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1.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 399-403, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142343

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) is difficult to detect due to the lack of easily applicable screening tools. The Stroop EncephalApp is a smartphone application already validated for CHE screening. However, its applicability to the Brazilian population is not known. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of CHE and evaluate the use of Stroop EncephalApp in a cirrhotic population in Brazil. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 99 patients previously diagnosed with liver cirrhosis in a Private Hospital in Curitiba/PR. Patients were initially submitted to the mini mental state examination (MMSE) to exclude individuals with dementia. After, the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) test was performed and lastly, the Stroop EncephalApp test. Results were adjusted for age, sex and education levels to evaluate the accuracy of the app on detecting the disease, comparing its results with the gold standard method (PHES). Patients with one or more of the following were excluded: dementia, inadequate MMSE score, illiteracy, color blindness, history of drugs/alcohol abuse within the past 3 months and previous or actual episodes of encephalopathy. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 2.0 and the significance adopted by 5%. RESULTS: We included 82 individuals in the final analysis. Among these patients, 29 were diagnosed with CHE by the PHES test (35.36% prevalence) and 28 of those obtained equal diagnosis by the Stroop EncephalApp (96.6% sensitivity). A total of 53 patients obtained negative results for CHE by PHES, while the Stroop test classified 27 of them as having the disease. In the multivariate analysis, high levels of education were associated with better performance during the tests. No significant relationship was observed between age and sex with the probability of diagnosing CHE through the PHES test.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A encefalopatia hepática mínima (EHM) é uma complicação neuro-psiquiátrica da cirrose cuja detecção é dificultada pela falta de ferramentas práticas. O Stroop EncephalApp é um aplicativo de smartphones capaz de detectar a doença, entretanto sua aplicabilidade na população brasileira ainda não é conhecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso do Stroop EncephalApp para diagnóstico e avaliação de EHM em uma população de pacientes cirróticos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Através de um estudo observacional transversal, 99 indivíduos sabidamente cirróticos foram recrutados do ambulatório de hepatologia de um hospital privado em Curitiba/PR. Primeiramente, foram aplicados o mini exame do estado mental (MEEM) para excluir indivíduos com demência; após, foram aplicados o Escore Psicométrico da Encefalopatia Hepática (PHES), atual padrão-ouro para diagnóstico de EHM, e posteriormente o Stroop EncephalApp, ajustando para idade, sexo e anos de formação acadêmica, buscando avaliar a eficiência do aplicativo em detectar a doença e comparar seus resultados com o atual padrão-ouro. Foram excluídos do estudo indivíduos com demência, pontuação insuficiente no MEEM, analfabetos, daltônicos, e com histórico de abuso de álcool/drogas ilícitas nos últimos 3 meses e paciente com episódios prévios ou atuais de encefalopatia hepática. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo SPSS 2.0 e a significância adotada em 5%. RESULTADOS: Um total de 82 indivíduos foram incluídos na análise final. Destes, 29 foram diagnosticados com EHM (35,36% de prevalência) através do PHES e 28 obtiveram o mesmo resultado após a aplicação do Stroop (96,6% de sensibilidade). Cinquenta e três pacientes obtiveram um resultado negativo para EHM através do PHES, sendo que 27 desses obtiveram um resultado positivo para EHM através do Stroop. Na análise multivariada, níveis elevados de escolaridade estiveram associados com melhor desempenho durante a execução dos testes. Não houve associação significativa entre idade e sexo com a probabilidade de apresentar encefalopatia através do PHES. CONCLUSÃO: O Stroop EncephalApp é uma ferramenta viável e com boa sensibilidade para o screening de EHM, mas possui baixa especificidade na população estudada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hepatic Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Psychometrics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Medisan ; 24(2)mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1098389

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia hepática aguda es una entidad de origen multifactorial, que se presenta en niños previamente sanos y tiene repercusión directa en las funciones de síntesis, coagulación y depuración. Objetivo: Caracterizar niños con insuficiencia hepática aguda según variables clínicas y humorales. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 19 pacientes con el diagnóstico de insuficiencia hepática aguda, atendidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Docente Infantil Sur de Santiago de Cuba, desde abril de 1998 hasta igual mes de 2018, para lo cual se emplearon métodos teóricos y estadísticos. Resultados: En la casuística predominó el sexo femenino (57,9 %), la mediana de la edad fue de 5 años y la infección constituyó la causa más común (73,7 %). Los virus hepatotrópicos como el de la hepatitis A resultaron los más frecuentes. Las complicaciones de mayor observancia fueron la alcalosis respiratoria (63,1 %), la disfunción multiorgánica (42,1 %) y la encefalopatía hepática (31,6 %). Las cifras bajas de colesterol y el tiempo de protrombina mayor de 20 segundos se asociaron a una mayor letalidad. Conclusiones: En los pacientes menores de un año los virus no hepatotrópicos constituyeron el origen más frecuente de dicha enfermedad.


Introduction: The acute liver failure is an entity of multifactorial origin that is presented in previously healthy children and has direct repercussion in the synthesis, clotting and purification functions. Objective: To characterize children with acute liver failure according to clinical and humoral variables. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study of 19 patients with diagnosis of acute liver failure was carried out, they were assisted in the Pediatric Intensive Cares Unit of the Southern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from April, 1998 to the same month in 2018, for which theoretical and statistical methods were used. Results: In the case material there was a prevalence of the female sex (57.9 %), the mean age was 5 years and the infection constituted the most common cause (73.7 %). The hepatotropic virus as the hepatitis A were the most frequent. The complications of more observance were the respiratory alkalosis (63.1 %), the multiorganic dysfunction (42.1 %) and the liver brain disease (31.6 %). The low figures of cholesterol and the prothrombin time higher than 20 seconds were associated with a greater lethality. Conclusions: In the patients younger than one year the non hepatotropic virus constituted the most frequent origin in this disease.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Child , Adolescent
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(1): e2020146, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053539

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic irritant used in various sectors like rodenticide, firecracker industries, match industries, and fertilizers. Phosphorus poisoning is responsible for deaths among children and adults. Accidental yellow phosphorus poisoning is frequently reported in children, whereas suicidal consumption is not uncommon amongst adults. Herein, we present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who ingested Ratol paste containing yellow phosphorus in an attempt to commit suicide. Her initial chief complaints were nausea, vomiting along with loose motion during hospitalization, followed by a symptomless phase with stable vitals on the 2nd day, and managed conservatively. She took discharge against the medical advice. Later on, she was readmitted in the same hospital, after two days, complaining of generalized weakness, bodily pain, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and breathing difficulties. She developed severe complications due to the intoxication and died. An autopsy was performed. The histopathological and the toxicological examination were carried out. We found characteristic features in different organs due to yellow phosphorus toxicity. We concluded the cause of death as hepatic encephalopathy and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome caused by the yellow phosphorus poisoning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phosphorus/poisoning , Autopsy , Hepatic Encephalopathy/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Abernethy malformation is a rare condition, which was first described in 1793 as a congenital extrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (CEPS) directing splanchnic blood flow into the inferior vena cava. Eighty cases have been published so far that reported CEPS, while in Korea, very few cases have been reported. Through this study, we present 6 cases of patients diagnosed with CEPS at Samsung Medical Center and compare these with other such cases published in France and China. METHODS: We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of 6 children with CEPS in our pediatric clinic between 2004 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 6 children with CEPS was included in this study, namely, one with type 1a, two with type 1b, and three with type 2 CEPS. The most common presenting symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding (50.0%). Therapeutic interventions included shunting vessel ligation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS and liver transplantation (16.7%) in type 2 CEPS patient with suddenly developed hepatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus guideline for the optimal management of patients with CEPS. Large-sample studies regarding CEPS are needed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with CEPS and determine the treatment guideline for CEPS.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Consensus , France , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Korea , Ligation , Liver Transplantation , Vena Cava, Inferior
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 330-342, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773068

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and is an independent risk factor for survival, therefore it should be treated as the same important guideline as ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. However, up to now, there is no clinical nutrition guideline for patients with ESLD in China. In order to standardize the nutrition treatment, Chinese Society of Hepatology (CSH) and Chinese Society of Gastroenterology (CSGE), Chinese Medical Association(CMA) co-organized and co-developed this guideline. Recommendations on nutritional screening and assessment as well as principles of intervention and management in patients with ESLD were provided to help clinicians make rational decisions on clinical malnutrition.


Subject(s)
Ascites , China , End Stage Liver Disease , Enteral Nutrition , Reference Standards , Gastroenterology , Reference Standards , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Malnutrition , Diet Therapy , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Practice Guidelines as Topic
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787214

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis patients are suffering from many complications, which are directly related to a poor prognosis. Although there have been many recent advances in diagnosis and treatment for varix and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients, the standard practice for these conditions should consider the different medical resources and etiology of these liver diseases among various countries. The Korean Association for the Study of the Liver published in 2005 a clinical practice guideline for the treatment of cirrhosis complications, and this year, they revised the guideline for treating gastroesophageal varices and hepatic encephalopathy. This review summarizes the revised practice guideline and emphasizes the updated recommendation.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Prognosis , Varicose Veins
8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 182-185, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763410

ABSTRACT

Balloon tamponade using Sengstaken–Blakemore (SB) tube is employed as a bridging therapy in cases in which endoscopic therapy fails to control esophageal variceal bleeding. Although SB tube insertion can lead to successful hemostasis, it is accompanied by numerous complications, with SB tube transection being one of the rarest complications. A 53-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma presented with massive esophageal variceal bleeding. Therapeutic endoscopic variceal ligation failed, and SB tube was inserted. The SB tube was unexpectedly disconnected because of the patient's irritability due to hepatic encephalopathy. The esophageal and gastric balloon of the SB tube remained inflated in the stomach. Whereas the use of other endoscopic instruments was ineffective, endoscopic removal was successfully accomplished using endoscopic scissors. In conclusion, we detected SB tube transection in a patient with hepatic encephalopathy and removed remnants of the inflated tube using endoscopic scissors.


Subject(s)
Balloon Occlusion , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastric Balloon , Hemostasis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis , Middle Aged , Stomach
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763401

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and/or strength) frequently complicates liver cirrhosis and adversely affects the quality of life; cirrhosis related liver decompensation and significantly decreases wait-list and post-liver transplantation survival. The main therapeutic strategies to improve or reverse sarcopenia include dietary interventions (supplemental calorie and protein intake), increased physical activity (supervised resistance and endurance exercises), hormonal therapy (testosterone), and ammonia lowering agents (L-ornithine L-aspartate, branch chain amino acids) as well as mechanistic approaches that target underlying molecular and metabolic abnormalities. Besides other factors, hyperammonemia has recently gained attention and increase sarcopenia by various mechanisms including increased expression of myostatin, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2a, cataplerosis of α ketoglutarate, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species that decrease protein synthesis and increased autophagy-mediated proteolysis. Sarcopenia contributes to frailty and increases the risk of minimal and overt hepatic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Aspartic Acid , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hyperammonemia , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Myostatin , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Proteolysis , Quality of Life , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sarcopenia , Testosterone
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761790

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen sulfide is well-known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities, and also has protective effects in the liver. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide in rats with hepatic encephalopathy, which was induced by mild bile duct ligation. In this rat model, bile ducts were mildly ligated for 26 days. Rats were treated for the final 5 days with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS (25 µmol/kg), 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 5 consecutive days. Mild bile duct ligation caused hepatotoxicity and inflammation in rats. Intraperitoneal NaHS administration reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, which are indicators of liver disease, compared to levels in the control mild bile duct ligation group. Levels of ammonia, a major causative factor of hepatic encephalopathy, were also significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, catalase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured to confirm antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with neurotoxic activity were assessed for subunit NMDA receptor subtype 2B. Based on these data, NaHS is suggested to exhibit hepatoprotective effects and guard against neurotoxicity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Ammonia , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Catalase , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Inflammation , Ligation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Malondialdehyde , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Rats , Silymarin , Sodium
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761566

ABSTRACT

Liver cirrhosis patients are suffering from many complications, which are directly related to a poor prognosis. Although there have been many recent advances in diagnosis and treatment for varix and hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients, the standard practice for these conditions should consider the different medical resources and etiology of these liver diseases among various countries. The Korean Association for the Study of the Liver published in 2005 a clinical practice guideline for the treatment of cirrhosis complications, and this year, they revised the guideline for treating gastroesophageal varices and hepatic encephalopathy. This review summarizes the revised practice guideline and emphasizes the updated recommendation.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Prognosis , Varicose Veins
12.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 23(1): 34-42, mayo-jun. 2018. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1022525

ABSTRACT

La encefalopatía hepática mínima (EHm) afecta del 30% al 50% de los pacientes cirróticos. Su detección es esencial por su relación con la encefalopatía hepática clínica, la alteración de la habilidad para conducir, el mayor riesgo de caídas, la alteración de la calidad de vida, la progresión más acelerada de la cirrosis y la supervivencia. A pesar de la información fidedigna de su relevancia clínica, pronóstica y social, la detección de EHm no está generalizada en la práctica clínica. El espectro de la encefalopatía hepática engloba diversas alteraciones de las funciones cerebrales, por lo que se requiere realizar más de un test para su diagnóstico. Además, las alteraciones iniciales difieren de un paciente a otro. Esto ha dificultado el desarrollo de una estrategia diagnóstica universal. Como resultado, no disponemos de datos suficientes para generar recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia del impacto del tratamiento de la EHm en la calidad de vida y la supervivencia, así como de su rentabilidad. Por lo tanto, las guías clínicas actuales sugieren que se evalúe la EHm cuando se afecta la calidad de vida de los pacientes, ya que no se conocen las consecuencias del tamizaje. Las terapias reductoras de amonio se consideran la piedra angular del tratamiento de la EHm. Los disacáridos no absorbibles, la rifaximina y, más recientemente, los probióticos, han mostrado efectos beneficiosos. Se necesitan más ensayos controlados con placebo para evaluar la eficacia, seguridad y rentabilidad de los regímenes de tratamiento disponibles para evaluar el impacto del tratamiento de la EHm en el pronóstico a largo plazo de estos pacientes.


Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) affects up to 30-50% of cirrhotic patients. The detection of MHE is essential because of its relationship with overt hepatic encephalopathy, impairment of motor vehicle driving abilities, higher risk of falls, quality of life impairment, faster cirrhosis progression and survival. Despite the robust evidence regarding its clinical, prognostic and social relevance, MHE testing is not widespread in routine clinical care. Hepatic encephalopathy spectrum covers various alterations in complex brain functions, requiring more than one test to be quantified. In addition, initial disturbances differ from one patient to another. All this has made it difficult to develop a universal diagnostic strategy. As a consequence, there is a lack of available robust data in the literature to generate evidence-based recommendations related to the impact of MHE treatment on quality of life and survival of these patients, as well as on cost-effectiveness. Therefore, current clinical guidelines suggest MHE testing only when patients have problems with their quality of life, since consequences of the screening procedure are still unclear. Ammonia lowering therapies have been considered the cornerstone of MHE treatment. Beneficial effects of non-absorbable disaccharides (lactulose or lactitol), rifaximin and more recently, probiotics have been reported. Further placebo-controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of available treatment regimes to evaluate the impact of MHE treatment on the long-term prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Probiotics , Lactulose , Liver Cirrhosis
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(4): 635-641, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955396

ABSTRACT

A intoxicação por Tephrosia cinerea causa fibrose hepática periacinar em ovinos na região semiárida do Nordeste, com quadro clínico de ascite acentuada, e, ocasionalmente, com sinais neurológicos. Neste trabalho foram estudadas 16 ovinos em 6 surtos de intoxicação por T. cinerea. Todos os ovinos apresentaram lesões histológicas de fibrose periacinar e seis apresentaram, no encéfalo, vacuolização da substância branca e da junção entre a substância branca e a cinzenta com presença de astrócitos de Alzheimer tipo II na substância cinzenta. A doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em dois ovinos que apresentaram ascite, desvios vasculares (shunts) porto-sistêmicos e sinais nervosos com lesões histológicas semelhantes a dos casos espontâneos. Na técnica de imuno-histoquímica houve marcação fraca ou ausente do citoplasma astrocitário para o anticorpo anti-GFAP em seis ovinos evidenciando uma alteração degenerativa, em que os astrócitos acumulam corpos densos e reduzem o volume de GFAP. Houve marcação positiva para o anticorpo anti-S100 em oito ovinos, incluindo os dois ovinos experimentais o que sugere reatividade celular, com proliferação mitocondrial e de retículo endoplasmático liso. Estas alterações são caraterísticas dos efeitos da amônia nos astrócitos. Conclui-se que na intoxicação por T. cinerea em alguns ovinos ocorrem sinais nervosos em consequência da encefalopatia hepática.(AU)


In the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, Tephrosia cinerea causes periacinar hepatic fibrosis in sheep with severe ascites and, occasionally, nervous signs. Sixteen sheep from six outbreaks of T. cinerea poisoning were studied. All sheep had histologic lesion of periacinar fibrosis and six showed, in the brain, vacuolization (spongy degeneration) of the white matter and junction between grey and white matter and presence of Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the grey matter. The disease was produced experimentally in two sheep, that presented porto-sistemic shunts and similar histologic lesions as those observed in the spontaneous cases. Immunohistochemistry revealed weak labelling with anti-GFAP antibodies suggesting a degenerative alteration of astrocytes with accumulation of dense bodies and reduction of the GFAP. There was strong labelling with anti-S100 antibodies suggesting cellular reactivity with proliferation of mitochondria and endoplasmatic reticulum. Such alterations are characteristic of the effects caused by ammonia on the astrocytes. It is concluded that in poisoning by T. cinerea nervous signs due to hepatic encephalopathy occur in some sheep.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Hepatic Encephalopathy/veterinary , Tephrosia/toxicity
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 704-713, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric varices (GVs) are a major cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis. The current treatments of choice are balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) and the placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). We aimed to compare the efficacy and outcomes of these two methods for the management of GV bleeding. METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive patients who received BRTO (n=157) or TIPS (n=19) to control GV bleeding from January 2005 to December 2014 at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. The overall survival (OS), immediate bleeding control rate, rebleeding rate and complication rate were compared between patients in the BRTO and TIPS groups. RESULTS: Patients in the BRTO group showed higher immediate bleeding control rates (p=0.059, odds ratio [OR]=4.72) and lower cumulative rebleeding rates (log-rank p=0.060) than those in the TIPS group, although the difference failed to reach statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the rates of complications, including pleural effusion, aggravation of esophageal varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and portosystemic encephalopathy, although the rate of the progression of ascites was significantly higher in the BRTO group (p=0.02, OR=7.93). After adjusting for several confounding factors using a multivariate Cox analysis, the BRTO group had a significantly longer OS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.44, p=0.01) and a longer rebleeding-free survival (aHR=0.34, p=0.001) than the TIPS group. CONCLUSIONS: BRTO provides better bleeding control, rebleeding-free survival, and OS than TIPS for patients with GV bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Odds Ratio , Pleural Effusion , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716131

ABSTRACT

Hyponatremia is a commonly observed complication that is related to hypoalbuminemia and portal hypertension in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. Hyponatremia in patients with liver cirrhosis is mostly dilutional hyponatremia and is defined when the serum sodium concentration is below 130 meq/L. The risk of complications increases significantly in cirrhotic patients with hyponatremia, which includes spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis, and is an important prognostic factor before and after liver transplantation. The conventional therapies of hyponatremia are albumin infusion, fluid restriction and loop diuretics, but these are frequently ineffective. This review investigates the pathophysiology and various therapeutic modalities, including selective vasopressin receptor antagonists, for the management of hyponatremia in patients with liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor Antagonists , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Hypoalbuminemia , Hyponatremia , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality , Peritonitis , Sodium , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes of multiple sub-frequency bands in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study recruited 46 cirrhotic patients without clinical hepatic encephalopathy (noHE), 38 cirrhotic patients with clinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and 37 healthy volunteers. ReHo differences were analyzed in slow-5 (0.010−0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027−0.073 Hz), and slow-3 (0.073−0.198 Hz) bands. Routine analysis of (0.010−0.080 Hz) band was used as a benchmark. Associations of abnormal ReHo values in each frequency band with neuropsychological scores and blood ammonia level were analyzed. Pattern classification analyses were conducted to determine whether ReHo differences in each band could differentiate the three groups of subjects (patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy and healthy controls). RESULTS: Compared to routine analysis, more differences between HE and noHE were observed in slow-5 and slow-4 bands (p 12, overall corrected p < 0.05). Sub-frequency band analysis also showed that ReHo abnormalities were frequency-dependent (overall corrected p < 0.05). In addition, ReHo abnormalities in each sub-band were correlated with blood ammonia level and neuropsychological scores, especially in the left inferior parietal lobe (overall corrected p < 0.05 for all frequency bands). Pattern classification analysis demonstrated that ReHo differences in lower slow-5 and slow-4 bands (both p < 0.05) and higher slow-3 band could differentiate the three groups (p < 0.05). Compared to routine analysis, ReHo features in slow-4 band obtained better classification accuracy (89%). CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic patients showed frequency-dependent changes in ReHo. Sub-frequency band analysis is important for understanding HE and clinical monitoring.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Benchmarking , Brain , Classification , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parietal Lobe
17.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 96-104, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715144

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation is a current definitive treatment for those with end-stage liver disease. Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of hepatic failure, which can be improved and aggravated by various causes. It is important to differentiate hepatic encephalopathy from other diseases causing brain dysfunction such as cerebral hemorrhage, which is also related to high mortality after liver transplant surgery. A 37-year-old patient was presented with acute liver failure and high ammonia levels and seizure-like symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) of his brain showed mild brain atrophy, regarded as a symptom of hepatic encephalopathy, and treated to decrease blood ammonia level. Deceased donor liver transplantation was performed and liver function and ammonia level normalized after surgery, but the patient showed symptoms of involuntary muscle contraction and showed loss of pupil reflex and fixation without recovery of consciousness. Brain CT showed brain edema and bilateral cerebral infarction, and the patient died after a few days. The purpose of this case report is to emphasize the importance of preoperative neurological evaluation, careful transplantation decision, and proper perioperative management of liver transplantation in patients with acute hepatic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ammonia , Atrophy , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Consciousness , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Diseases , Liver Failure , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality , Muscle, Smooth , Pupil , Reflex , Seizures , Tissue Donors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious infectious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, information about prognosis of SBP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is limited. We investigated the clinical course of SBP in HCC patients. METHODS: This study enrolled patients diagnosed with SBP between 2005 and 2017. Medical records of patients were reviewed and clinical course was compared between the non-HCC and HCC groups. RESULTS: In total, 123 SBP cases including 49 HCC cases were enrolled. Men were predominant (48/74, 64.9% vs. 34/49, 69.4%; P = 0.697); median age was 58 years in both non-HCC and HCC groups (P = 0.887). The most common etiology was alcohol (32/74, 43.2%) in non-HCC group and hepatitis B (30/49, 61.2%) in HCC group (P = 0.009). Antibiotic resistance rate was higher in non-HCC than in HCC group (29.7% vs. 12.2%; P = 0.028); in-hospital mortality did not differ between the groups (25/74, 33.8% vs. 13/49, 26.5%; P = 0.431). Development rate of hepatorenal syndrome did not differ between non-HCC and HCC group (14/74, 18.9% vs. 10/49, 20.4%; P = 1.000), but hepatic encephalopathy was less common in HCC group (26/74, 35.2% vs. 9/49, 18.3%; P = 0.008). The most important predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with HCC was white blood cell count above 11,570 cells/mm3 (odds ratio, 6.629; 95% confidence interval, 1.652–26.590; P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Prognosis of SBP in HCC patients is relatively less severe. This result may be related with reduced antibiotics resistance and lower development rates of other complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy. Degree of systemic inflammation may be the most important factor for in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hepatitis B , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocyte Count , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Medical Records , Peritonitis , Prognosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739762

ABSTRACT

Initial underdilation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) stents has been a widely proposed and commonly practiced technique to balance portal hypertension relief and the adverse effects associated with excess shunting, especially hepatic encephalopathy. However, this technique has been scrutinized by a number of studies which have shown that underdilated TIPS stents tend to passively expand with time. The recently launched GORE® VIATORR® TIPS Endoprosthesis with Controlled Expansion (VIATORR CX®) may address this problem with its novel diameter control capabilities. This article reviews literature concerning passive expansion of initially underdilated TIPS stents and explores preliminary data investigating the use and efficacy of the VIATORR CX® endoprosthesis.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hypertension, Portal , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Stents
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation for the management of portal hypertension in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases was conducted. All articles reporting the outcomes of TIPS creation for variceal bleeding and refractory ascites and hepatic hydrothorax in patients with HCC were included. Exclusion criteria were non-English language, sample size < 5, data not extractable, and data reported in another article. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients (mean age, 48–58; male gender, 66%) from five articles were included. TIPS creation was performed for variceal bleeding in 79% and refractory ascites and/or hepatic hydrothorax in 26% of patients. Technical and clinical success was achieved in 99% and 64% of patients, respectively. Clinical failure occurred in 36% of patients due to rebleeding or recurrent bleeding (n = 77) or no resolution or improvement of refractory ascites and hepatic hydrothorax (n = 24). One percent of patient had major complications, including accelerated liver failure (n = 1) and multi-organ failure resulting from hemorrhagic shock (n = 1), all of which resulted in early (i.e., within 30 days) death. Hepatic encephalopathy occurred in 40% of patients after TIPS creation. Lung metastasis was found 1% of patient 5 months (n = 1) and 72 months (n = 1) after TIPS creation. CONCLUSION: TIPS creation seems to be safe and effective for the management of portal hypertension in patients with HCC.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Hydrothorax , Hypertension, Portal , Liver Failure , Liver Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Sample Size , Shock, Hemorrhagic
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