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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1179-1186, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012414

ABSTRACT

Due to a lack of consensus on the description of the human liver anatomy, we decided to explore different researches worldwide. Studies are focused on the hepatic vascularization. The results obtained through serial dissections in embryos, fetuses and adults have contributed to new definitions. Researchers around the world have agreed on finding the bases to propose a liver segmentation with seven portal segments.


La confusión existente en la descripción de la anatomía del hígado humano nos llevó a realizar esta revisión a nivel mundial. Las investigaciones se centran en la vascularización del hígado, el conocimiento obtenido mediante disecciones seriadas en embriones, fetos y adultos han aportado nuevos conocimientos que fundamentan nuevas definiciones. Investigadores de países distantes han coincidido en encontrar las bases para proponer una segmentación del hígado con siete segmentos portales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver/anatomy & histology , Hepatic Veins/anatomy & histology , Liver/embryology , Liver/blood supply
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762697

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Complete removal of the caudate lobe, which is sometimes necessary, is accomplished via isolated caudate lobectomy or hepatectomy that includes the caudate lobe. It is impossible, however, to confirm the right and ventral margins of the caudate lobe by preoperative imaging. This study was undertaken to determine whether we could identify the right and ventral margins of the caudate lobe preoperatively using Synapse 3D visualization software. METHODS: Ninety-four preoperative 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic images (1-mm slices) of the liver from candidate donors were examined. The images of the caudate lobe were subjected to a counter-staining method according to Synapse 3D to delineate their dimensions. We first examined whether the right margin of the caudate lobe exceeded the plane formed by the root of the right hepatic vein (RHV) and the right side of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Second, we determined whether the ventral margin of the caudate lobe exceeded the plane formed by the root of the middle hepatic vein (MHV) and the root of the RHV. RESULTS: For the right margin, 17 cases (18%) exceeded the RHV-IVC plane by a mean of 10.2 mm (range, 2.4–27.2 mm). For the ventral margin, 28 cases (30%) exceeded the MHV-RHV plane by a mean of 17.4 mm (range, 1.2–49.1 mm). CONCLUSION: Evaluating the anatomy of caudate lobe using Synapse 3D preoperatively could be helpful for more precise anatomical resection of the caudate lobe.


Subject(s)
Hepatectomy , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Liver , Methods , Synapses , Tissue Donors , Vena Cava, Inferior
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 56-64, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719687

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Details on the hemodynamic differences among Fontan operations remain unclear according to respiratory and cardiac cycles. This study was undertaken to investigate hemodynamic characteristics in different types of Fontan circulation by quantification of blood flow with the combined influence of cardiac and respiratory cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients [10 atriopulmonary connections (APC), 13 lateral tunnels (LT), and 12 extracardiac conduits (ECC)] were evaluated, and parameters were measured in the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein (HV), baffles, conduits, and left and right pulmonary artery. Pulsatility index (PIx), respiratory variability index (RVI), net antegrade flow integral (NAFI), and inspiratory/expiratory blood flow (IQ/EQ) were measured by intravascular Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS: The PIx between APC and total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC; LT and ECC) showed significant differences at all interrogation points regardless of respiratory cycles. The PIxs of HVs and IVCs in APC significantly increased, compared with that in LT and ECC, and the RVI between APC and TCPC showed significant differences at all interrogation points (p < 0.05). The NAFI and IQ/EQ between APC and TCPC showed significant differences at some interrogation points (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with different types of Fontan circulation show different hemodynamic characteristics in various areas of the Fontan tract, which may lead to different risks causing long-term complications. We believe the novel parameters developed in this study may be used to determine flow characteristics and may serve as a clinical basis of management in patients after Fontan operations.


Subject(s)
Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Echocardiography, Doppler , Fontan Procedure , Hemodynamics , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Pulmonary Artery , Vena Cava, Inferior , Vena Cava, Superior
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739589

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the risk factors for posthepatectomy thrombosis including portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 563 patients who had undergone hepatectomy from February 2009 to December 2014. Twenty-nine patients with preoperatively confirmed thrombosis and tumor recurrence-related thrombosis were excluded. We identified the location of the thrombosis as main portal vein (MPV), peripheral portal vein (PPV) and other site such as hepatic vein or inferior vena cava. Patients with MPV thrombosis and PPV thrombosis with main portal flow disturbance were treated with anticoagulation therapy. We performed operative thrombectomy before anticoagulation therapy who did combined portal vein (PV) segmental resection. RESULTS: Of the 534 patients, 22 (4.1%) developed posthepatectomy thrombosis after hepatectomy. Among them, 19 (86.4%) had PVT. The mean duration of Pringle's maneuver was significant longer in the PVT group than the no-thrombosis group (P = 0.020). Patients who underwent combined PV segmental resection during hepatectomy were more likely to develop posthepatectomy PVT (P = 0.001). Thirteen patients who had MPV thrombosis and PPV thrombosis with main portal flow disturbance received anticoagulation therapy immediately after diagnosis and all of them were improved. Among them, 2 patients who developed PVT at the PV anastomosis site after PV segmental resection, underwent operative thrombectomy before anticoagulation therapy and both were improved. There were no patients who developed complications related to anticoagulation therapy. CONCLUSION: Long duration of Pringle's maneuver and PV segmental resection were risk factors. Anticoagulation therapy or operative thrombectomy should be considered for PVT without contraindications.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Hepatectomy , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Liver , Portal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 931-936, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954210

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: We wanted to know how many segmental portal branches were born from the primary branches of the hepatic portal vein in the porta hepatis, in order to determine the number of portal segments in human liver. We studied 286 human livers, age groups ranging from fetuses to octogenarians, both sexes and all races, using dissection, colored acrylic injection and reconstituted tomographic images. We found the porta hepatis channel formed by each and every portal segment; we found seven segmental terminal pedicles for seven portal segments, three planes of vertical and three planes of horizontal portal fissures. There are seven terminal portal pedicles that are formed in the porta hepatis from the right and left branches of the hepatic portal vein. The only variation was portal branch V emerging from the right branch in 79 % of cases or from the left branch in 21 %. The definition of hepatic portal segment is: Portion of parenchyma irrigated by terminal branches of the portal vein and the hepatic artery proper, isolated from the other segments by planes of portal fissures and forms the parenchymal channel of the porta hepatis where it receives its vascularization. We propose a new and simple portal segmentation based on the previous definition.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en conocer el número de ramas portales segmentarias que nacen de las ramas primarias de la vena porta hepática en la Porta hepatis, con la finalidad de determinar el número de segmentos portales en el hígado humano. Estudiamos 286 hígados, los grupos etarios fueron desde fetos hasta octogenarios, ambos sexos y todas las razas, usamos la disección en fresco, inyección de acrílico coloreado e imágenes tomográficas reconstituidas. El canal de la Porta hepatis estuvo formado por todos y cada uno de los segmentos portales, encontramos siete pedículos terminales segmentarios para siete segmentos portales, el pedículo portal para el segmento V nació de la porta derecha en 79 % de casos y de la porta izquierda en 21 %, encontramos tres planos de fisuras portales verticales y tres horizontales. Existen siete pedículos segmentarios portales terminales que se forman en la Porta hepatis a partir de las ramas derecha e izquierda de la vena porta hepática. La única variación fue que la rama portal para el segmento V nació de la rama derecha en 79 % de casos y de la rama izquierda en 21 %. Concluimos que la definición de segmento portal hepático es: Porción de parénquima irrigado por ramas terminales de la vena porta y la arteria hepática propia, aislada de los otros segmentos por planos de fisuras y que llega a conformar el canal parenquimal de la Porta hepatis donde recibe su vascularización. Proponemos una nueva y sencilla segmentación portal basada en la definición previa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Portal Vein/anatomy & histology , Hepatic Veins/anatomy & histology , Liver/blood supply
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 402-406, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954128

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The liver dimensional (3D) models, consists of eight segments including portal triad (portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct), are necessary because it is difficult to dissect a liver and its inner structures. But it is difficult to produce 3D models from high resolution and color sectioned-images. This study presents automatic and accurate methods for producing liver 3D models from the sectionedimages. Based on the sectioned-images and color-filled-images of the liver, a 3D model including both the portal triad and hepatic vein was made. Referring to the 3D model, 3D models of liver's eight segments including the segmental branches of the portal triad and hepatic vein were completed and saved as STL format. All STL files were combined and saved as Liver-3D in PDF format for the common user. By functional subdivision of liver, the Liver-3D was divided into left (segments II, III, and, IV) and right (segments V, VI, VII, and VIII) liver in bookmark window of the PDF file. In addition, in Liver-3D, the primary to tertiary segmental branches of the portal triad could be shown in different colors. Owing to the difficulty of 3D modeling of liver including eight segments and segmental branches of the portal triad and hepatic, we started this research to find automatic methods for producing 3D models. The methods for producing liver 3D models will assist in 2D selection and 3D modeling of other complicated structures.


RESUMEN: Los modelos hepáticos dimensionales (3D) consisten en ocho segmentos que incluyen la tríada portal (vena porta, arteria hepática y conducto biliar), y son necesarios ya que es difícil disecar un hígado y sus estructuras internas. Sin embargo, es difícil producir modelos 3D a partir de imágenes en alta resolución e imágenes seccionadas en color. Este estudio presenta métodos automáticos y precisos para producir modelos 3D de hígado a partir de las imágenes seccionadas. Sobre la base de las imágenes seccionadas y las imágenes del hígado llenas de color, se realizó un modelo 3D que incluía tanto la tríada portal como la vena hepática. En referencia al modelo 3D, se completaron modelos 3D de los ocho segmentos del hígado que incluían las ramas segmentarias de la tríada portal y la vena hepática y se guardaron como formato STL. Todos los archivos STL fueron combinados y guardados como Liver-3D en formato PDF para el usuario común. Por subdivisión funcional del hígado, el hígado-3D se dividió en hígado izquierdo (segmentos II, III y IV) y derecho (segmentos V, VI, VII y VIII) en la ventana de marcador del archivo PDF. Además, en Liver-3D, las ramas segmentarias primarias a terciarias de la tríada portal podrían mostrarse en diferentes colores. Debido a la dificultad del modelado 3D del hígado, incluidos ocho segmentos y ramas segmentarias de la tríada portal y hepática, comenzamos esta investigación para encontrar métodos automáticos para producir modelos 3D. Los métodos para producir modelos 3D de hígado ayudarán en la selección 2D y el modelado 3D de otras estructuras complicadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hepatic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Visible Human Projects , Hepatic Veins/anatomy & histology , Liver/blood supply , Models, Anatomic
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 113-120, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893197

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El conocimiento anatómico es necesario para la cirugía hepática. Los conocimientos acerca de la porción izquierda del hígado que aparecen en los textos de anatomía, cirugía y en la Internet deben ser mejorados y enriquecidos, proponemos hacerlo con este trabajo. Se estudiaron 286 hígados humanos que nos permitieron determinar entre otros conocimientos los siguientes: La porción izquierda del hígado fue más grande que la derecha en 21 % de casos. 2) La porción izquierda del hígado estuvo formada por los cuatro primeros segmentos portales (79 %) o por los cinco primeros (21 %). 3) La fisura umbilical se inclinó 50 grados hacia la izquierda en relación al plano sagital del hígado y no contuvo a la vena hepática izquierda en 100 % de casos. 4) La vena hepática izquierda tuvo un trayecto intrasegmentario y presentó tres modalidades de drenaje. 5) La irrigación arterial de los segmentos izquierdos I y IV nació de la rama derecha en 16 % y de ambas ramas en 24 %. 6) El drenaje biliar de los segmentos derechos VI-VII llegó al conducto hepático izquierdo en 21 % de casos. Estos resultados fueron diferentes de los conocimientos que figuran en los textos de anatomía humana usados en las Escuelas de Medicina a nivel general.


SUMMARY: Accurate anatomical knowledge is necessary for liver surgery. Much of the knowledge about the left portion of the liver in the anatomy, surgery and internet texts must be improved and enriched; we propose to do this with this work. We studied 286 human livers that allowed us to determine further knowledge, along with the following information: 1) The left liver portion was larger than the right liver in 21 % of cases. 2) The left portion of the liver was formed by the first four portal segments (79 %) or by the first five (21 %). 3) The umbilical fissure tilted 50 degrees to the left relative to the sagittal plane of the liver and did not contain the left hepatic vein in 100 % of cases. 4) The left hepatic vein had an intrasegmental path and presented three drainage modalities. 5) Arterial irrigation of the left segments I and IV were born from the right branch in 16 % and from both branches in 24 %. 6) Bile drainage of right segments VI-VII reached the left hepatic canal in 21 % of cases. These results were different from the knowledge contained in the human anatomy texts used in medical schools at the general level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver/anatomy & histology , Hepatic Veins/anatomy & histology , Liver/blood supply
8.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 142-145, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765692

ABSTRACT

Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with tumor thrombus extending through the hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, and right atrium (RA) is very rare. However, whether active treatments such as radiation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and sorafenib in advanced HCC with RA involvement prolong survival is uncertain. We present a rare case of advanced HCC with tumor thrombus nearly occupying the entire RA that was treated with sorafenib. The patient received 400 mg sorafenib twice daily. However, her liver enzyme levels continued to increase and abdominal computed tomography showed an increase in the tumor size in the liver and RA. In the present case, active treatment with sorafenib was ineffective; thus, palliative care may be more beneficial in advanced HCC with extensive RA involvement.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Heart Atria , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Liver , Palliative Care , Thrombosis , Vena Cava, Inferior
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787089

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is a disease with an uncertain etiology consisting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension and portal pressure increase in the absence of liver cirrhosis. In INCPH, patients exhibit normal liver functions and structures. The factors associated with INCPH include the following: Umbilical/portal pyremia, bacterial diseases, prothrombic states, chronic exposure to arsenic, vinyl chloride monomers, genetic disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Approximately 70% of patients present a history of major variceal bleeding, and treatment relies on the prevention of complications related to portal hypertension. Autoimmune disorders associated with INCPH are mainly systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. To the best of our knowledge, a case of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) associated with INCPH has not been reported thus far. Therfore, we report our experience of a patient with AS accompanied by INCPH, who showed perisplenic varices with patent spleno-portal axis and hepatic veins along with no evidence of cirrhosis on liver biopsy, and provide a brief literature review.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , Biopsy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Portal Pressure , Scleroderma, Systemic , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Varicose Veins , Vinyl Chloride
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813163

ABSTRACT

To evaluate relationship of maternal hepatic vein Doppler flow parameters and cardiac output (CO) with neonatal birth weight in uncomplicated pregnancies (UP) and pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) .
 Methods: Hepatic vein impedance index (HVI), venous pulse transit time (VPTT), and CO were measured in women with UP at the 14th-37th weeks and complicated by FGR at the 26th-37th weeks who underwent maternal hepatic hemodynamic and echocardiographic examination during the ultrasonography. After delivery, the birth weight and the birth weight percentile of each neonate in this study were recorded. Correlations among HVI, VPTT, and CO were analyzed.
 Results: In the UP group, HVI, VPTT, and CO changed with the increase of gestation. In the FGR group, HVI was higher, VPTT was shorter, CO and neonatal birth weight were obviously lower than those in the UP at the 26th-37th weeks (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: There is a series of adaptive changes in hepatic venous hemodynamics and CO in UP with the increase of gestation to meet the demand of fetal growth, while the maladaptive changes in hepatic venous hemodynamics and CO in pregnant woman may contribute to FGR.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Cardiac Output , Female , Fetal Development , Physiology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Hemodynamics , Physiology , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term effects of stenting in patients with hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO), who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2009, 622 adult patients underwent LDLT at our hospital, and of these patients, 21 (3.3%) were diagnosed with HVOO; among these patients, 17 underwent stenting. The patients were divided into early or late groups according to the time of their HVOO diagnoses (cutoff: 60 days after liver transplantation). RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 54.2 months (range, 0.5–192.4 months). Stent insertion was successful in 8 of 10 patients in the early group and 6 of 7 in the late group. The 5-year primary patency rates were 46% and 20%, respectively. In both groups, patients with recurrent HVOO at the beginning showed kinking confirmed by venography. Patients who carried their stents for more than 3 years maintained long-term patency. There was no significant difference in spleen size between groups; however, when the groups were compared according to whether they maintained patency, spleens tended to be smaller in the patency-maintained group. CONCLUSION: Unlike stenosis, if kinking is confirmed on venography, stenting is not feasible in the long term for patients with LDLT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Budd-Chiari Syndrome , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors , Phlebography , Spleen , Stents
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 555-561, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute hepatic dysfunction combined with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) in alcoholic cirrhosis is related to hepatic hypo-perfusion secondary to intrahepatic necroinflammation, neoangiogenesis, and shunt. The hepatic vein arrival time (HVAT) assessed by microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is closely correlated with the severity of intrahepatic changes. We investigated the usefulness of HVAT to predict short-term mortality of AH in cirrhosis. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (27 males) and AH were prospectively enrolled. HVAT study was performed within 3 days after admission using ultrasonic contrast (SonoVue®). The primary outcome was 12-week mortality. RESULTS: Twelve-week mortality developed in nine patients. HVAT was significantly different between the mortality and survival groups (9.3±2.0 seconds vs 12.6±3.5 seconds, p=0.002). The odds ratio of a shortened HVAT for 12-week mortality was 1.481 (95% confidence interval, 1.050–2.090; p=0.025). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of HVAT for 12-week mortality was 0.787 (p=0.010). The combination of MDF and HVAT ≥11.0 seconds resulted in an 87.5% survival rate even if the MDF score ≥32; however, HVAT < 11.0 seconds was related with mortality despite a MDF score < 32. CONCLUSIONS: HVAT using microbubble CEUS could be a useful additional index to predict short-term mortality in patients with AH and cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Fibrosis , Hepatic Veins , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Microbubbles , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Survival Rate , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of spectral computed tomography (CT) optimal monochromatic images in improving imaging quality of liver vessels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The imaging data of 35 patients with abdominal CT angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Hepatic arteries, portal veins, and hepatic veins were reconstructed with mixed energy (quality check, QC), 70 keV and optimal monochromatic mode. Comparative parameters were analyzed including CT value, image noise (IN), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and subjective qualitative analysis. RESULTS: The optimal monochromatic value for assessment of the common hepatic artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein ranged between 49 keV and 53 keV, with a mean of 51 keV. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) among the optimal monochromatic, 70 keV and QC images with regards to the hepatic vascular CT value, IN, CNR, SNR, and subjective qualitative score. CNR of the common hepatic artery in the optimal monochromatic, 70 keV and QC groups was 24.6 ± 10.9, 18.1 ± 8.3, and 11.6 ± 4.6, respectively (p < 0.001) with subjective scores of 4.7 ± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.3, and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively (p < 0.001). CNR of the hepatic portal vein was 6.9 ± 2.7, 4.3 ± 1.9, and 3.0 ± 2.1, respectively (p < 0.001) with subjective scores of 4.5 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.4, and 3.3 ± 0.3, respectively (p < 0.001). CNR of the hepatic vein was 5.7 ± 2.3, 4.2 ± 1.9, and 2.7 ± 1.4, respectively with subjective scores of 4.3 ± 0.3, 3.8 ± 0.4, and 3.2 ± 0.3, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Optimal monochromatic images can lead to improvement in the imaging parameters and optimization of the image quality of the common hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein and hepatic vein compared with conventional mixed kV and with 70 keV datasets.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Dataset , Hepatic Artery , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Liver , Noise , Portal Vein , Retrospective Studies , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to illustrate the magnetic resonance venography (MRV) manifestations of obstructed hepatic veins (HVs), the inferior vena cava (IVC), and accessory hepatic veins (AHVs) in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and to evaluate the visualization capacity of MRV in the diagnosis of BCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with chronic BCS were included in this study. All patients were examined via MRV performed with a 3T system following injections of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) or Gd-ethoxibenzyl-DTPA. HV and IVC lesions were classified, and their characteristics were described. HV cord-like occlusions detected via MRV were compared using ultrasonography (US). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed as a contrast in the MRV detection of IVC lesions. The HVs draining collaterals, mainly AHVs, were carefully observed. HV lesions were classified as segmental stenosis, segmental occlusion, membranous stenosis, membranous occlusion, cord-like occlusion, or non-visualized. Except for patent IVCs, IVC lesions were classified as segmental occlusion, segmental stenosis, membranous occlusion, membranous stenosis, and hepatomegaly-induced stenosis. RESULTS: All patients (52/52, 100%) showed HV lesions of different degrees. MRV was inferior to US in detecting cord-like occlusions (6 vs. 19, χ2 = 11.077, p < 0.001). Dilated AHVs, including 50 (50/52, 96.2%) caudate lobe veins and 37 (37/52, 71.2%) inferior HV and AHV lesions, were well-detected. There were no significant differences in detecting segmental lesions and thrombosis between MRV and DSA (χ2 = 0.000, p1 = 1.000, p2 = 1.000). The capacity of MRV to detect membranous lesions was inferior to that of DSA (7 vs. 15, χ2 = 6.125, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: In patients with BCS, MRV can clearly display the lesions in HVs and the IVC, as well as in AHVs, and it has diagnostic and therapeutic value.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Budd-Chiari Syndrome , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Phlebography , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography , Veins , Vena Cava, Inferior
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 21-25, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840926

ABSTRACT

The incidence of detection of accessory hepatic vein (AHV) using MRI or CT has been reported. However, previous studies had a small sample size or only reported on the incidence of hepatic vein variants. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report evaluating the factors predictive of the presence of an AHV. To evaluate the incidence and morphology of the accessory hepatic vein (AHV) using multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and to investigate the factors which may be helpful in predicting the presence of an AHV. We enrolled 360 patients who underwent abdominal MDCT. We investigated whether the AHV was present and evaluated the frequency of AHVs greater than 5 mm in diameter. We classified the morphology of the AHV entering the inferior vena cava (IVC). We also examined the factors that predicted the presence of an AHV by comparing the diameter of the middle hepatic vein (MHV) and the right hepatic vein (RHV). We identified an AHV in 164 of the 360 patients (45.6 %). Among the 164 AHVs, 56.7 % were larger than 5 mm in diameter. The most common morphologies of the inferior RHV were a single main trunk (58.5 %), followed by two main trunks with a V-shape (19.5 %) and two trunks entering the IVC separately (17.0 %). The possibility that an AHV will be present was significantly higher when the diameter of the RHV was smaller than that of the MHV. MDCT can provide important information regarding AHV incidence and morphology. The possibility of an AHV being present was significantly higher when the diameter of the RHV was smaller than that of the MHV.


Se ha informado de la incidencia de la detección de la vena hepática accesoria (VHA) mediante RM o TC. Sin embargo, estudios previos tenían un tamaño muestral pequeño o solo informaban sobre la incidencia de variantes de las venas hepáticas. Hasta donde sabemos, no ha habido ningún informe previo que evalúe los factores predictivos de la presencia de una VHA. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la incidencia y morfología de la vena hepática accesoria (VHA) mediante tomografía computarizada multidetector (TCMD) e investigar los factores que pueden ser útiles para predecir la presencia de un VHA. Se evaluaron 360 pacientes que se sometieron a TCMD abdominal. Se investigó si la VHA estaba presente y se evaluó la frecuencia de VHA mayores de 5 mm de diámetro. Se clasificó la morfología del VHA que drenaba en la vena cava inferior (VCI). Además, se examinaron los factores que predijeron la presencia de una VHA mediante la comparación del diámetro de la vena hepática media (VHM) y la vena hepática derecha (VHD). Se identificó un VHA en 164 de los 360 pacientes (45,6%). Entre las 164 VHA, el 56,7% tenía más de 5 mm de diámetro. Las morfologías más frecuentes del VHD inferior fueron un tronco principal único (58,5%), seguido por dos troncos principales con forma de V (19,5%) y dos troncos que drenaban en la VCI por separado (17,0%). La posibilidad de que una VHA esté presente fue significativamente mayor cuando el diámetro de la VHD era menor que la de la VHM. La MDCT puede proporcionar información importante sobre la incidencia de la VHA y su morfología. La posibilidad de que un VHA estuviera presente era significativamente mayor cuando el diámetro del VHD era menor que la VHM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hepatic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Hepatic Veins/abnormalities , Liver/blood supply , Prognosis
16.
Ann. hepatol ; 16(1): 164-168, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838100

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The torsion of vessels after liver transplantation rarely occurs. Likewise, calcification of a liver graft has seldom been reported. This report details a case which had torsion of the left hepatic vein on the seventh day after living-related donor liver transplantation. The torsion was reduced soon after re-exploration; however, congestion with partial necrosis of the graft occurred. On the follow-up imaging studies, some resolution of necrosis and graft regeneration were found, yet geographic calcification of the liver graft appeared. The patient died of pneumonia after 13 weeks, post-operation. The avoidance such torsion of vessels is necessary and important.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Torsion Abnormality/etiology , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Calcinosis/etiology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Living Donors , Allografts , Hepatic Veins/surgery , Reoperation , Time Factors , Torsion Abnormality/surgery , Torsion Abnormality/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Diseases/surgery , Vascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Phlebography/methods , Fatal Outcome , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hepatic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Necrosis
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1202-1210, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330642

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Evaluating the hemodynamic status and predicting fluid responsiveness are important in critical ultrasound assessment of shock patients. Transthoracic echocardiography with noninvasive diagnostic parameters allows the assessment of volume responsiveness. This study aimed to assess the hemodynamic changes in the liver and systemic hemodynamic changes during fluid challenge and during passive leg raising (PLR) by measuring hepatic venous flow (HVF) velocity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This is an open-label study in a tertiary teaching hospital. Shock patients with hypoperfusion who required fluid challenge were selected for the study. Patients <18 years old and those with contraindications to PLR were excluded from the study. Baseline values were measured, PLR tests were performed, and 500 ml of saline was infused over 30 min. Parameters associated with cardiac output (CO) in the left ventricular outflow tract were measured using the Doppler method. In addition, HVF velocity and right ventricular function parameters were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Middle hepatic venous (MHV) S-wave velocity was positively correlated in all patients with CO at baseline (r = 0.706, P< 0.01) and after volume expansion (r = 0.524, P= 0.003). CO was also significantly correlated with MHV S-wave velocity in responders (r = 0.608, P< 0.01). During PLR, however, hepatic venous S-wave velocity did not correlate with CO. For the parameter ΔMHV D (increase in change in MHV D-wave velocity after volume expansion), defined as (MHV DafterVE - MHV DBaseline)/MHV DBaseline× 100%, >21% indicated no fluid responsiveness, with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 71.2%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.918.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>During fluid expansion, hepatic venous S-wave velocity can be used to monitor CO, whether or not it is increasing. ΔMHV D ≥21% indicated a lack of fluid responsiveness, thus helping to decide when to stop infusions.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Cardiac Output , Physiology , Echocardiography , Female , Fluid Therapy , Hemodynamics , Physiology , Hepatic Veins , Physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Methods , Portal Vein , Physiology , ROC Curve , Shock , Stroke Volume , Physiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183530

ABSTRACT

The Glissonian approach, due to its simplicity of procedure, is a technical procedure widely used in open hepatectomy. However, it is not easily applicable in the setting of the total laparoscopic approach because of movement restriction. We herein propose a new and simple method of performing hemihepatectomy by Glissonian approach called temporary inflow control of the Glissonian pedicle (TICGL) technique. Dissection of the Glisson pedicle from the liver parenchyma is done until the posterior margin of the pedicle is visualized, and is clamped with bulldog clamps. Encircling the pedicle is not necessary. Resection of the liver parenchyma is performed under inflow control of the resected side liver providing less bleeding. After sufficient resection is done so that the whole Glissonian pedicle structures are visualized, the pedicle is encircled, often very easily without the fear of bleeding from the posterior side of the pedicle, which is a common problem when encircling is done before parenchymal resection. The staplers may then be applied safely without injuring the major hepatic veins since they have been already exposed. Stapling is done while the tape is retracted toward the contralateral side. This retraction prevents injury or stricture of the contralateral Glissonian pedicle branch. The remnant liver parenchyma is resected and hepatectomy finalized. The TICGL technique provides a safe and easy way of performing major hemihepatectomies, not only by expert laparoscopic surgeons but by less experienced surgeons. It can therefore become a standard method of performing hemihepatectomy by Glissonian approach.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Constriction, Pathologic , Hemorrhage , Hepatectomy , Hepatic Veins , Laparoscopy , Liver , Methods , Surgeons
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122307

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to identify the relationships between hepatic vein (HV) measurements, including flow velocity and waveform, using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography, and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in dogs. The study included 22 dogs with TR and 7 healthy dogs. The TR group was subdivided into 3 groups according to TR jet profile obtained by echocardiography. The hepatic venous waveform was obtained and classified into 3 types. A variety of HV measurements, including the maximal velocities of the atrial systolic, systolic (S), end ventricular systolic, and diastolic (D) waves and the ratio of the S- and D- wave velocities (S/D ratio), were acquired. TR severity was significantly correlated with the S- (r = −0.380, p = 0.042) and D- (r = 0.468, p = 0.011) wave velocities and the S/D ratio (r = −0.747, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed the highest sensitivity and specificity for the S/D ratio (89% and 75%, respectively) at a threshold of 0.97 with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.911, p < 0.001). In conclusion, PW Doppler ultrasonography of the HV can be used to identify the presence of significant TR and to classify TR severity in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Echocardiography , Hepatic Veins , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Ultrasonography, Doppler
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clinical validation is required to determine whether Doppler measurements are comparable before and after administering ultrasound contrast agent (USCA). The purpose of this study is to explore whether the use of USCA affects spectral Doppler analysis in recipients of liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: For this study, 36 patients were examined using Doppler ultrasonography (US) along with a contrast-enhanced US for surveillance of vascular complications after LT. The following spectral Doppler US parameters were measured before and after administration of USCA: peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, resistive index, and systolic acceleration time of the graft hepatic artery; peak flow velocity of the graft portal vein; and peak flow velocity and venous pulsatility index of the graft hepatic vein. RESULTS: The mean peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the hepatic artery and the peak flow velocity of the portal and hepatic veins were increased after intravenously administration of the USCA, ranging from 10% to 13%. However, the changes were not statistically significant (P=0.097, 0.103, 0.128, and 0.190, respectively). There were no significant differences in other measured parameters, including the resistive index (P=0.205) and systolic acceleration time (P=0.489) of the hepatic artery and venous pulsatility index (P=0.494) of the hepatic vein. CONCLUSIONS: The measured velocities of graft hepatic vessels tended to increase after administration of USCA, but without statistical significance. The comparison of serial Doppler parameters with or without injection of USCA is valid during Doppler surveillance in recipients of LT.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Contrast Media , Doppler Effect , Hepatic Artery , Hepatic Veins , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Microbubbles , Portal Vein , Transplants , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler
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