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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 994-1001, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of exosomes secreted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated macrophages on hepatic stellate cell activation and migration and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Human monocyte THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into macrophages using propylene glycol methyl ether acetic acid (PMA, 100 ng/mL, 24 h) followed by stimulation with LPS, and the culture supernatant of macrophages was collected for extraction of the exosomes by ultracentrifugation. The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes was detected using qRT-PCR. A Transwell co-culture system was used to observe the effects of the macrophage-derived exosomes on LX2 cell (a hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation, migration, oxidative stress and the expression of fibrosis biomarkers, which were also observed in LX2 cells transfected with miR-155-5p-mimics or miR-155-5p-inhibitors. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of SOCS1 and its downstream signal pathway proteins.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with the exosomes from LPS-stimulated macrophages significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of LX2 cells and increased the levels of oxidative stress and expressions of the fibrosis markers such as type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05). The expression of miR-155-5p in the exosomes secreted by macrophages was significantly increased after LPS treatment (P < 0.01). LX2 cells overexpressing miR-155-5p also exhibited significantly enhanced proliferation and migration with increased oxidative stress levels and expression of type Ⅰ collagen (P < 0.05), and interference of miR-155-5p expression produced the opposite effects. Western blotting showed that miR-155-5p overexpression obviously inhibited SOCS1 expression and promoted p-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and RhoA protein expressions in LX2 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#LPS stimulation of the macrophages increases miR-155-5p expression in the exosomes to promote activation and migration and increase oxidative stress and collagen production in hepatic stellate cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Collagen Type I , Exosomes , Macrophages , MicroRNAs
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 668-672, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986190

ABSTRACT

Liver fibrosis incidence and adverse outcomes are high; however, there are no known chemical drugs or biological agents that are specific and effective for treatment. The paucity of a robust and realistic in vitro model for liver fibrosis is one of the major causes hindering anti-liver fibrosis drug development. This article summarizes the latest progress in the development of in vitro cell models for liver fibrosis, with a focus based on the analysis of induction and activation of hepatic stellate cells, cell co-culture, and 3D model co-construction, as well as concurrent potential methods based on hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell establishment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Cell Culture Techniques , Endothelial Cells
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 532-537, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986164

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore a simple and feasible method for the isolation and purification of hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and lymphocytes from mice. Methods: The cell suspension was obtained from male C57bl/6 mice by hepatic perfusion through the portal vein digestion method and then isolated and purified by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. Trypan blue exclusion was used to determine cell viability. Glycogen staining, cytokeratin 18, and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify hepatic cells. Immunofluorescence was used to detect α-smooth muscle actin combined with desmin in HSCs. Flow cytometry was used to analyze lymphocyte subsets in the liver. Results: After isolation and purification, about 2.7×10(7) hepatocytes, 5.7×10(5) HSCS, and 4.6×106 hepatic mononuclear cells were obtained from the liver of mice with a body weight of about 22g. The cell survival rate in each group was > 95%. Hepatocytes were apparent in glycogen deposited purple-red granules and cytokeratin 18. Electron microscopy showed that there were abundant organelles in hepatocytes and tight junctions between cells. HSC had expressed α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. Flow cytometry showed hepatic mononuclear cells, including lymphocyte subsets such as CD4, CD8, NKs, and NKTs. Conclusion: The hepatic perfusion through the portal vein digestion method can isolate multiple primary cells from the liver of mice at once and has the features of simplicity and efficiency.


Subject(s)
Male , Mice , Animals , Keratin-18 , Actins , Desmin , Liver , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 77-83, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970955

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the pathogenic mechanism of the miR-340/high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) axis in the formation of liver fibrosis. Methods: A rat liver fibrosis model was established by injecting CCl(4) intraperitoneally. miRNAs targeting and validating HMGB1 were selected with gene microarrays after screening the differentially expressed miRNAs in rats with normal and hepatic fibrosis. The effect of miRNA expressional changes on HMGB1 levels was detected by qPCR. Dual luciferase gene reporter assays (LUC) was used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-340 and HMGB1. The proliferative activity of the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 was detected by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after co-transfection of miRNA mimics and HMGB1 overexpression vector, and the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins type I collagen and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) was detected by western blot. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance and the LSD-t test. Results: Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining results showed that the rat model of liver fibrosis was successfully established. Gene microarray analysis and bioinformatics prediction had detected eight miRNAs possibly targeting HMGB1, and animal model validation had detected miR-340. qPCR detection results showed that miR-340 had inhibited the expression of HMGB1, and a luciferase complementation assay suggested that miR-340 had targeted HMGB1. Functional experiments results showed that HMGB1 overexpression had enhanced cell proliferation activity and the expression of type I collagen and α-SMA, while miR-340 mimics had not only inhibited cell proliferation activity and the expression of HMGB1, type I collagen, and α-SMA, but also partially reversed the promoting effect of HMGB1 on cell proliferation and ECM synthesis. Conclusion: miR-340 targets HMGB1 to inhibit the proliferation and ECM deposition in hepatic stellate cells and plays a protective role during the process of liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fibrosis , Hepatic Stellate Cells , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 481-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970485

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro experimental verification, this study aims to explore the effect of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination on HSC-LX2 pyroptosis. Specifically, the targets of Albiziae Cortex, Tribuli Fructus, and hepatic fibrosis were retrieved from an online database and CNKI, and "drug-component-target" network and "drug-component-target-disease" network were constructed. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established based on STRING. Metascape was employed for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment, and the mechanism of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination against liver fibrosis was predicted. Molecular docking was used to verify some of the results of network pharmacology, and in vitro experiment was carried out to further verify the above conclusions. According to the results of network pharmacological analysis, 25 active components and 439 targets of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination and 152 anti-liver fibrosis targets were screened out, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain and leucine-rich-repeat-and pyrin-domain-containing 3(NLRP3) and caspase-1. The key targets were involved in 194 KEGG pathways in which the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway topped. The binding common targets were related to pyroptosis. The results of in vitro experiment showed that the pair-containing serum reduced the proliferation rate of HSC-LX2 and the content of reactive oxygen species(ROS), interleukin-18(IL-18), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)(P<0.05). Western blot and qRT-PCR suggested that the protein and gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), and gasdermin D(GSDMD) in HSC-LX2 increased after AngⅡ stimulation, and the expression decreased after the intervention of pair-containing serum(P<0.05). In summary, the pair-containing serum can inhibit the classic pathway of pyroptosis, which may be the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism. This is consistent with the predicted results of network pharmacology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Caspase 1/genetics , Fibrosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 316-324, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of amygdalin on liver fibrosis in a liver fibrosis mouse model, and the underlying mechanisms were partly dissected in vivo and in vitro.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, including control, model, low- and high-dose amygdalin-treated groups, 8 mice in each group. Except the control group, mice in the other groups were injected intraperitoneally with 10% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-olive oil solution 3 times a week for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. At the first 3 weeks, amygdalin (1.35 and 2.7 mg/kg body weight) were administered by gavage once a day. Mice in the control group received equal quantities of subcutaneous olive oil and intragastric water from the fourth week. At the end of 6 weeks, liver tissue samples were harvested to detect the content of hydroxyproline (Hyp). Hematoxylin and eosin and Sirius red staining were used to observe the inflammation and fibrosis of liver tissue. The expressions of collagen I (Col-I), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CD31 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway were observed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The activation models of hepatic stellate cells, JS-1 and LX-2 cells induced by TGF-β1 were used in vitro with or without different concentrations of amygdalin (0.1, 1, 10 µmol/L). LSECs. The effect of different concentrations of amygdalin on the expressions of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) dedifferentiation markers CD31 and CD44 were observed.@*RESULTS@#High-dose of amygdalin significantly reduced the Hyp content and percentage of collagen positive area, and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Col-I, α-SMA, CD31 and p-Smad2/3 in liver tissues of mice compared to the model group (P<0.01). Amygdalin down-regulated the expressions of Col-I and α-SMA in JS-1 and LX-2 cells, and TGFβ R1, TGFβ R2 and p-Smad2/3 in LX-2 cells compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, 1 and 10 µmol/L amygdalin inhibited the mRNA and protein expressions of CD31 in LSECs and increased CD44 expression compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Amygdalin can dramatically alleviate liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice and inhibit TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, consequently suppressing HSCs activation and LSECs dedifferentiation to improve angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Mice , Animals , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Amygdalin/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Olive Oil/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3913-3921, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981524

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Isodon terricolous-medicated serum on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation. LPS-induced HSCs were divided into a blank control group, an LPS model group, a colchicine-medicated serum group, an LPS + blank serum group, an I. terricolous-medicated serum group, a Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) blocker group, and a TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group. HSC proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure type Ⅰ collagen(COL Ⅰ), COL Ⅲ, transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1). Real-time PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of TLR4, IκBα, and NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3(NLRP3), nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) p65, gasdermin D(GSDMD), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC) in HSCs. Western blot(WB) was used to detect the protein levels of TLR4, p-IκBα, NF-κB p65, NLRP3, ASC, and GSDMD in HSCs. The results showed that I. terricolous-medicated serum could inhibit the proliferation activity of HSCs and inhibit the secretion of COL Ⅰ, COL Ⅲ, α-SMA, TGF-β1, caspase-1, MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in HSCs. Compared with the LPS model group, the I. terricolous-medicated serum group, the colchicine-medicated serum group, and the TLR4 blocker group showed down-regulated expression of p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and up-regulated expression of IκBα. Compared with the TLR4 blocker group, the TLR4 blocker + I. terricolous-medicated serum group showed decreased expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, NLRP3, NF-κB p65, GSDMD, and ASC, and increased expression of IκBα. In conclusion, I. terricolous-medicated serum down-regulates HSC activation by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Isodon , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Colchicine/pharmacology , Caspases
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Huangqi Decoction (HQD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used as a valid treatment for alleviating liver fibrosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Although our previous studies showed that microRNA-663a (miR-663a) suppresses the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the transforming growth factor-β/small mothers against decapentaplegic (TGF-β/Smad) pathway, whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in HSC activation via the miR-663a/TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway has not yet reported. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of lncRNA lnc-C18orf26-1 in the activation of HSCs and the mechanism by which HQD inhibits hepatic fibrosis.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of lnc-C18orf26-1, miR-663a and related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. HSCs were transfected with the miR-663a mimic or inhibitor and lnc-C18orf26-1 small interfering RNAs. The water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 assay was used to assess the proliferation rate of HSCs. Changes in lncRNA expression were evaluated in miR-663a-overexpressing HSCs by using microarray to identify miR-663a-regulated lncRNAs. RNA hybrid was used to predict the potential miR-663a binding sites on lncRNAs. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-663a and the lncRNA. The expression levels of collagen α-2(I) chain (COL1A2), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins were determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Lnc-C18orf26-1 was upregulated in TGF-β1-activated HSCs and competitively bound to miR-663a. Knockdown of lnc-C18orf26-1 inhibited HSC proliferation and activation, downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated α-SMA and COL1A2 expression, and inhibited the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. HQD suppressed the proliferation and activation of HSCs. HQD increased miR-663a expression and decreased lnc-C18orf26-1 expression in HSCs. Further studies showed that HQD inhibited the expression of COL1A2, α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in HSCs, and these effects were reversed by miR-663a inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study identified lnc-C18orf26-1 and miR-663a as promising therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. HQD inhibits HSC proliferation and activation at least partially by regulating the lnc-C18orf26-1/miR-663a/TGF-β1/TGF-βRI/p-Smad2 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factors/pharmacology
9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 46-51, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether circular RNA circRSF1 regulates radiation-induced inflammatory phenotype of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by binding to HuR protein and repressing its function.@*METHODS@#Human HSC cell line LX2 with HuR overexpression or knockdown was exposed to 8 Gy X-ray irradiation, and the changes in the expression of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of IκBα and phosphorylation of NF-κB were detected with Western blotting. The binding of circRSF1 to HuR was verified by RNA pull-down assay and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP). The expressions of inflammatory factors, IκBα and the phosphorylation of NF-κB were detected after modifying the interaction between circRSF1 and HuR.@*RESULTS@#Knockdown of HuR significantly up- regulated the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased IκBα expression and promoted NF-κB phosphorylation in irradiated LX2 cells, whereas overexpression of HuR produced the opposite changes (P < 0.05). Overexpression or knockdown of circRSF1 did not significantly affect the expression of HuR. RNA pull-down and RIP experiments confirmed the binding between circRSF1 and HuR. Overexpression of circRSF1 significantly reduced the binding of HuR to IκBα and down-regulated the expression of IκBα (P < 0.05). Overexpression of circRSF1 combined with HuR overexpression partially reversed the up-regulation of the inflammatory factors, down-regulated IκBα expression and increased phosphorylation of NFκB in LX2 cells, while the opposite effects were observed in cells with knockdown of both circRSF1 and HuR (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#circRSF1 reduces IκBα expression by binding to HuR to promote the activation of NF-κB pathway, thereby enhancing radiation- induced inflammatory phenotype of HSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells/radiation effects , Interleukin-6 , NF-kappa B , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Phenotype , RNA , RNA, Circular/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , ELAV-Like Protein 1/metabolism
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 248-261, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971484

ABSTRACT

An effective therapeutic regimen for hepatic fibrosis requires a deep understanding of the pathogenesis mechanism. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) with an excessive production of extracellular matrix. Although promoted activation of HSCs by M2 macrophages has been demonstrated, the molecular mechanism involved remains ambiguous. Herein, we propose that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) involved in macrophage polarization may regulate the communication between macrophages and HSCs by changing the functions of exosomes. We confirm that activating the VDR can inhibit the effect of M2 macrophages on HSC activation. The exosomes derived from M2 macrophages can promote HSC activation, while stimulating VDR alters the protein profiles and reverses their roles in M2 macrophage exosomes. Smooth muscle cell-associated protein 5 (SMAP-5) was found to be the key effector protein in promoting HSC activation by regulating autophagy flux. Building on these results, we show that a combined treatment of a VDR agonist and a macrophage-targeted exosomal secretion inhibitor achieves an excellent anti-hepatic fibrosis effect. In this study, we aim to elucidate the association between VDR and macrophages in HSC activation. The results contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis mechanism of hepatic fibrosis, and provide potential therapeutic targets for its treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Receptors, Calcitriol , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 730-736, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927956

ABSTRACT

The present study clarified the molecular mechanism of curcumol against liver fibrosis based on its effects on the autopha-gy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. The hepatic stellate cells were divided into a blank control group, a transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)(10 ng·mL~(-1)) group, and low-(12.5 mg·L~(-1)), medium-(25 mg·L~(-1)), and high-dose(50 mg·L~(-1)) curcumol groups. The effect of curcumol on the viability of hepatic stellate cells induced by TGF-β1 was detected by the MTT assay kit. The apo-ptosis in each group was determined by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR(RT-PCR) was employed for the detection of mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen(collagen Ⅰ), and type Ⅲ collagen(collagen Ⅲ). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of p62, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), beclin1, B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe cell morphology and autophagosome formation in each group. The autophagic flux was observed after cell infection with adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling. The cell viability assay revealed that compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly decreased cell viability. The apoptosis assay showed that the apoptosis rates of the curcumol groups were significantly higher than that of the TGF-β1 group. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression of α-SMA, collagenⅠ, and collagen Ⅲ in the curcumol groups was significantly lower than that of the TGF-β1 group. Western blot showed that the expression of p62, LC3, beclin1, Bcl-2, and Bax in the curcumol groups was significantly different from that in the TGF-β1 group. As demonstrated by TEM, compared with the TGF-β1 group, the curcumol groups showed significantly increased autophagosomes. The detection of autophagic flow by the adenovirus under double fluorescence labeling showed that autolysosomes in the curcumol groups were significantly increased compared with those in the TGF-β1 group. Curcumol can induce the autophagy and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells, which may be one of its anti-liver fibrosis mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actins/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 217-224, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927597

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Geniposide on hepatic fibrosis and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore possible underlying mechanism. Human HSCs (LX-2) were treated with 5 ng/mL transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), followed by co-culture with Geniposide at various concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Then, LX-2 cells were divided into control, TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) and TGF-β1 + Geniposide (20 μmol/L) groups, and the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 was detected by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. BALB/c mice were treated with CCl4 (25%, 1 mL/kg) to generate a model of hepatic fibrosis (CCl4 group), and the control group and CCl4 + Geniposide group were administered with olive oil and CCl4 + 40 mg/kg Geniposide, respectively. After 4 weeks of treatment, the liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis indexes of mice were detected, histological observation was performed by HE and Masson staining, and α-SMA expression in the tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was utilized for the determination of the protein expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3. The results showed that Geniposide inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation. In addition, Geniposide significantly downregulated the gene and protein expression of collagen I, fibronectin and α-SMA and the expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins induced by TGF-β1 in vitro. Histological observations showed that Geniposide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis, HSC activation and expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related proteins in mice. In summary, Geniposide prevents the hepatic fibrosis and HSC activation possibly through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Fibronectins , Hepatic Stellate Cells/pathology , Iridoids , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 60-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.@*METHODS@#For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Acetates , Autophagy , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 38-44, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935906

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of adenovirus-mediated shRNA down-regulating phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression on vinculin, filamin A, and cortactin in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Methods: Activated rats hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6) was cultured in vitro. Recombinant adenovirus Ad-shRNA/PTEN carrying PTEN targeted RNA interference sequence [short hairpin RNA (shRNA)] and empty control virus Ad-GFP were transfected into HSCs. The PTEN mRNA and protein expression of HSCs in each group were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot. The expressional change of vinculin, filamin A and cortactin in HSCs of each group were detected by confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscope. Image-pro plus 6.0 software was used for image analysis and processing. The integrated optical density (IOD) of the fluorescence protein expression was measured. The experiment was divided into three groups: control group (DMEM instead of adenovirus solution in the adenovirus transfection step), Ad-GFP group (transfected with empty virus Ad-GFP only expressing green fluorescent protein), and Ad-shRNA/PTEN group (recombinant adenovirus Ad-shRNA/PTEN carrying shRNA targeting PTEN and expressing green fluorescent protein). One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of mean value among the three groups, and LSD-test was used for comparison between the groups. Results: shRNA targeted PTEN was successfully transfected and the expression of PTEN mRNA and protein in HSC (P < 0.05) was significantly down-regulated. HSCs vinculin was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm. HSCs vinculin fluorescence IOD in the Ad-shRNA/PTEN group (19 758.83 ± 1 520.60) was higher than control (7 737.16 ± 279.93) and Ad-GFP group (7 725.50 ± 373.03) (P < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between control group and Ad-GFP group (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the fluorescence IOD of Filamin A among the three groups (P > 0.05), but the subcellular distribution of Filamin A among the three groups were changed. Filamin A in the Ad-shrNA /PTEN HSC group was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. Filamin A HSC was mainly located in the nucleus.The filamin A HSC in the control group and Ad-GFP group was mainly located in the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic ratio of Filamin A in the AD-shrNA /PTEN group (0.60 ± 0.15) was significantly lower than control group (1.20 ± 0.15) and Ad-GFP group (1.08 ± 0.23), P < 0.05. but there was no statistically significant difference in filamin A nucleocytoplasmic ratio of HSC between the control group and the Ad-GFP group (P > 0.05). Cortactin HSCs in the three groups was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. The cortactin fluorescence IOD of HSCs in the Ad-shRNA/PTEN group was significantly higher than control group (22 959.94 ± 1 710.42) and the Ad-GFP group (22 547.11 ± 1 588.72 ) (P < 0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the IOD of cortactin fluorescence in HSCs between the control group and the Ad-GFP group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The down-regulation of PTEN expression raises the expression of microfilament-binding protein vinculin and cortactin, and changes the subcellular distribution of another microfilament binding protein filamin A, that is, translocation from nucleus to the cytoplasm in activated HSC in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Cell Proliferation , Cortactin , Filamins/genetics , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Vinculin/genetics
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 732-738, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385401

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might progress the steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), reaching a cirrhosis state and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver of three-month-old C57BL/6J mice (wild-type, WT group, n=10) and leptin- deficient obese mice (ob/ob group, n=10) were studied, focusing on the mechanisms associated with the activation of the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pro-fibrogenesis. The obese ob/ob animals' liver showed steatosis, increased lipogenesis gene expressions, inflammation, increased pro-inflammatory gene expressions, inflammatory infiltrate, and potential apoptosis linked to a high Caspase 3 expression. In ob/ob mice, liver sections were labeled in the fibrotic zones by anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and anti-Reelin, but not in the WT mice. Moreover, the alpha-SMA gene expression was higher in the ob/ob group's liver than the WT group. The pro-fibrogenic gene expressions were parallel to anti- alpha-SMA and anti-Reelin immunofluorescence, suggesting HSCs activation. In the ob/ob animals, there were increased gene expressions involved with lipogenesis (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector-c, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and Fatty acid synthase), pro-fibrogenesis (Transforming growth factor beta1, Smad proteins- 3, Yes-associated protein-1, Protein platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta), pro-inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Interleukin-6), and apoptosis (Caspase 3). In conclusion, the results in obese ob/ob animals provide a clue to the events in humans. In a translational view, controlling these targets can help mitigate the hepatic effects of human obesity and NAFLD progression to NASH.


RESUMEN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA) puede progresar de la esteatosis a esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (ENA), alcanzando un estado de cirrosis y posiblemente carcinoma hepatocelular. Se estudió el hígado de ratones C57BL / 6J de tres meses de edad (tipo salvaje, grupo WT, n = 10) y ratones obesos con deficiencia de leptina (grupo ob/ob, n = 10), centrándose en los mecanismos asociados con la activación de las células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC) y profibrogénesis. El hígado de los animales obesos ob/ob mostró esteatosis, aumento de la expresión génica de la lipogénesis, inflamación, aumento de la expresión génica proinflamatoria, infiltrado inflamatorio y posible apoptosis ligada a una alta expresión de Caspasa 3. En ratones ob/ob, las sec- ciones de hígado se marcaron en las zonas fibróticas con anti-alfa- actina de músculo liso (alfa-SMA) y anti-Reelin, pero no en los ratones WT. Además, la expresión del gen alfa-SMA fue mayor en el hígado del grupo ob/ob que en el grupo WT. Las expresiones génicas profibrogénicas fueron paralelas a la inmunofluorescencia anti-alfa-SMA y anti-Reelin, lo que sugiere la activación de las HSC. En los animales ob/ob, hubo un aumento de las expresiones génicas involucradas con la lipogénesis (receptor activado por proliferador de peroxisoma gamma, efector c similar a DFFA inductor de muerte celular, proteína de unión al elemento regulador de esterol-1c y sintasa de ácidos grasos), pro-fibrogénesis (factor de crecimiento transformante beta 1, proteínas Smad-3, proteína-1 asociada a Yes, receptor beta del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas de proteínas), proinflamación (factor de necrosis tumoral alfa e interleucina-6) y apoptosis (caspasa 3). ). En conclusión, los resultados en animales obesos ob/ob proporcionan una pista de los eventos en humanos. Desde un punto de vista traslacional, el control de estos objetivos puede ayudar a mitigar los efectos hepáticos de la obesidad humana y la progresión de HGNA a ENA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Leptin/deficiency , Fatty Liver/pathology , Photomicrography , Apoptosis , Microscopy, Confocal , Lipogenesis/genetics , Caspase 3/metabolism , Hepatic Stellate Cells/ultrastructure , Fatty Liver/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Inflammation/genetics , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 1132-1136, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922702

ABSTRACT

Hepatic fibrogenesis (HF) is the common consequence of various chronic liver diseases (CLD) induced by a variety of pathogenic factors. The mechanism of HF involves the interactions within different types of liver cells, cytokines, chemokines, cell mediators and multiple signaling pathways in a way of networks. As a result, excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly composed of type I and type III fibril forming collagen destroys the original morphology, structure and function of the liver. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the major scar forming cells in liver, plays a crucial role in hepatic fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are a group of short, single stranded, non-coding RNAs that can inhibit mRNA expression at the transcriptional and post transcriptional levels. They can be loaded and transferred as cargos by exosomes, to regulate the function of nearby and distant receptive cells. The expressions of many microRNAs such as miR-21, miR-29, miR-708, miR-101, miR-455, miR-146, miR-193 change significantly in activated HSCs, which regulate the activation, fibrogenic function, proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of HSCs via affecting target genes expression and signaling pathway molecules. They are important substances and regulatory mechanism that mediate the initiation and progression of HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , MicroRNAs/genetics
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 845-854, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878948

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology and liver fibrosis(LF) model in vitro were used to analyze the underly mechanism of anti-liver fibrosis effect that induced by Piperis Longi Fructus and its major active compounds. TCMSP and TCMIP were used to search for the chemical constituents of Piperis Longi Fructus, as well as the oral bioavailability(OB), drug-likeness(DL), intercellular permeability of intestinal epithelial cells(Caco-2) and Drug-likeness grading were set as limiting conditions. The related target genes of Piperis Longi Fructus were queried by TCMSP database, while related targets of LF were screened by GeneCards databases. Interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape 3.7.1. These above data were imported into STRING database for PPI network analysis. Enrichment of gene ontology(GO) and pathway analysis(KEGG) within Bioconductor database were utilized to note functions of related targets of Piperis Longi Fructus. Finally, the core targets and pathways were preliminarily verified by in vitro experiments. The effects of piperlongumine(PL), the major active component of Piperis Longi Fructus, on proliferation of rat liver stellate cells(HSC-T6) and expression of α smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) and collagen Ⅰ were investigated. The major factors TNF-α of tumor necrosis factor(TNF) pathway and NF-κB p65, IL-6 protein expressions of LF process were examined. A total of 12 active compounds such as PL were obtained by analyzing the bioavailability and drug-like properties, which inferred to 48 targets. The functional enrichment analysis of GO obtained 1 240 GO items, mainly involving in process of biology and molecular function. A total of 99 signaling pathways were enriched in the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, including TNF signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathways. CCK-8 assay showed that PL inhibited proliferation of HSC-T6 induced by transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1). Western blot analysis found that treated with PL suppressed the protein expressions of α-SMA, collagen Ⅰ, TNF-α and p65 in HSC-T6. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) showed that PL inhibited the expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in the cluture supertant of HSC-T6 cells. In conclusion, PL could play an anti-liver fibrosis role by regulating TNF/NF-κB signaling pathway. This study provided the mechanism basis of anti-LF effects induced by Piperis Longi Fructus and its major active compounds, which might help for the further study of the mechanism and key targets of Piperis Longi Fructus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Caco-2 Cells , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2865-2870, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887961

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the effect of salidroside on inhibiting liver fibrosis and its relationship with CXC chemokine ligand 16(CXCL16) in vivo and in vitro, totally 45 C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group and salidroside group, with 15 mice in each group. The mice in model group and salidroside group were injected intraperitoneally with 15% carbontetrachloride(CCl_4) olive oil solution to establish liver fibrosis model, and the mice in normal group were injected intraperitoneally with the same dose of olive oil. Salidroside group was given with 100 mg·kg~(-1 )salidroside by gavage, while the normal group and model group received the same amount of double distilled water by gavage. All mice were sacrificed after 5 weeks of intragastric administration. The pathological changes of mouse liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the degree of liver fibrosis was observed by sirius red staining. The protein expressions of collagen Ⅰ(ColⅠ), α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), fibronectin(FN), CXCL16, phosphorylated Akt(p-Akt), Akt in liver tissues were detected by Western blot. Hepatic stellate cell line JS 1 was cultured in vitro and divided into control group, model group(100 μg·L~(-1) CXCL16) and salidroside group(100 μg·L~(-1) CXCL16+1×10~(-5) mol·L~(-1) salidroside). Cell migration was detected by cell scratch, the mRNA expressions of ColⅠ and α-SMA were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of p-Akt and Akt were detected by Western blot. As compared with the normal group, the protein expressions of ColⅠ, α-SMA, FN, CXCL16, and p-Akt in the model group were significantly increased, and salidroside could reduce the expression of these indicators(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In vitro, CXCL16 could promote the migration of JS 1, increase the mRNA expressions of ColⅠ and α-SMA in JS 1, and enhance Akt phosphorylation in JS 1(P<0.05 or P<0.01). As compared with the model group, salidroside could inhibit the migration of JS 1 induced by CXCL16(P<0.05), and reduce the high expression of ColⅠ and α-SMA mRNA and the phosphorylation of Akt in JS 1 induced by CXCL16(P<0.05). In conclusion, salidroside might attenuate CCl_4-induced liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting the migration, activation and Akt phosphorylation of hepatic stellate cells induced by CXCL16.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemokine CXCL16 , Glucosides , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Phenols
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.


RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 632-639, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress of Kupffer cells (KCs) and KCs-derived tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) in medicating apoptosis of hepatic stellate cell (HSC).@*METHODS@#Sixty male SD rats were randomized into control group, model group, ER- stress group, depletion group and KCs block group (=15). The 4 groups of rats were given intraperitoneal injections (twice a week for 8 weeks) of normal saline (2 mg/kg); 40% CCl4 solution (in peanut oil, 2 mg/kg); 40% CCl4 solution (2 mg/kg) and tunicamycin (1 mg/kg); and 40% CCl4 solution (2 mg/kg) and tunicamycin (1 mg/kg) followed by clodronate liposomes (50 mg/kg), respectively. After the treatments, samples of the liver tissue and serum were collected from the rats from the 4 groups to isolate KC cells, which were co-cultured with LX2 cells. In the depletion group, the rats were injected with anti-rat TNFR mAb (0.35 mg/kg) via the portal vein before isolating the KCs. Liver function examination, Eirius red staining, ELISA, immuno- histochemical staining, and RT-PCR were performed to assess the liver function, liver fibrosis, KC phenotypes, expression of the in fl ammatory factors, and the number of active HSC was detected. The isolated KCs were treated with tunicamycin before co-culture with LX2 cells, and ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to examine KC phenotypes, in fl ammatory factors, LX2 cell apoptosis and TNFR/caspase8 pathway activity.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the rats in the control group, the rats in the model group had significantly increased ALT and AST levels, Sirius red staining-positive area, and Desmin-positive cells (activated HSCs) ( < 0.05) with significantly lowered number of CD16-positive KCs (M1), and TNF- protein and mRNA expression ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the rats in ER-stress group showed significantly decreased ALT and AST levels, Sirius red staining positivity and Desmin-positive cells ( < 0.05) and increased number of CD16-positive KCs and TNF- expressions ( < 0.05). In the depletion group, compared with the ER-stress group, the rats had significantly increased ALT and AST levels of, Sirius red staining positivity and Desmin-positive cells ( < 0.05) and reduced CD16- positive KCs and TNF-expressions ( < 0.05). In the cell co-culture experiment, the model group showed significantly reduced TUNEL-positive LX2 cells, CD16-positive cells, and expressions of TNFR1, cleaved caspase- 8 and cleaved caspase- 3 in the KCs ( < 0.05) with increased Desmin-positive LX2 cells ( < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the ER- stress group exhibited significantly increased TUNEL-positive LX2 cells, CD16-positive cells and expressions of TNFR, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 in the KCs ( < 0.05) and decreased Desmin-positive LX2 cells ( < 0.05). In the depletion group, blocking TNFR resulted in significantly decreased expressions of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3 compared with those in ER- stress group ( < 0.05) although there was no significant changed in TNFR expression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ER stress of KCs promotes the transformation of KCs towards M1 phenotype and increases the expression of TNF-, which triggers the apoptosis of HSCs through the TNFR/caspase-8 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , Caspase 8 , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Kupffer Cells , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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