was 43%. ECMO lasted 31 ± 31 days. The time of UFH use before changing to bivalirudin was 7 ± 7 days. The reasons to change to bivalirudin were inadequate levels of partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in nine patients, and heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in four patients. The time of bivalirudin use was 24 ± 33 days. Per patient, a mean of 2.7 ± 4 oxygenators were changed. These had a useful life of 11.4 and 19.1 days during UFH and bivalirudin use, respectively. The mean bivalirudin dose was 0.08 ± 0.04 mg/kg/h. There was no significant bleeding, thrombosis or circuit obstruction during its use. PTT levels (p < 0.01) and platelet count (p < 0.01) increased significantly after the start of bivalirudin use in patients with UHF resistance and HIT, respectively. Conclusions: Bivalirudin was a safe and efficient drug for anticoagulation during ECMO. It is important to have an alternative drug for anticoagulation in ECMO patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Peptide Fragments/blood , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hirudins/blood , Anticoagulants/blood , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Platelet Count , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/blood , Heparin/adverse effects , Feasibility Studies , Hirudins/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 230-234, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841582

ABSTRACT

La trombocitopenia inducida por heparina (TIH) es una reacción adversa inmunológica mediada por la formación de anticuerpos contra el complejo heparina-factor plaquetario 4 (FP4), caracterizada por la presencia de trombocitopenia y la asociación paradojal de trombosis arterial o venosa. Es una complicación poco frecuente pero grave del uso de cualquier tipo de heparina. En tratados con procedimientos cardiovasculares como intervención coronaria percutánea y cirugía de revascularización cardiaca, la prevalencia de anticuerpos es significativamente mayor que en otros escenarios clínicos. El reconocimiento de las características clínicas y de laboratorio permite la suspensión inmediata de la heparina y la instauración de tratamiento anticoagulante alternativo, para evitar la progresión y formación de nuevos trombos y sus complicaciones. En la presente revisión se resumen las diferentes alternativas terapéuticas para la TIH, en particular los anticoagulantes orales directos (DOACS) como el dabigatran, rivaroxaban y apixaban que pueden proporcionar una nueva opción para el tratamiento de TIH.


Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse reaction due to antibodies to a multimolecular complex of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia and paradoxical arterial or venous thrombosis. It is a relatively infrequent complication related to the administration of any type of heparin. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery by-pass graft the prevalence of HIT is higher than in other clinical settings. Recognizing clinical and laboratory features of HIT allow immediate discontinuation of heparin and the use of alternative anticoagulants to avoid serious thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize different therapeutic options for the treatment of HIT with special emphasis on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACS) such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. DOACS might represent a therapeutic alternative for HIT treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Heparin/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/immunology
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 388-392, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comatose elderly patients with acute neurological illness have a great risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this study, the incidence of DVT and the effectiveness of early initiation of treatment were evaluated in those patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 323 patients were admitted to our ward due to neurological diseases in one year, and 43 patients, whose Glasgow Coma Scale was or =60 years, were included in this study. D-dimer was measured on admission and day 7, and lower-extremity ultrasonography was performed on day 7. When DVT was positive, heparin treatment was initiated, and further evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE) was conducted. Vena cava filter protection was inserted in PE-positive patients. Incidence of DVT and PE, alteration of D-dimer value, and effect of heparin treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: DVT was positive in 19 (44.2%) patients, and PE was in 4 (9.3%). D-dimer was significantly higher in DVT-positive group on day 7 (p<0.01). No DVT were identified in patients with ischemic disease, while 66.7% of intracerebral hemorrhage and 53.3% of brain contusion patients were DVT positive. Surgery was a definite risk factor for DVT, with an odds ratio of 5.25. DVT and PE disappeared by treatment in all cases, and no patients were succumbed to the thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Patients with hemorrhagic diseases or who undergo operation possess high risk of DVT, and initiation of heparin treatment in 7 days after admission is an effective prophylaxis for DVT in comatose elderly patients without causing bleeding.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Antifibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Coma , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(5): 307-310, Oct. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841518

ABSTRACT

La trombocitopenia inducida por heparina (TIH) es una reacción adversa inmunológica caracterizada por trombocitopenia y la asociación paradojal de trombosis arterial o venosa. Es causada por la formación de anticuerpos IgG contra el complejo multimolecular de heparina-factor plaquetario 4 (FP4). Fondaparinux es un inhibidor selectivo del factor Xa que tiene escasa afinidad por el FP4 y posee un menor potencial para inducir una respuesta inmunológica, haciendo del mismo un agente potencialmente útil en el tratamiento de la TIH. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 73 años con TIH asociada a fenómenos trombóticos arteriales y venosos, que recibió exitosamente fondaparinux, con normalización del recuento plaquetario y sin progresión trombótica.


Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated adverse reaction characterized by thrombocytopenia and paradoxical arterial or venous thrombosis, due to the formation IgG antibodies directed to a multimolecular complex of heparin-platelet factor 4 (PF4). Fondaparinux is a selective factor Xa inhibitor with little affinity for PF4 and thus less likely to induce an immune response, making fondaparinux a potentially useful drug for the treatment of HIT. Herein we report the case of a 73 years old woman with HIT associated with arterial and venous thrombosis that was successfully treated with fondaparinux, with normalization of the platelet countand without progression of thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Heparin/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Fondaparinux , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Necrosis
11.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 35(1): 93-96, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-747000

ABSTRACT

El tricobezoar es una rara formación tumoral gástrica causada por un cuerpo extraño compuesto fundamentalmente por pelo; también contiene moco y fragmentos de alimentos. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 22 años que hace 10 años fue intervenida por cuerpo extraño gástrico (tricobezoar), ahora refiere cuadro de dolor abdominal, distensión, náuseas y vómitos, al examen físico presencia de masa abdominal palpable en epigástrico y cuadrante superior izquierdo. En la cabeza se observaron zonas alopécicas. Discusión: El 90% de los tricobezoares se presentan en el sexo femenino. Su máxima frecuencia es entre 10 y 19 años. El tratamiento de los bezoares, excepto los más pequeños, es quirúrgico. El control psiquiátrico postoperatorio es fundamental ya que en casi todos los casos existe en el fondo un conflicto afectivo que perpetúa el hábito de ingerir cabello.


A Trichobezoar is a rare tumoral mass of the gastrointestinal tract, formed mainly from the ingestion of hair. It contains also mucus and foods debris. Case presentation: A 22 years old female with a 10 years history of surgery secondary to gastric foreign body (trichobezoar), presents with abdominal pain, swelling, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination of the abdomen revealed a palpable mass in the epigastric and left upper quadrant regions. It was also noted areas of alopecia of the scalp. Discussion: Ninety percent of the trichobezoars present in females with a high frequency between 10 - 19 years. The treatment of bezoars (unless small in size) is mainly surgical. A psychiatric evaluation and follow up is important after surgery hence in most cases there is a psychological disorder that lead to the ingestion of hair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Obesity/surgery , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Obesity/blood , Prevalence , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 30(2): 242-249, 2015. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A embolia pulmonar é a causa de morte mais previsível em pacientes hospitalizados, sendo isso ainda mais prevalente em pacientes cirúrgicos. 200.000 novos casos ocorrem anualmente, com início súbito e geralmente levando à morte nas primeiras 2 horas. Prevenir é, portanto, mais efetivo que tratar a doença estabelecida. Esse estudo objetiva demonstrar a importância e segurança do protocolo de prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso. Métodos: Conduzimos um estudo retrospectivo no período de maio de 2009 a maio de 2011, quando 2759 pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia plástica no Instituto Ivo Pitanguy. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao protocolo de prevenção e avaliados quanto aos fatores de risco para tromboembolismo venoso. A soma desses fatores gerou um escore que determinou a conduta profilática a ser adotada. Resultados: Houve três casos de tromboembolismo venoso (0,1%), sendo 1 de TEP e 2 de TVP. A quimioprofilaxia com enoxaparina administrada aos 3 pacientes de acordo com o protocolo de prevenção. Nossas taxas permaneceram abaixo das encontradas na literatura, com diferença estatisticamente significativa nos numero total de casos (p < 0,0001). Houve 34 casos de hematoma (1,2%), sendo 55,9% em pacientes submetidos à quimioprofilaxia e 44,1% em pacientes que usaram apenas o dispositivo de compressão pneumática intermitente apenas. As taxas totais de hematoma também permaneceram abaixo das encontradas na literatura, também com diferença estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,001). Conclusão: O protocolo de prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso do Instituto Ivo Pitanguy se provou seguro e importante na prevenção dos casos de TEV, com taxas de hematoma abaixo do descrito na literatura.


Introduction: Pulmonary embolism is the most predictable cause of death in hospitalized patients, even more in surgical patients. 200.000 new cases occur annually, with sudden onset and generally leading to death in the first 2 hours. Preventing is most effective than treating stablished disease. This study aims to show the importance and safety of the venous thromboembolism prevention protocol. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in the period between May 2009 and May 2011 at The Ivo Pitanguy Institute, where 2759 patients underwent plastic surgery (aesthetic and reconstructive). All patients were assessed for predisposing and exposing risk factors for venous thromboembolism and the sum of those factors generated a score determining the prophylactic procedure to be adopted according to the protocol. Results: There were three cases of venous thromboembolism (0.1%): one case of pulmonary embolism and two cases of deep venous thrombosis. Chemoprophylaxis with heparin was administered in the three patients according to the venous thromboembolism prevention protocol. Our rates remained below those found in the literature, with a statistically significant difference in total cases (p < 0.0001). There were 34 cases of hematoma (1.2%): 55.9% in patients submitted to pharmacological prophylaxis with heparin and 44,1% in patients who used sequential compression devices only. The total rates of hematoma also remained below those found in the literature with a statistically significant difference (p < 0,001). Conclusion: The venous thromboembolism prevention protocol of the Ivo Pitanguy Institute proved to be important and safe, preventing the occurrence of venous thromboembolism cases with low rates of hematoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , History, 21st Century , Pulmonary Artery , Heparin , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enoxaparin , Chemoprevention , Protocols , Evaluation Study , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Surgery, Plastic , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin/pharmacology , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/pharmacology , Chemoprevention/methods , Protocols/methods , Protocols/prevention & control
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(7): 410-416, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714571

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. METHODS: Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We did not observe statistically significant differences between groups when comparing the average weight of the foetuses and placentas, rate of female VS males, rates of pre-implantation loss (RPL), rates of efficiency implantation (REI), rates of post-implantation loss (RPIL) and rates of foetal viability (RFV). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant effect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Fertility/drug effects , Heparin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Fetus/drug effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Placenta/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
16.
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 26(4): 300-302, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702196

ABSTRACT

Relata-se o caso de hematoma espontâneo de parede abdominal como complicação de anticoagulação com heparina não fracionada em paciente com fibrilação atrial e alto risco de fenômeno tromboembólico. O hematoma do músculo reto abdominal é uma doença de baixa prevalência e que faz diagnóstico diferencial com outras condições abdominais agudas. Seu aparecimento se associa mais comumente à anticoagulação indicada na profilaxia de fenômenos tromboembólicos. No caso descrito, optou-se por tratamento clínico conservador.


This case study describes a spontaneous hematoma of the abdominal wall as a complication of anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) in a patient with atrial fibrillation and at high risk for a thromboembolic event. Hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle is a disease with low prevalence and a different diagnosis with other acute abdominal conditions. Its appearance is most commonly associated with anticoagulation indicated as prophylaxis for thromboembolic events. In the case described, conservative clinical treatment was selected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Hematoma , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Risk Factors
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(2): 161-166, mar.-abr. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673384

ABSTRACT

Heparin is a natural agent with antithrombotic action, commercially available for therapeutic use as unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious adverse reaction to heparin that promotes antibodymediated platelet activation. HIT is defined as a relative reduction in platelet count of 50% (even when the platelet count at its lowest level is above > 150 x 10(9)/L) occurring within five to 14 days after initiation of the therapy. Thrombocytopenia is the main feature that directs the clinical suspicion of the reaction and the increased risk of thromboembolic complications is the most important and paradoxical consequence. The diagnosis is a delicate issue, and requires a combination of clinical probability and laboratory tests for the detection of platelet activation induced by HIT antibodies. The absolute risk of HIT has been estimated between 1% and 5% under treatment with unfractionated heparin, and less than 1% with low molecular weight heparin. However, high-quality evidence about the risk of HIT from randomized clinical trials is scarce. In addition, information on the frequency of HIT in developing countries is not widely available. This review aims to provide a better understanding of the key features of this reaction and updated information on its frequency to health professionals and other interested parties. Knowledge, familiarity, and access to therapeutic options for the treatment of this adverse reaction are mandatory to minimize the associated risks, improving patient safety.


A heparina é um agente natural com ação antitrombótica, sendo disponibilizadas para uso terapêutico a heparina não fracionadaeaheparina de baixo peso molecular. A trombocitopenia induzida por heparina (TIH) é uma reação adversa grave às heparinas mediada por anticorpos que promovem ativação de plaquetas. A TIH é definida como uma redução rela- tiva na contagem de plaquetas de 50% (mesmo se a contagem de plaquetas no seu nível mais baixo estiver acima 150 x 10(9)/L) que pode ocorrer no período de cinco a 14 dias após o início da terapia com o medicamento. A trombocitopenia é a principal característica que direciona a suspeita clínica da reação, sendo o aumento do risco de complicações tromboembólicas a consequência mais importante e paradoxal. O diagnóstico é uma questão delicada e requer a combinação da probabilidade clínica com testes laboratoriais para detectar a ativação plaquetária induzida pelos anticorpos da TIH. O risco absoluto de TIH tem sido estimado entre 1 e 5% no tratamento com heparina não fracionada e inferior a 1% no uso de heparina de baixo peso molecular. No entanto, evidências de alta qualidade provenientes de ensaios clínicos randomizados sobre a frequência dessa reação são escassas. Além disso, informações sobre a frequência de TIH em países em desenvolvimento não são amplamente disponíveis. Esta revisão teve como objetivo fornecer aos profissionais de saúde e demais interessados um melhor conhecimento sobre a TIH e as principais características dessa reação, bem como apresentar dados atualizados sobre a frequência da mesma. Conhecimento, familiaridade e acesso a opções terapêuticas para o tratamento dessa reação adversa são necessários para minimizar os riscos associados, melhorando a segurança do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/immunology , Heparin/immunology , Risk Assessment , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(3): 225-233, mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-622520

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Infusão de intralipid e heparina resulta em aumento da pressão arterial e também em anormalidades autonômicas em indivíduos normais e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade a insulina e o impacto da infusão de intralipid e de heparina (ILH) sobre a resposta hemodinâmica, metabólica e autonômica em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Doze pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e 12 voluntários saudáveis foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial basal e a frequência cardíaca foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. Os níveis plasmáticos de noradrenalina encontravam-se ligeiramente aumentados no grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Após o Teste de Tolerância a Insulina (TTI), houve um declínio significativo na glicose dos dois grupos. A Infusão de ILH resultou em aumento da pressão arterial em ambos os grupos, mas não houve nenhuma mudança significativa na noradrenalina plasmática. O componente de Baixa Frequência (BF) mostrou-se semelhante e aumentou de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos. O componente de Alta Frequência (AF) apresentou-se menor no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas apresentaram aumento da atividade simpática no momento basal e uma resposta inadequada à insulina. Eles também tiveram um menor componente de alta frequência e sensibilidade barorreflexa prejudicada no momento basal e durante a infusão de intralipid e heparina.


BACKGROUND: Intralipid and heparin infusion results in increased blood pressure and autonomic abnormalities in normal and hypertensive individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate insulin sensitivity and the impact of Intralipid and heparin (ILH) infusion on hemodynamic, metabolic, and autonomic response in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. METHODS: Twelve patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and 12 healthy volunteers were evaluated. RESULTS: Baseline blood pressure and heart rate were similar in both groups. Plasma noradrenaline levels were slightly increased in the Chagas' group. After insulin tolerance testing (ITT), a significant decline was noted in glucose in both groups. ILH infusion resulted in increased blood pressure in both groups, but there was no significant change in plasma noradrenaline. The low-frequency component (LF) was similar and similarly increased in both groups. The high-frequency component (HF) was lower in the Chagas' group. CONCLUSION: Patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease had increased sympathetic activity at baseline and impaired response to insulin. They also had a lower high-frequency component and impaired baroreflex sensitivity at baseline and during Intralipid and heparin infusion.


FUNDAMENTO: La Infusión de intralipid® y de heparina trae como resultado un aumento de la presión arterial y también de las anormalidades autonómicas en los individuos normales e hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la sensibilidad a la insulina y el impacto de la infusión de intralipid® y de heparina (ILH) sobre la respuesta hemodinámica, metabólica y autonómica en pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados doce pacientes con la forma indefinida de la Enfermedad de Chagas y 12 voluntarios sanos. RESULTADOS: La presión arterial basal y la frecuencia cardíaca fueron similares en los dos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de noradrenalina estaban ligeramente más elevados en el grupo de pacientes chagásicos. Después del Test de Tolerancia a la Insulina (TTI), se produjo una ostensible disminución en la glucosa de los dos grupos. La Infusión de ILH trajo como consecuencia el aumento de la presión arterial en ambos grupos, pero no hubo ningún cambio significativo en la noradrenalina plasmática. El componente de Baja Frecuencia (BF), fue similar y aumentó de forma parecida en ambos grupos. El componente de Alta Frecuencia (AF) se presentó con un menor nivel en el grupo chagásico. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con una forma indeterminada de la Enfermedad de Chagas, presentaron un aumento en la actividad simpática al momento basal y una respuesta inadecuada a la insulina. También tuvieron un menor componente de alta frecuencia y de sensibilidad barorrefleja, que fue perjudicado en el momento basal y durante la infusión de intralipid® y heparina.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Baroreflex/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/adverse effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/adverse effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Insulin/adverse effects , Norepinephrine/blood , Sympathetic Nervous System/metabolism , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiopathology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(1): 19-22, feb. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639646

ABSTRACT

La trombocitopenia inducida por heparina (HIT) es un efecto adverso del tratamiento con heparina, mediada por anticuerpos anti complejo factor plaquetario 4 (PF4)-heparina (HPIA). La HIT es frecuentemente moderada pero pueden desarrollarse complicaciones trombóticas. El diagnóstico precoz es importante. La detección de HPIA por ELISA tiene alta sensibilidad pero baja especificidad (títulos bajos sin significación clínica). El índice de las 4T (índice 4T) puede detectar pacientes con alto riesgo de HIT. El propósito del estudio fue correlacionar los niveles de HPIA y el índice 4T de un grupo de pacientes derivados a nuestro centro. Evaluamos 84 pacientes, 34 de ellos desarrollaron trombosis. Cada médico completó un cuestionario clínico que fue remitido con la muestra a nuestro centro. Los cuestionarios fueron analizados por un investigador externo y el índice 4T se calculó previamente al ensayo. Los HPIA se determinaron por un ELISA (Asserachrom HPIA) que detecta los 3 isotipos, IgG, IgM e IgA, único reactivo disponible en Argentina. Los resultados se expresaron como porcentaje de absorbancia (%ABS). La correlación del índice 4T con los HPIA fue 0.472 (rho spearman, p < 0.001). Los pacientes con índice 4T ≥ 6 presentaban %ABS mayores que los ≤ 5 (67 vs. 39, p < 0.001). Aquéllos con trombosis presentaron títulos mayores que los que no la desarrollaron (%ABS 59 vs. 39, p = 0.017). En conclusión: Los títulos altos de HPIA medidos por ELISA, que detecta los 3 isotipos, correlacionaron claramente con el índice 4T ≥ 6 y fueron más frecuentes en los pacientes con trombosis, coincidiendo con lo ya descripto para ensayos de ELISA específicos para isotipo IgG.


Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated disorder due to antibodies anti platelet factor 4-heparin (HPIA). Thrombocytopenia is often moderate but certain patients can develop morbid thrombotic complications. HPIA detection by ELISA has high sensitivity but low specificity, and low titers (without clinical significance) are frequent. A pretest clinical score (4T´s) was developed in order to recognize patients that are at high risk of HIT. The aim of this study was to correlate HPIA levels and the 4T´s score of consecutive patients derived to our center. We evaluated 84 patients (35 of them developed thrombosis); the clinical questionnaire was sent along with the sample and was analyzed by an investigator who did not know the patients´ characteristics, and 4T´s scores were calculated before performing the laboratory tests. HPIA were measured by ELISA (Asserachrom HPIA) that detects IgG, IgM and IgA isotypes, (the only reagent available in our country). 4T´s score correlated with HPIA levels (rho spearman 0.472, p < 0.001). Patients with 4T´s ≥ 6 had higher absorbance percentages than those with ≤ 5 (67 vs. 39%, p < 0.001), and patients with thrombosis also presented higher titers (59 vs. 39%, p = 0.017) than those who did not develop this complication. In conclusion, high titers of HPIA measured by EIA which detects the 3 isotypes, clearly correlate with 4T´s score ≥ 6 and are more frequent in patients who develop thrombosis, just as reported when an IgG specific ELISA is used.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies/analysis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , /immunology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heparin/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/chemistry , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
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